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Introductory Preface 1 



Early period of Cilician history. Scriptural mention of Tarsus. An- 
cient religion. Notice of the Cilicians by Herodotus. Cilicia under 
the Assyrians. Burial-place of Sardanapalus. Dominion of the 
Medes. Cilicia overrun by Scythian hordes. The Prophet Daniel's 
tomb. Croesus, king of Lydia. Persian satraps. Invasion of Greece 
by the Persians. Syennesis, king of Cilicia. Treaty of Antalcidas. 
Alexander the Great in Cilicia. Battle of Issus 11 


Plistarchus. Battle of Ipsus. Ptolemy Evergetes. Antiochus the 
Great. Zeno and Chrysippus. Cilicia under the Seleucidae. In- 
vaded by Tigranes. Reduced to a Roman province by Pompey. 
Cicero's campaign in Cilicia. Marc Antony and Cleopatra at Tar- 
sus. Cilicia invaded by the Parthians under Labienus. Atheno- 
dorus. Vonones slain in Cilicia. St. Paul. Insurrection of the 
Cliteans. Cossuatianus Papito governor. Polemon, king of Cilicia, 
marries Berenice. Cilicia declared a Roman province in Vespasian's 
time. Fate of the Roman empire decided on the plain of Issus. . 23 


Legend of the Seven Sleepers. Sapor invades Cilicia. Zenobia's con- 
quests. Cilicia overrun by the Alani. Maximianus dies at Tarsus. 
Death of Constuntius at Mopsuestia in Cilicia. St. George, patron 
saint of England, born at Epiphanea. The Emperor Julian buried 
at Tarsus. Invasions of the Huns. Belisarius in Cilicia. Cam- 
paigns of Heraclius and of Chosroes (Kusru Anushiriwan). . . 36 



Rise of the Saracens. Cilicia overrun by Harun al Rashid. Al Mamun 
dies in Cilicia. Exchange of prisoners at Il-Lamas. Sack of Mop- 
suestia by the Khalif Mutassim. Mopsuestia retaken by Nicephorus 
Phocas and John Zimisces. Rise of the Turkmans. Alp Arslan 
and Romanus Diogenes. Turkman dynasty at Nicasa. Persecu- 
tion of the Christians. First Crusade. Tancred and Baldwin in 
Cilicia. Alexius annexes Cilicia to the Greek empire. . . 45 


The Emperor John Comnenus killed in a wild boar hunt in Cilicia. 
Description of Anazarba. The second Crusade. Third Crusade. 
Death of Frederick I. (Barbarossa) in Cilicia. Fourth Crusade. 
Cilicia under John Ducas Vataces. Devastations of Yanghiz or 
Genghiz Khan. ...» 54 


Rise of the Osmanlis or Usmanlis. Victories of Bayazid. Invasions of 
the Moguls. Capture of Constantinople by Muhammad II. Bay- 
azid II. Annexes Cilicia to the Ottoman empire. Campaigns of 
Sulaiman the Magnificent. Amurad IV. invades Cilicia. His house 
at Adana. Reforms of Mahmud II. Abd'ul Masjid. . . .65 


Modern history of Cilicia. Rise of Kutchuk Ali Uglu. His means of 
revenue. Acts of cruelty. Bayas. Mode of life and character- 
istics. Seizes the master of an English vessel. Captures a French 
merchantman. Bribes the Turks who are sent against him. Puts 
his friend the Dutch Consul of Aleppo into prison. Forces a cara- 
van of merchants to ransom him. A characteristic anecdote. . 73 


Dada Bey, son of Kutchuk Ali Uglu. His piratical expeditions. Re- 
pels the attacks of the Turks. Is taken by stratagem. Is be- 
headed and burnt. History of Mustafa Pasha. Kil-Aga killed 
by Haji Ali Bey. Dervish Hamid. Story related of Haji Ali Bey. 
Conquests of Ibrahim Pasha. Mustuk Bey placed in power. Com- 
parison between the Egyptian and Turkish governments. . . 84 



Muhammad Izzet Pasha. A pretender to the Turkish throne . His 
strange history and rare accomplishments. Disappears at Kuniyah . 
Ahmed Izzet Pasha. Grants permission to Mustuk Bey to murder 
his nephew. Sulaiman Pasha. Durwish Ahmed's expedition against 
Mustuk Bey. His chief officers taken and stripped. Bayas captured 
and sacked 92 


Anecdotes of Sulaiman Pasha. Gin-Jusif, rebel of Kara-Tash. Arif 
Pasha. Murder of a pasha. Hasan Pasha. Anecdotes of the 
council. Christian members of council. Employes of the Porte. 
Toll at Kulak Bughaz. Hati Sheriff. Courts of justice. . . 101 


Geography of Cilicia. Tarsus and Adana. Missis (Mopsuestia). Sis 
(Pindenissus). Bayas and the coast. Pylse Ciliciae. Population 
of Cilicia. Europeans and then- influence destroyed. Consuls and 
their authority. English consuls allowed to trade. Climate. 
Stagnant lake (Rhegma). Marsh of Alexandretta. Country- 
houses. Nimrud. Sea-ports. Kaisanli. Mursina and its road- 
stead 110 


Advantages and disadvantages of Tarsus in a commercial point of view. 
Tables of navigation. Tabular view of the trade of the interior of 
Asia Minor. Table of exports. Table of imports. State of agri- 
culture in Cilicia. Produce of the country. Cotton. Wheat. 
Barley. Linseed. Wax. Fruit-trees. Silk. Olive-trees. Pay 
of a day-labourer. Pasture of land. Tenure of land. Timber and 
woods. Geology and mineralogy. Extracts from Mr. Ainsworth's 
work. Plain of Tarsus. Falls of the Cydnus. First, second, third, 
and fourth range of hills. Mines of iron and lead. Argentiferous 
Galena. Revenue of the Pashalik 117 


II Lamas (Lamum). Kurkass (Corycus). Aski Shahir. Soli, after- 
wards Pompeiopolis. Great Mausoleum at Tarsus. Strabo's de- 
scription of the coast of Cilicia. His account of Tarsus and neigh- 
bouring towns. .......... 128 




Introductory 145 


Discovery of the terra-cottas. Lares and Penates of Cilicia. Evidences 
of promiscuous worship. Apollo of Tarsus. Perseus, Bellerophon, 
and Pegasus. Radiated Apollo. Identity of physiognomy. Ugly 
faces. Deification of childi-en. Deification of princes. Deification 
of ladies. Character of Cilician art. Progress of Christianity. 
Destruction of the Lares and Penates. Atys. Apollo, the Syrian 
Baal. Cyhele, Ceres, and Isis. Eleusinian mysteries. Cybele and 
Atys, Isis and Osiris, Venus and Adonis. The cat, dog, and horse. 
Harpocrates and Floras. Isis and the Nelumbium. Sacred bulls. 
Egyptian art. Morpheus 152 


Apollo. Apollo Belvedere. Caricatures of Midas. Apollo of Tarsus. 
Senator in the clavus latus. Lion attacking a bull. Telephus 
or Mercury (?). Ceres. Victory. Date of destruction of the Lares . 
Metamorphosis of Actaeon into a stag. Remarks of Mr. Birch. . 184 



Monstrous head in a conical cap. Portrait of a Hun (?). Identity 
with American sculptures. Emigrations of Asiatic nations to 
America. Testimonies from Stephens, Schomburgk, Humboldt. 
Analogies of language. Evidences from Klaproth and d'Herbelot. 203 



" The ugly heads" of the collection. Standard of beauty. Monu- 
ments of Central America. Parallel case in Hayti. The Hittites 
of Scripture. Reference to Egyptian sculpture. Effects of the 
Egyptian invasion of Cilicia. 208 





Apollo. Mercury. Hercules. Bacchus. Silenus. Fauns and Satyrs. 
Pan. Minerva. Venus. Cupid. Europa. Marsyas. Leander. 
Laocoon. ^Esculapius. Fortune. Caius Caligula (?). Priapus. 
Harpy. Marsyas. Abrerig or Nergal (?). Summary . . .213 



Sibyls. An African sibyl. Head-dress of the virgin-prophetesses. A 
matron sibyl (?). Dolphins and their riders. Apotheosis of de- 
ceased children. Story of Arion. Radiated heads. The Bulla. . 228 

Magi and Monks 232 

Monsters and Idiots 237 



Bards. Priests. Miscellaneous. Female figures. Deified children. 

Undetermined 243 



Dogs. Oxen. Bulls. Buffalo. Horses. Lions. Panther. Wolf. 
Boar. Ape. Hippopotamus (?). Cat. Goats. Rams and Sheep. 
Crocodile. Snake. Eagle. Swan. Ostrich. Cocks. . . . 249 



Chariots. Vases. Bowls and dishes. Wine-jars and drinking-vessels. 
Lamps. Handles. Table and chair. Ring and glass. Round 
disc of pottery. Net. Butter-print (?) 253 



Lyres. Syrinx 259 





Arsus (Rhosus). Myriandrus. Iskandrun or Alexandretta (Alexandria 
ad Isson). Godfrey de Bouillon's fort. Baylan (Pictanus, Erana ?). 
Primitive Christian church. Castles of Ibn Daub and of Baylan 
Bustandah. Altars of Alexander. Castle of Markatz. River Ker- 
sus. Gates of Cilicia and Syria. Bayas (Baiae). Issus. Nicopo- 
lis. KaraKaya(Castabala). Epiphanea. Matakh. Tamir Kapu 
(Iron Gates, Ammanian Gates). Ayas (Agese). Ammodes. Kara 
Tash(MallusandMegarsus). Aleian plain. Pyramus. Mopsuestia. 
Castles on the plain. Sari Capita. Rhegma of the Cydnus. Yanifa 
Kishla. Mazarlik. Castle of Kalak Bughaz. Kara Sis. Anabad 
and Dunkalah 262 



The Bay of Antioch. Village of Suwaidiyah. Grotto of Nymphseus. 
Island of Melibcea. Buins of Seleucia Pieria. Projected re-open- 
ing of the port of Seleucia. Mount St. Simon. Mount Casius. 
Temple of Ham 267 



The ounce. The lynx. Bears. Hyenas, wolves, and jackals. The 
Fox. Hares. Fallow-deer. White gazelle (ghazal). Greyhounds. 
Gh'aik, or ibex. .......... 276 



Game birds. Manner of taking quails. Manner of taking francolin 
and partridges. Capture of wild doves. 281 

Falconry 284 

Medicinal Plants 299 




Narrative of Nadir Bey, written from his own dictation (in French) . 301 

Translation 310 

Petition of Nadir Bey (in Italian) 320 

Translation 325 

Historical Documents : Copy of a Buyurdi from Muhammed Izzet 
Pasha. Insurrection of Lattakiyah in 1804. State of North Syria 
in 1805 and in 1814. Petition from the Chief of the Trades to 
Mr. John Barker, 1841. Notice of Badir Khan Bey, the extir- 
minator of the Nestorian Christians. Story of Fahel, chief of the 
Arabs of the Zor, or forest district on the Euphrates. . . . 328 

Burckhardt's Account of Cilicia 355 

Commercial Tables : I. Commerce of Kaisariyah with the chief 
towns of Asia Minor. II. Summary of the Commerce of Kaisariyah 
one year with another. III. Exports of the Pashalik of Adana and 
Tarsus. IV. Imports of the same Pashalik. V. Prospectus of the 
Navigation of Mursina, roadstead of Tarsus, 1844. VI. Table of 
Duties paid at Constantinople 372 

INDEX 387 


View of Sis .... 

Mausoleum at Eleusa 

Map of Cilicia 

Sarcophagus at Seleucia Pieria 

Ruin at Anazarba . 

Saccal Tutan .... 

Plain of Antioch — Overflow of the Orontes — Mod 

distance .... 
Missis ..... 
View of Alexandretta 
Alexandretta and Cape Khanzik 
Sarcophagus at Seleucia Pieria 
Ground-plan of Mausoleum at Tarsus 
Tomb at Eleusa 

Ruins of an Aqueduct at Anazariu 
Valley of the Orontes 
Sculptured Rocks at Anazarba 


Gesril Hadeed, in the Plains of Antioch . 
Betias: Summer Residence of Mr. Barker 
Mr. Barker's Villa in the Valley of Suedia 

nt Am 





242, 258 


Actaeon 189 

Adonis as Apollo . - 178 

Apollo . 157, 161, 162, 164, 178, 195 

Apis 182 

Ariadne 216 

Atys, young 174,227 

Bacchante . 


Bard playing . 

Roy and Dolphin 

Cains Caligula . 

Captive, kneeling 


. 200 

195, 216 

. 243 

. 230 

. 223 
. 211 




Cere's 176 

Chronos 193 

Commodus 167 

Cupid and Swan . . . .219,220 

Cybele 192 

Davus 198 

Diana 156, 284 

Eros 166, 194 

Gladiator 244 

Harpocrates 181 

Head, tutulated 192 

Heads, monstrous .... 203, 204 

Hercules 169 

Hero 193 

Horse, leg of 175 

„ head of 180 

Idiot head 268 

Incense-burner 155 

Iris 177 

Isis 191 

Juno 157,167,177 

Jupiter 157 

Lady, head of 168, 188 

Lamp 156 

Leander swimming the Hellespont 222 
Lion attacking a Bull .... 187 

Macrocephalus, a 238 

Magus 232 

Man riding a Bear .... 226 

Mask, comic 177, 178 

Mercury 158 

Messalina 158 

Midas 185 

Monster, head of a 236 

Musical Instruments .... 260 

Osiris 14, 161 

Pallas 169 

Pan 155 

Perseus 197 

Phree (the Egyptian Sun) . . 252 

Phrygian Head 197 

Priest with attributes of Apollo . 164 

Priestess 199 

Saturn 193 

Senator 186 

Serapis 14 

Sibyl, African 228 

Silenus 218 

Somnus 183 

Tartarus 248 

Venus 170, 193 

Victoria Aleta 189 

— $*&. 



The author of this little volume, aud the first to bring to light the Lares 
and Penates of the ancient and interesting city of Tarsus — Mr. William 
Burckhardt Barker — is the son of John Barker, Esq., who died at 
Suedia, or Suwaidiyah, near Antioch, on the fifth of October, 1850, in 
his seventy -ninth year. He is also the godson of the eminent traveller 
and Oriental scholar Louis Burckhardt, whose footsteps he has most 
worthily followed, having prosecuted the study of the Oriental languages 
from his early boyhood, and being now as familiar with Arabic, Turkish, 
and Persian, and the many dialects which emanate from these languages, 
as he is with the chief languages of Europe. He lately made an ex- 
tended tour in Persia, whither he went to perfect himself in the language 
of that country before his final return to England. 

Mr. "W. Burckhardt Barker is further already known in this country 
by an account of the sources of the river Orontes, of which no previous 
description had been published, and which appeared in the 7th volume 
of the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society. 

The father of our author for a long period occupied posts of honour- 
able trust under the British government. He was appointed Consul 
and Agent to the East India Company at Aleppo in 1799, where he 
exercised his functions and practised a generous hospitality to his coun- 
trymen and to strangers till 1826, when he was promoted to the post 


of his Majesty's Consul-General in Egypt. Here he remained till 1834, 
when he became entitled to his retirement from public service. He 
then fixed his residence in the beautiful valley of Suedia, ancient Se- 
leucia Pieria, on the banks of the Orontes, and about fifteen miles 
from Antioch. Here he built a commodious house, and planted his 
grounds with the choicest flowers, shrubs, and fruit-trees of Europe and 
Asia. At a subsequent period he added to this general residence a 
summer-house at the village of Betias, on a commanding eminence of 
Mount Ehosus, where there was an abundant supply of water, the air 
was always refreshing and cool, and the prospect magnificent ; and here 
his mortal remains were consigned to the tomb. 

The presence of an Englishman of a liberal and benevolent mind 
had a great influence upon the native population, who looked up to him 
and his family with sentiments of love and respect. This feeling was 
shared as well by the Muhammadan inhabitants as by the Christian. 
His services to Eastern travellers have in numberless instances been 
called into action, and have been gratefully recorded in many published 
works of those who partook of his hospitality. 

Mr. Barker's family came from Bakewell, in Derbyshire, where 
they have long been established. He married Miss Hays at Aleppo 
in 1800, who survives him. This lady's mother was a daughter of 
Mr. Thomas Vernon, a Levant merchant of Aleppo, when that city was 
the grand emporium of the commerce of India. He was of the family 
of the Vernons of Hilton, in Cheshire, and a near kinsman of Admiral 
Sir Edward Vernon, of Porto Bello celebrity. By this lady, who was a 
remarkable linguist, for it is stated she spoke five languages fluently 
when only six years old, Mr. Barker had three sons and two daughters, 
all of whom possessed a great facility for acquiring languages, and be- 
came proficient Orientalists. 

Mr. Barker's latter years were much occupied in procuring from all 
parts of Asia the best kinds of fruits, which he cultivated in his gar- 
dens at Suedia with a view to prove their merits, and afterwards of 
transferring them to his native country, so as to improve upon the 
varieties grown there. His attention was especially directed to the 
peach, nectarine, and apricot ; and from specimens that have already 
been produced from his stock, there is but little doubt that in a few 


years a very superior order of what we denominate wall-fruits will be in 
common cultivation in England. Some hundreds of Mr. Barker's trees 
are now under culture in the garden of an eminent nurseryman in 
Devonshire, and are destined to be spread over the country. They 
all possess the peculiar property of having sweet kernels, in contra- 
distinction to those common in Europe, which have bitter kernels : this 
imparts a greatly improved flavour to the fruit. The famous Stanwick 
nectarine, declared by Dr. Lindley to be incomparably superior to any 
thing we have, was introduced by Mr. Barker into this country through 
the assistance of his Grace the present Duke of Northumberland. In 
this gentle and humanising pursuit Mr. Barker spared neither exertions 
nor expense. He was in the habit for many years past of sending 
agents into distant countries of the East, including Bokhara, Samar- 
kand, Kandahar, and Shiraz, to procure for him scions of all such trees 
as bore the best fruits. 

He was, indeed, enthusiastic in the pursuit of whatever he thought 
would benefit mankind. Thus in 1848, when the cholera committed 
great devastation in the north of Syria, a remedy is stated to have been 
discovered by which many persons were cured even in the advanced 
stages of the disease. Mr. Barker verified the efficiency of the proposed 
remedy by personal observation ; and once he was satisfied, he spared no 
pains or expense to spread the knowledge of what he deemed an impor- 
tant discovery to all parts of the world. 

During a residence of fifty years in Syria and Egypt, Mr. Barker 
never lost an opportunity of obliging in his private capacity all persons 
who came within his reach ; and such was the reputation he had acquired 
by his general hospitality, that often a letter of introduction from him to 
any of the chiefs around was of more real value than the best passport 
from the government authorities. During the campaign of the French 
in Syria he also rendered good service to our old ally the Porte, from 
whom, under Sultan Selim, he received a gold medal and a snuff-box 
set with diamonds, which were sent to him through his friend Sir Syd- 
ney Smith. 

Mr. Barker had a final opportunity of being usefid to his country 
by forwarding the objects of the Euphrates expedition, which landed at 
the mouth of the Orontes in 1835, and of extending his characteristic 


hospitality to Colonel Chesney and the officers and men of the ex- 

This true-hearted Englishman, indeed, spent all his income in 
keeping up to the last the honour and respectability of the British 

As a farther proof of what has been here stated, I have been in- 
duced, with the kind permission of the publishers, to introduce into the 
work a brief notice of Mr. Barker, with some account of his residence 
at Suwaidiyah and of the immediate neighbourhood, from Mr. Neale's 
work, recently published by Messrs. Colburn and Co., Eight Years in. 
Syria ami Palestine, <£e; 

The interest of the present work will be found upon perusal to be 
much greater than might be expected from its more or less local cha- 
racter. Cilicia, properly so called, is not less remarkable for its phy- 
sical configuration, than it is as the scene of varied historical events, 
many of which have by their importance influenced the destiny of the 

Physically speaking, the alluvial deposit of the Cydnus and the Sarus, 
the Pyramus and the Pinarus, all rivers of ancient renown, the great 
Aleian plain, the lower and wooded ranges of the Taurus and of the 
Arnanus, the snow- clad summits of which gird this province like a wall 
of rock, and the narrow slip of land forming the shores of the Issic Gulf, 
constitute the whole of the country of Cilicia Proper.* 

But politically and historically Cilicia derived its importance from 
being the highway between the nations of the East and the West. 
When the Persians, under their powerful monarch Xerxes, advanced 
against the first seat of European civilisation, or when the Greeks in 
their turn marched in the train of a Persian satrap to the plains of 
Babylonia, Cilicia was alike put under contributions by both parties. 
When the already aged civilisation of the East and the young civilisa- 
tion of the West had in Alexander the Great's time become more balan- 
ced, the fate of the two was decided half-way on the plains of^Cilicia. 
Petty chieftains, like the successors of Alexander, made of it a continuums 
field of strife ; and so warlike had the experience of the past made its 

* Strabo divided Cilicia into Cilicia Aspera and Cilicia Campestris; the latter is 
called by Ptolemy, Cilicia Proper. 


inhabitants, that it required a Pompey, a Cicero, and a Mark Antony 
in the palmy days of Eome to bring the same rock and sea-girt province 
into subjection. 

Even the short-lived powers of Zenobia affected Cilicia; and in the long 
straggle for domination that took place between the Emperor of Byzantium 
and the Sassanian King?. Cilicia still continued to be the field of oft- re- 
peated and sanguinary conflicts. fc This was still more the case upon the 
rise of Muhammadanism : and in the times of the early khalifs. -when the 
population of the country appears to have attained its maximum, its soil 
was more than ever stained by the blood of victims to men's lust for 
power and dominion. 

The Saracens were succeeded by Turkman races, which have ever 
since held most tenaciouslv by a country which they have found pe- 
culiarly adapted to their habits and mode of life. Three times the 
Christians of the West, as they were rising into power upon the past 
civilisation of Greece and Eome, advanced to battle for the empire of the 
Cross through Cilicia; and fatal experience ultimately taught them to 
take other routes. For a time, as under the wily Alexius or the less 
fortunate John Comnenus, Cilicia was once more a Greek province: but 
the dread power of the Osmanlis was already on the ascendant; and 
with the exception of the temporary sway of the Mamluks, and of 
devasting inroads of a Janghiz Khan or a Timur-lang. which were a- 
evanescent as they were sweeping, and of a brief Egyptian domin;r 
in the time of Ibrahim Pasha, Cilicia has ever since remained under 
the control of the Osmanlis. or of their more or less dependent vassal?, 
the Turkman chieftains of the countrv. 

The peculiar position of this sea-and-mountain-girt province has 
always influenced the character of the inhabitants. The father of history 
tells us that the Cilicians were among the few nations in Lesser .\ - i 
whom Crcesus could not bring into subjection. Mr. Barker notices the 
bad character for piracy and unfaithfulness that Artemisia, queen of 
Halicansassus, gave of the Cilicians; so familiar indeed were these fea- 
tures in the character of these isolated people of antiquitv, that Cilix 
hand facile verum (licit became a proverbial saying. 

From the same mountains where Cicero found the il wicked and 
audacious Tibarani." and where dwelt the rebel Clita?ans, Armenians (not 


always very warlike in other countries) descended to ravage the plains 
or harass the Crusaders ; and what is more curious, as shewing the per- 
sistency of character among tribes similarly situated, the Aushir and 
Kusan Uglu tribes of Turkmans, scarcely subjected by Ibrahim Pasha, 
are in the present day merely nominal vassals of the Sultan. 

A curious feature also belongs to Cilicia, which is its fatality to 
crowned heads. It is doubtful if Sardanapalus, notwithstanding certain 
not very authentic statements to the contrary, did not die in this pro- 
vince ; the river Cydnus, which had nearly proved fatal to Alexander, 
was certainly so, nearly a thousand years afterwards, to the Emperor 
Frederic, surnamed Barbarossa ; Seleucus VI. was burned to death in a 
palace at Mopsuestia ; Labienus and Vonones were slain in the same 
province ; Pescennius Niger was killed on the ever-memorable battle- 
field of Issus; Trajan died at Selinus; Florianus was killed by his troops 
at Tarsus; Maximianus died in agonies at the same city; Constantius 
perished at Mopsuestia, and Julian the Apostate Avas buried at Tarsus ; 
the best and wisest of the khalifs, Almaamun, died in Cilicia ; and the 
pride of the Comneni, Kalo Joannes, lost his life in a boar-hunt at 

Three times the fate of the world was decided on the plain of Issus. 
First, when the Greeks and Persians met there ; secondly, when Severus 
and Pescennius Niger engaged there in a life-struggle for dominion ; and 
thirdly, when Heraclius and Chosroes contested there for the superiority 
of the West over the East. There also, in the time of Bayazid II., the 
Osmanlis contested with the Mamluk dynasty of Syria the empire of 
the East. Yet in the present day it is difficult to determine, in a truly 
positive manner, the exact site of this famous battle-field, to which so 
melancholy and so sad an interest attaches itself. 

The modern history of this remarkable country, as detailed by Mr. 
Barker, possesses all the interest of a romance. It could scarcely be 
imagined that, within almost our own times, the high-road between the 
East and the "West was held almost independent during the whole life- 
time of one bandit-chief, Kuchuk Ali Uglu, and during a portion of that 
of his son, both of whom levied tribute on all wayfarers, imprisoned or 
murdered inoffensive travellers, and committed all kinds of excesses, even 
to capturing English and French merchantmen and imprisoning a Dutch 


Consul, without any effective interference having taken place on the part 
of Europe or the Turkish government! Happily those days are gone by, 
— it is to be hoped for ever. 

The history of the five pashas ■who succeeded to the Egyptians is 
replete with curious matter, highly instructive to those who wish to be 
truly informed as to the mode of administration in Turkish provinces. 
The commercial details, more complete and satisfactory than any hi- 
therto presented to the public, will also prove interesting to a large 

In regard to that part of Mr. Barker's work which illustrates the 
political and administrative affairs of Cilicia, it must, however, be under- 
stood that the condition of that province is very exceptional, and in one 
peculiarity anomalous. The population is mixed, the majority being 
Turkmans; next in number, but at a far-off distance, come the Fallahs, 
or agricultural peasants, mostly Ansayrii and deists ; after these the 
Christians, chiefly Armenians; next come the Kurds, dwelling at Kars 
and other places in the mountains; and lastly, the Turks or Osmanlis, 
chiefly employes of the Porte, police, &c. The Turkman tribes of Taurus 
are as independent as the Miriditi, Sagori, and other mountain tribes of 
Turkey in Europe ; and the Ayans, or Turkman nobles of the tribes in- 
habiting both plains and mountains, constitute the council, and thus hold 
the provincial, more especially the financial, administration of the dis- 
trict so entirely under their control, as to put insuperable impediments 
in the way of reforms projected at Constantinople being as yet brought 
into operation in a district so remote, so peculiarly circumstanced phy- 
sically, and having a population of its own — not precisely ill-affected 
towards the Sultan of the Osmanlis, but having no feeling or tie of 

The antiquities of Cilicia are the monuments of its past glory ; the 
more interesting and suggestive from comparison with the actual fallen 
condition of this once prosperous, populous, and powerful country. 
Towns that could boast of their 200,000 inhabitants, like Mopsuestia, 
now scarcely contain 200 ! Anazarba, the home cf Dioscorides and 
Oppianus, is now level with the ground; and Epiphanea, which gave 
birth to St. George of Cappadocia and of England, is an untenanted, 
desolate, black ruin. The city dignified by the birth of the great 


Apostle to the Gentiles remains, but alas how fallen ! The dominion of 
the Greeks and Romans has, however, left its traces in a few noble monu- 
ments of olden time. The public edifices of Soli or Pompeiopolis, the ruins 
of Anazarba, the tombs at Sebaste or Eleusa (for an illustration of which 
I have been indebted to the distinguished traveller Dr. Layard), the 
Amanian gates, and the presumed altars of Alexander, still attest the 
taste and magnificence of bygone times; above all, a new interest has 
been imparted to Cilician archaeology by Mr. Barker's important disco- 
very of terra-cotta illustrations of the Lares and Penates of the Cilicians 
of old. Epiphania is still a great ruin ; Sis and Arsus are remarkable 
sites of early Christianity ; and hills and mountains are still dotted with 
the castles of Saracens, Venetians, Genoese, and Crusaders. Almost all 
that has been done by the Muhammadans still exists ; and Bayas, on 
the site of the Baiae of the Romans, is for its size the most complete 
epitome of an Oriental town that I ever met with. 

Much has been done in recent times to illustrate the comparative- 
geography of Cilicia. It was impossible that, in the absence of current 
topographical information, former commentators on the old geographers 
could throw more light upon the subject than existed in the days of 
Pliny, Strabo, or Ptolemy. Take, for example, the commentaries of 
the distinguished classical editors Gronovius and Vossius upon Pompo- 
nius Mela: Issus is identified with Laissa, Ammodes with Amanoides, 
Tarsus with Tarso, &c. Cellarius, in his admirable Compendium of 
Ancient Geography, wisely refrains from identification with actual sites. 

The beginning of a new era in respect to a more intimate acquain- 
tance with the geography of Cilicia dates from the publication of Captain 
(now Admiral) Sir Francis Beaufort's Karamania, and Colonel Leake's 
Journal of a Tour, &c. The surveys of the Euphrates Expedition com- 
pleted what Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort had left undone, and enabled 
the editor to publish a first detailed notice of the comparative geography 
of the Cilician and Syrian gates in the fourth volume of the Journal of 
the Royal Geographical Society, and which has been amplified and cor- 
rected in subsequent publications. 

Much, however, still remains to be done by future traveller's. The 
site of Myriandrus has never been positively determined ; Cicero's cam- 
paign in Amanus is by no means thoroughly understood. 


The route given in the Antonine Itinerary as leading from Nicopolis 
to Zeugma on the Euphrates appears to be the same as the pass through 
Amanus by which Darius advanced in the rear of the Macedonians ; but 
the details of this road are wanted. The sites of Aliaria and Gerbidissus 
are unknown ; and the total distance of seventy- two Roman miles from 
the Euphrates to the shores of Cilicia is unsatisfactory. No traces have 
been met with of the Serropolis of Ptolemy, supposed to be the same as 
the Cassipolis of Pliny. Cadra and Davara, the strongholds of rebels at 
the period of Tarsus's greatest glory, are also unknown sites. 

Mr. Barker has not omitted the consideration of the produce and 
agriculture of this rich and fertile country. His notice also of the natural 
history of Cilicia, if not scientific, is still replete with curious and original 
information. Gazelles and other small deer, as also their natural enemies 
the feline tribe, abound in Cilicia. The Amanus is spoken of in the Song 
of Solomon as the mountain of leopards. The naturalist iElian, and the 
poet of the Argonauts, Valerius Flaccus, speak of the tigers and of the 
deer of the same district. The editor has seen six panthers while hunt- 
ing in one small valley ; and Mr. Barker describes Abdallah il Rushdi 
as leaving Adana, after a short residence there, with forty-two panther- 
skins in his possession. 

The plains of Cilicia abound in game. It is scarcely possible to ride 
across these fertile grassy expanses, dotted here and there on the western 
side with the evergreen carob-tree — the locust-tree of Scripture — with- 
out seeing herds of gazelles browsing in the distance. The large bustard 
stalks along the same plains, and the smaller bustard is seen at certain 
seasons soaring in flocks of myriads. Wherever there is cover, the beau- 
tiful francolin — the prototype of our pheasant — abounds. The marshes 
teem with wild fowl. The sea swarms with fish, which may often be 
seen parading its depths from over the ship's side. Turtles are so 
abundant, that Mr. Barker tells us that hundreds may be taken in a 
day. This is truly a country as favoured by nature as it is neglected 
by man. 

But by these very peculiarities it gains in human interest. Its re- 
markable configuration and physical features, its mountains, forests, and 
wild animals, its natural resources and produce, its history and vicissi- 
tudes, its associations and existing monuments, its prostrate and oppres- 



sed population, and above all its commercial capabilities, and its claims 
upon the sympathy of a wide -embracing humanity, entitle it as a country 
to a moment's attention, and as a population of various origin and creeds 
to a thought of kindness from English readers. 



MAP or 


and the north of 







early period of cilician history scriptural mention of tarsus . 

ancient religion notice of the cilicians by herodotus cilicia 

under the assyrians burial-place of sardanapalus dominion of 

the medes cilicia overrun by scythian hordes the prophet 

Daniel's tomb — crcesus, king of lydia — Persian satraps — invasion 
of greece by the persians — syennesis, king of cilicia— treaty of 
antalcidas alexander the great in cilicia — battle of issus. 

The early history of Cilicia, a country replete with interesting associa- 
tions, as having been the theatre of many great events, is unfortunately, 
like that of most ancient nations, involved in obscurity; and it is ex- 
tremely difficult to construct, out of the scanty materials which have 
reached our times, a chain of narrative so complete and satisfactory as 
to connect, without the absence of some essential links, the history of its 
past grandeur with its actual condition. It has been my main endea- 
vour, the more effectually to dispel the cloud which* hangs over the 
ancient portion of its history, to select from such writers'as have given 
this country a place in their pages what may be considered most worthy 
of insertion, in order to form a connected and complete history. But 
the gleams of light which, from time to time, break through the mist 
are partial, leading only to conjecture; and they do not sufficiently fill 
up the gaps which the ignorance of some and the unwillingness of 
others have left us to regret in this inquiry. 

There ia, however, the best reason to believe that those passes or 
natural defiles which break the barriers that Nature has placed between 
the elevated plains of Asia Minor and those large tracts situated east of 
the Mediterranean, were considered by the nations of antiquity of so much 


importance that they were made an object of the particular attention of 
monarchs ; and hence Cilicia became, from its position, the scene of strife 
between contending empires. Connecting, as it were, the eastern and 
western world, it was also, at a very early date, the first to benefit by 
the continual influx of strangers ; and civilisation, consequent on the in- 
tercourse of man with man, was an early feature of its character ; while 
wealth, flowing rapidly on its precursors, civilisation and trade, laid a 
foundation for that opulence which, in after times, attracted the cupidity 
of the Romans, and reduced it finally to a Roman province. Hence we 
find Cilicia mentioned by several historians as the first commercial power 
which made any figure in this part of the world. 

But it is not only the fables of Pagan theology that bear witness to 
the high antiquity and power of this country, by informing us that 
Tarsus was built by Perseus, son of Jupiter by Danae; but Scripture 
historians also affirm that the sons of Tarsliish, the great-grandson of 
Noah, who were settled on this coast, had made themselves famous for 
their navigation and commerce; so that "the ships of Tarshish" had 
become a common appellation for all vessels of trade, and " to go to 
Tarshish" a proverbial expression for setting out to sea in such vessels. 
In Isaiah xxiii. 10, Tyre is called "the daughter of Tarshish," which 
would lead us to infer that the nautical celebrity to which the Tyrians 
subsequently attained had its rise in Cilicia, and that a colony from this 
country settled on the Syrian coast and laid the foundation for Phoeni- 
cian grandeur and fame.* 

* There are few questions in sacred geography that are involved in greater diffi- 
culties than the position and extent of Tarshish, or of the several Tarshishes men- 
tioned in the Scrip tures. Some have argued that the word itself applied to the sea 
generally. One of the latest authorities, the Rev. J. R. Beard, D.D., has attempted 
in a similar manner to cut the gordian knot, by arguing that all the scriptural pas- 
sages in which the name occurs agree in fixing Tarsliish somewhere in or near Spain. 
(Cydopcedia of Biblical Literature, edited by J. Kitto, D.D., art. -'Tarshish.") Heeren 
(Icleen, &c. ii. 64) goes so far as to translate (Ezek. xxvii. 25) the ships of Tarshish, 
&c. by "Spanish ships." And Bochart, in his Geographia Sacra (Phaleg, hi. 7), is 
undecided as to the superior claims of Carteia or Cadiz, or the Tartessus of Aristotle, 
Strabo, Pausanias, Arrian, and Avienus, which was between the two mouths of the 
Bsetis or Guadalquiver, and which is the most likely site of the Spanish Tarshish, being 
of Phoenician orgin. 

But there was another Tarshish in Ophir or Arabia ; for in 2 Chron. xx. 36 it is 
recorded that Jehoshaphat king of Judah joined himself with Ahaziah king of Israel 
to make ships to go to Tarshish ; and they made the ships in Ezion-geber — that is, en 
the Elanitic Gulf, on the eastern arm of the Red Sea. And in the parallel passage, 
found in 1 Kings xxh. 49, these vessels are described as "ships of Tarshish," which 
were intended to go to Ophir. 

So also there appears much probability that there was a Tarshish nearer to Jud;ea. 
An important testimony to this effect occurs in Ezek. xxxviii. 13 : "Sheba and Dedan, 
and the merchants of Tarshish, with all the young lions thereof." Now, here Tarshish 
is mentioned in conjunction with two eastern sites ; and we shall have occasion to shew 


Strabo says of the nations of Tarsus, that they did not, like other 
nations, stay at home, but, in order to complete their education, went 
abroad ; and many of them, when this was accomplished, became at- 
tached to their residences in foreign countries, and never returned. To 
this roving disposition we must attribute the circumstance of their having 
factories at Dedan and Sheba on the Euphrates, with which places they 
trafficked in silver, gold, &c, as we are told by Ezekiel (xxxviii. 10) ;* 
and it confirms the assertion of Tacitus, that Thamiras the Cilician was 
the first who introduced the science of divination into Cyprus during the 
reign of Cinyras, as far back as 2000 years B.C., and that the priesthood 
continued to be hereditary in his family for many generations, until, for 
want of male heirs, the sacerdotal functions merged into the descendants 
of the king. Here we find an enlightened Cilician quitting his native 
country, and bearing with him the riches of superior knowledge, which 
he imparts to a less ch'ilised nation, establishing for himself and for his 
posterity an imperishable monument of fame. 

What that knowledge was, or to what particular worship it related, 

that the Amanus was in ancient times as renowned for its lions as Cilicia is to the 
present day distinguished by the number 'if its panthers, while it does not appear thai 
there were lions in Andalusia. 

Again, when Jonah (i. 3; iv. 2) wished to avoid the duty imposed upon him to go 
and prophesy against Nineveh, he took ship at Joppa and fled to Tarshish. It is not 
likely that he fled as far as Spain ; but it is not unlikely that he fled from Judrca, and 
took refuge in Tarsus. 

The transit of the Phoenicians from ( lyprue to < frlicia was easy. A i >ollodorus relates, 
that Celendris, now Chalindrah. was founded by Sandoous, t. c. Sadoc, father of C'inyra. 
It was afterwards a colony of Samians. The name of the country itself is said to have 
hcen derived from Cilix, the brother of ('admus. According to Bochart, Corycus, on 
the same coast, derived its name from the celebrity of its crocuses or saffron,— at, com. 
in the Hebrew, and cercam m the Syriac (Solomon's Song iv. 14). It is not certain 
if the Amanus is meant in the Sth verse of the same canticle, " look from the top of 
Amana," because the mountain SO called is mentioned in connexion with the Lebanon. 
The allusion to "the lions' dens" — " the mountains of the leopards" — makes it, how- 
ever, extremely improbable that it is the Cilician Amanus that is referred to. Bochart, 
in his Phcenices in Cilicia (Phaleg, i. 4), entertains no doubt of the commercial rela- 
tions of Tarsus and Tyre : " Nee daunt, " he adds, "quibus Tarsus Cilicia metropolis, 
Pauli A postal i ort a noiilis, videturesu Tarthish el Cetis" (Cethim). — W. F. A. 

* Very little is known as to the locality peopled by the descendants of the Cushitc 
Dedan. It is supposed that they settled in southern Arabia, near the Persian Gulf; 
but the existence in that quarter of a place called Dadan or Dadena is the chief ground 
for this conclusion. The Rev. Charles Forster has, however, shewn in his Historical 
Geography <>/ Aru/n'a, that correlative testimony is given of this opinion by the juxta- 
position of kindred names (vol. i. pp. 38, 63). With regard to the descendants of the 
Cushito Sheba, there seems no reason to doubt that their ultimate settlement was in 
Ethiopia ; while the descendants of Sheba, son of Joktan, peopled Yemen in Arabia. 
Hence the distinction between the African Baboons and Arabian Sabseans ; but there 
were also Badwin or " wandering" Shebans (Job i. 15) and Chaldean Saba;ans, or, 
more properly, Tsabians, particularly described by Mr. Rich and the Rev. Mr. Wolff. — 
W. F. A. 



the learned historian does not proceed to say ; but in another passage we 
learn from him that the Egyptians, in the reign of Ptolemy Philadel- 
phia, B.C. 284, obtained the statue of the god Serapis 
from Sinoj>e in Pontus ; and although the epoch when 
this image was introduced and placed in the quarter 
of the city of Alexandria called Rhacotis is compara- 
tively of modern date, the circumstance may go far 
to establish that this god was worshipped in Asia 
Minor ; and if we are to believe Herodotus, who says 
the Egyptian priests attributed the origin of their 
nation to the Phrygians, close neighbours of the Cili- 
cians, we may conclude that a great similarity existed 
in the worship and religious ceremonies of the two 
countries. This subject is more particularly illus- 
trated in that part of the work which refers to the 
newly- discovered terra-cottas, among which have been 
found heads of Horns and other deities of the Egyptian pantheon, as also 
the god Osiris, represented under the form of an ox, and of which we 
give an illustration here. The two accompanying woodcuts of Serapis 
and Osiris are taken from some terra-cotta antiques found at Tarsus, and 
of which the reader will find a more circumstantial account further on. 
We are told by Herodotus that the original 
inhabitants of Cilicia were called Hypacheans, and 
that it was not until the arrival of Cilex, the son 
of Agenor king of Phoenicia, that they obtained the 
appellation of Cilicians. Cilex, it is related, set 
out in search of his sister Europa, who had been 
carried away by pirates ; and after seeking her in 
many countries by sea and land, disgusted and 
worn out by his want of success, and attracted by 
the fertility of the soil, he settled down on the 
coast of Asia Minor, and gave his name to the 
Ooirib. country which forms the subject of this history, 

about 1552 B.C.* 
Tarsus in Cilicia is said to have been founded, according to heathen 
mythology, B.C. 132G, by Perseus son of Jupiter and Danae, while on his 
expedition against the Gorgons ; but other historians attribute its origin 
to a colony of Argives. 

* According to others (Apollodorus, iii. c. 14), Cilex was son of Cinyras, and brother 
of Cadmus, which Cinyras first colonised these countries from Phoenicia, and built the 
town of Celendrte or Celendris, afterwards a colony of Samians. Bochart (C'hanaan, 
i. 5) argues that the country derived its name from the abundance of chalk and lime- 
stone, — challek or challuh of the Hebrews, and x«*<? of the Greeks. — W. F. A. 


However that may be, this city became famous for its maritime 
commerce as early as the days of King David, B.C. 1055 (Ps. xlviii. 7), 
and from that circumstance gave its name to that part of the Mediterra- 
nean contiguous to Cilicia, which was thence called the Sea of Tarshish. 
Pamphylia was also colonised from the same district. 

But under what government Cilicia existed, or whether it rose to 
fame in a state of independence, is a matter of great uncertainty. It 
would appear probable that this country paid tribute to the Assyrian 
monarchs, because the Cilicians are not mentioned by Homer in his 
catalogue as having sent subsidies to Priam at the siege of Troy, B.C. 
1184, with the rest of their neighbours, the different states on the coast 
of Asia Minor. Certain it is that the kings of Assyria subdued the 
principal petty nations of Asia ; and as the Taurus formed the natural 
boundary of Mesopotamia, Cilicia must have been the first to fall under 
the yoke of the successors of Nimrod. 

But we are precluded from learning at what precise date this coun- 
try was overrun by the Assyrians, because from the death of Ninias, the 
son of Ninus and Semiramis, B.C. 1600, down to the revolt of the Medes 
against Sardanapalus, during a period of eight hundred years, there is a 
chasm in the history of Babylon to be filled up. The fables of Berosus 
in reference to this subject are not worthy of credit, as the work which 
passes under his name is evidently a fabrication. But that it was sub- 
dued and formed a part of that kingdom previous to the time of its disso- 
lution is an historical fact, as we find Sardanapalus made it his favourite 
residence ; and ve are informed by some historians that the ports of this 
country were considered of great importance by that dynasty, as being 
their chief maritime station in the Mediterranean. 

Grecian historians have attributed to Sardanapalus, the last king of 
the Assyrian monarchy, the foundation of the city of Tarsus, B.C. 820 ; 
but as it is also reported that he was buried at Anchiale* by his par- 

* Anchiale may have begun even in the time of Sardanapalus to be a necessary 
port to the commerce of Tarsus, in consequence of the increasing alluvium brought 
down by the river Cydnus, and which is always filling up the lake, that formerly 
served as a harbour (called by Strabo Rhegma, and which he says preserved some 
remains of its naval arsenal). This Rhegma resembled a lake by its extensive and 
shallow bed, and could no longer admit of large vessels, because earth, stones, and 
rubbish were continually brought down into it from the heights of Mount Taurus by the 
winds and torrents. It is now a stagnant marsh, with four or five feet water, and no 
longer communicates either with the sea or the river Cydnus, although not more dis- 
tant in some places than a thousand yards from either. The original beds of the canals, 
which served as a means of communication with the sea, are filled up by earth and 
sand; but the traces of thom exist, and could with no great difficulty be cleared, and 
made to serve as an exit for the water. The whole of the surrounding country, with 


ticular desire, we may infer that he was more probably the founder of 
this latter place, and the embellisher only of Tarsus. On the site of 
Anchiale is a ruin to be seen which may have been the foundation of 
the tomb ; but no vestige remains of the celebrated statue mentioned 
by Arrian of this ill-fated monarch, or of the inscription in the As- 
syrian language commemorating the intemperance and dissipation that 
distinguished his life, which so provoked the satire of Aristotle. The 
fact that Sardanapalus was really buried on this spot would seem to 
contradict the accounts of other writers of celebrity, who assert that he 
burned himself in his palace in the city of Nineveh, with all his house- 
hold and treasure; or, at all events, the two statements can only be 
reconciled by supposing that his body was carried by some faithful 
surviving attendants, by whom, we hear, he was deified, to repose in 
the city of his predilection, which owed its origin to his choice.* Dif- 
ferent accounts of the same event occur frequently in ancient authors, 
and cause us to regret how much this question is involved in obscurity.| 
On the dismemberment of the Assyrian empire, Cilicia fell into the 

the bed of the lake itself, having- risen considerably by alluvial deposits — a circumstance 
universal wherever rivers flow into large plains, and particularly in the vicinity of such 
a high range of mountains as the Taurus — Anchiale was for centuries the depot of Tar- 
sus, and received such vessels as could not by their size enter the lake ; and it con- 
tinued to serve as the. port of Tarsus in after ages until modern times, when Kaisanli 
was chosen for its proximity ; and lately Marsinah has been preferred to either for the 
safety of its roadstead, and is rising into the notice of the commercial world. 

* The partiality that Sardanapalus seems to have evinced to Anchiale was natural 
enough ; it was to him, with its wide expanse of sea, what the Jpdian Ocean would 
have been to Alexander,— the furthest point of his conquest: for in the Bay of Issus 
the land may be seen on the other side ; while at Anchiale the Eastern monarch might 
have considered himself as having reached the farthest bounds of his Western World. 
From this place, which he prided himself on having built in one day, he could look on 
the broad blue sea, and ordain that his tomb should there be formed, where it might 
remain as a monument of his grandeur, washed by the waves that alone impeded his 
conquest. There is a ruin at Karadoghar which may be supposed to form a part of 
this monument ; and the whole coast is lined with buildings that are now broken down 
and covered with sand by the sea, which has retired full a hundred yards : these must 
have served for quays, and greatly facilitated the landing of goods, which now have to 
wait the calming of the wind and sea. When we see the gigantic works of the ancients, 
wherein they spared no trouble for the smallest good, we cannot but wonder at the 
vastness of population which enabled them to carry out such undertakings. We might 
well take a lesson of perseverance from their example. 

f Professor Grotefend states, that after Shalmaneser king of Assyria had reigned 
twenty-five years, he extended his conquests over Asia Minor, and took up his abode 
in the city of Tanakan, a strong place in Etlak, by which perhaps Tarsus in Cilicia is 
meant, of the building of which by Sennacherib a fabulous account is given by Alex- 
ander Polyhistor and Abydenus in the Armenian version of Eusebius. After he had 
introduced into that place the worship of Assarde (Astarte) or Nisroch, and received 
gold and silver, corn, sheep, and oxen as a tribute, he reduced the neighbouring pro- 

tiie prophet Daniel's tomb. 17 

hands of the Medes, and so continued until the reign of Cyaxares, r..c. 62i, 
when the barbarous hordes of Scythians overran ail Central Asia, and 
overturned the government. After remaining twenty-eight years in 
possession, the Scythians were in their turn driven out, their chiefs be- 
ing murdered by Cyaxares at a feast. The Medes then recovered that 
power which the invaders had lost by their licentiousness and ignorance 
of civil administration. 

As Daniel the Prophet flourished about this time (550 B.C.), I take 
the opportunity here of stating a remarkable circumstance connected 
with an Armenian tradition in the country. The Turks hold in great 
veneration a tomb which they believe contains the bones of this prophet, 
situated in an ancient Christian church, converted into a mosque, in the 
centre of the modern town of Tarsus. The sarcophagus is said to be 
about forty feet below the surface of the present soil, in consequence of the 
accumulation of earth and stones ; and over which a stream flows from 
the Cyclnus river, of comparatively modern date. Over this stream, at 
the particular spot where the sarcophagus was (before the canal was 
cut and the waters went over it), stands the ancient church above men- 
tioned ; and to mark the exact spot of the tomb below, a wooden monu- 
ment has been erected in the Turkish style.* The waters of this rivulet 
are turned off every year in the summer, in order to clear the bed of the 
canal; and if ever this country falls into the hands of a civilised nation, 
it will not be difficult to verify the authenticity of this tradition, which 
the fanaticism of the Turks now prevents us from doing. However 
extraordinary this may appear, and difficult as it maybe to establish 
the identity of this sarcophagus as containing the relics of the prophet, 
without the assistance of history or inscription, little doubt can be enter- 
tained of the existence of a tomb of some holy personage, or of one whose 
memory was held sacred, from the well-known permanence of oral tra- 
dition in the East; and it is a remarkable instance of the tenacity by 
which events are rescued from oblivion, and the power of tradition to 
record the exact locality, at so great a depth under the accumulated 
ruins of so many years. f 

vinces to subjection, and appointed Akharrizadon or Assarhaddon as king- over thorn. 
This is one of the triumphs supposed to be alluded to in the celebrated obelisk of Nim- 
rud or Athur.— \V. P. A. 

* This monument is covered with an embroidered cloth, and stands in a special 
apartment built for it, from the iron-grated windows of which it may occasionally be 
seen when the Armenians take occasion to make their secret devotions ; but generally 
a curtain is dropped to hide it from vulgar view, and add by exclusion to the sanctity 
of the place. 

t The burial-place of the prophet Daniel is not historically known. Epiphanius s.iys 



It is a curious coincidence that the supposed tomb of Daniel the Pro- 
phet at Susa is said to be, like the one above described, under a running 
stream. This would prove the great increase of alluvial deposits in the 
East. (Vide Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, vol. ix. ; article 
by Colonel Eawlinson.) 

During the anarchy attendant on the wars of the Medes with their 
neighbours the Babylonians and Persians, Cilicia became independent ; 
for we are informed by Herodotus that (B.C. 548) Crcesus king of 
Lydia subjected almost all the nations which are situated on this side 
the river Halys. The Cilicians and Lycians alone were not brought 
under his yoke; and we find them again (c.c. 50-1) governed by their 
own kings and increasing in maritime power, but subject to pay tribute 
to Darius Hystaspes, third king of the Persian monarchy, who divided 
his dominions into satrapies, of which Cilicia was the fourth. The 
Cilicians were obliged to furnish 360 white horses and 500 talents of 
silver annually: of these, 140 were appointed for the payment of the 
cavalry who formed the guard of the country; the remaining 3G0 talents 
were received by Darius. On the resolution taken by Darius (b.c. 490) 
to invade Greece, Datis and Artaph ernes his nephews were ordered to 
man a fleet and collect an army for the purpose. Accordingly they 
proceeded to Aleium in Cilicia, a plain at the mouth of the river 
Pyramus* and near the port of Mallos (Kara-Tash), where they col- 
lected a large body of infantry ; here they were soon joined by a numer- 
ous reinforcement of marines, agreeably to the orders which had been 
given ; and soon after, the vessels which the preceding year Darius had 
commanded his tributaries to supply having arrived, the cavalry and 
troops embarked and proceeded to Ionia, in a fleet of six hundred tri- 
remes, or three-oared galleys. 

that he died at Babylon ; and he is followed in this by the generality of historians. 
Monumentally and traditionally, however, the tomb designated as that of Daniyali 
Akbar, "the greater Daniel," at Sus, ancient Susa, in Susiana, records the burial* 
place of " God is my judge." The great Saracenic building which adorns the site at 
the present day in Sus or Shush, is represented hi the Baron de Bodes Travels in 
Lwristan and Arabistan (vol. ii. p. 188). It is also described by Major Rawlinson in 
the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society (vol. ix. p. 83). The Major sj)oke of 
sacred fish being also preserved at the spot. Layard (ibid. vol. xvi. p. 61) says that 
the small stream which washes the tomb certainly contains fish, but he does not believe 
that they are generally esteemed sacred. A black stone or aerolite, such as played so 
conspicuous a part in the early religions of the Semitic nations, is preserved there. 
"Great suspicion as to the intentions of Europeans towards this sacred stone is unfor- 
tunately entertained by the guardians of the monument. — W. F. A. 

* The Aleian Plain has always stood prominent in the history of Cilicia. Pliny 
calls it Campus Aleius. Strabo relates that Philotas led the cavalry attached to the 
Macedonian army under Alexander the Great, 'AXifiov Tre&loi; "over the Aleian Plain." 


Xerxes, son of Darius, on undertaking (b.c. 484) his great expedi- 
tion against Greece, exacted one hundred ships from the Cilicians, at 
which epoch Herodotus says they wore helmets peculiar to their coun- 
try, and small bucklers made of the untanned hides of oxen ; they had 
also tunics of wool, and each man had two spears and a sword, not un- 
like those of Egypt. At a council called by Xerxes before the battle 
of Salamis, Artemisia, queen of Halicarnassus, spoke very disparagingly 
of the Cilicians, as a people addicted to piracy and not to be trusted, 
and on whom no reliance could be placed. Whatever may have been the 
character of many of the Greek colonies of the coast, it is certain that 
the inhabitants of Tarsus maintained a fair reputation in their com- 
mercial transactions, and which was absolutely necessary to them in 
their intercourse with foreigners. 

At the death of Xerxes (b.c. 410), Cilicia remained under the 
government of its own kings, but tributary to his successors Artaxerxes, 
Darius Nothus, and Artaxerxes, against whom Cyrus the younger 
revolted. Having been appointed governor of Lydia by his brother 
Artaxerxes, he assembled an army (a part of which was composed of 
the ten thousand Greeks whose courage and endurance have been im- 
mortalised by Xenophon), and entering Cilicia, arrived at Tarsus. The 
inhabitants of this city, with their king Syennesis, fled to a fastness in 
the mountains, now called Nimrud ; but those of Soli and Issus, who 
were near the sea, did not follow their example. 

Cyrus sent for Syennesis; but the latter replied, that he had never 
put himself in the power of a superior, and would not do so now. His 
wife Epyaxa, who had previously visited Cyrus in Phrygia, whither 
she had been sent on a diplomatic mission to meet the conqueror, dis- 
mayed by the reports regarding his formidable army, prevailed on her 
husband to change his resolution, and the two princes met on friendly 
terms. Syennesis gave Cyrus large sums of money to carry on the 
war, and received in return suitable presents, with the restitution of 

Arrian describes Philotas as leading the cavalry across the Plain to the river Pyramus. 
This is important in a geographical point of view. Dionysius of Corinth alludes to 
this Plain in the S7'2d verse of his poetical geography : 

Kcif'i d£ to irtblov to 'AAi}i 

which Avienus has rend 

"Hie cesses IcUeproducit Aleius arm." 

It was also on this beautiful and expansive Plain that Bellerophon wandered after his 

fall from Pegasus at Tarsus : 

" Forsook by heaven, forsaking human kind, 
"Wide o'er th' Aleian field he chose to stray, 
A long, forlorn, uncomfortable way." YV. F. A. 


the prisoners taken by Cyrus. He was confirmed in Lis authority at 

We may presume that the Cilician kings during the next twenty 
years sided with the Grecian colonies in the war carried on by the 
Spartans against Artaxerxes, and lost their independence; for Ave find, 
by the " treaty of Antalcidas," that Tarsus was included among the 
other cities and possessions in Asia Minor that were ceded to the Persian 

When Alexander had carried his victorious arms into Asia (b.c. 303), 
in his march against Darius after the battle of the Granicus, he ad- 
vanced to the Pyla: Cilicia? (Kulak Bughaz) ; and fearing an ambuscade, 
he ordered the light- armed Thracians to advance and reconnoitre that 
narrow pass, where only a few men abreast can be admitted at a time. 
He was astonished, and rejoiced at his good fortune, in finding that the 
Persians had not availed themselves of the advantages afforded them by 
the natural features of the pass to make an effectual stand at this im- 
portant post, which a handful of men coiild defend, and hurl destruction 
on the invaders by throwing stones and other missiles from the heights 
above. This neglect on their part surprised him, but it was nothing 
more than what was to be expected; for the few Persian soldiers left 
there as a guard by Arsanes on his retreat, after laying waste the 
country, bad fled in consternation at the approach of the formidable in- 
vader; and the Cilicians were so ready to throw off the Persian yoke, 
and to hail the Greeks their fellow-countrymen, that they never thought 
of offering any opposition. From this place the Macedonian hero marched 
his whole army to Tarsus, and arrived just in time to save it from de- 
struction, as the Persians had set fire to the city, to prevent his becom- 
ing master of the treasures it contained. 

It was here that Alexander nearly lost his life by bathing in the cold 
waters of the Cydnus, a river which passes by this town, and which hi sum- 
mer is nearly all of melted snow, flowing from the neighbouring heights 
of Mount Taurus ; and here it was he gave an instance of that magnani- 
mity of spirit which formed so distinguishing a feature in his character, 
by shewing perfect confidence in his physician Philip, and drinking off the 
medicine he administered, in utter disregard of the insinuations made to 
influence him against a faithful servant, and which accused the physi- 
cian of having been bribed by Darius to poison him. 

From this place, having sent his cavalry under Philotas across the 
Aleian plain to the banks of the Pyramus, where he ordered a bridge to 
be prepared, he proceeded to Soli, where he laid the inhabitants under 
a contribution of 200 talents, and evinced in what contempt he held the 


barbarians, by entertaining his followers with games in honour of iEscu- 
lapins and Minerva ; he then proceeded along the coast to Megarsus, and 
from thence to Mallos. 

This latter place, situated on a height according to Strabo, " was 
founded by Amphilocus and Mopsus, who having slain one another in 
single combat, were buried so that the tomb of the one should not be 
visible from that of the other." He next proceeded to Issus, the scene 
of the memorable battle which decided the fate of the Persian empire; 
for soon after, by the battle of Arbela (b.c. 330), Darius was dethroned, 
and with him terminated the line of Assyrian and Persian kings, which 
had lasted two hundred and nine years from Cyrus.* 

* According to Plutarch, Darius was encouraged by Alexander's long stay in Cilicia, 
— which he regarded as the effect of his fears, instead of tracing it to its true cause, 
sickness, — to march across the mountains into Cilicia in quest of his adversary. '• Dut 
happening to miss each other in the night, I burned hack ; Alexander re- 

joicing in his good fortune, and hastening to meet Darius in the straits, while Darius 
was endeavouring to disengage himself and recover his former camp." This descrip- 
tion of the two armies passing one another in the night indicates that Darius had 
effected the passage before Alexander had reached the Syrian dates, and that the 
armies passed one another in the region of Urzin, and where are now the supposed 
ruins of Epiphanea ; the Macedonians keeping the coast, the Persians occupying tho 
interior. Calisthcncs says, in the fragments of Polybius (lib. xii. cap. 8), that Alex- 
ander had reached the straits which are called the Cilician Gates, whe irrived 
with his army at the Amanian Gates. Tho philosopher of Olynthus evidently meant 
the Cilician and Syrian Gates of Xenophon (Markaz Kalasi), and nol the Cilician 
Gates (Kulak Bughaz). Quintus Curtius (lib. iii. cap. 8) says, " The same night 
that Alexander arrived at the straits by which Syria is approached, Darius arrived at 
that place which is called the Amanian Gates." Arrian (lib. ii. p. 94) also says, 
"Darius having crossed, the mountain whei't an the Amanian Gates, advanced to- 
wards Issus ; Alexander having imprudently left him in his rear." Most scholars havo 
read to kotu nis fli/Xat 'Ajuavixdc as " near to the Amanian Gates ;" but others havo 
argued that koto with the accusative establishes identity, as in tuna tj;i/ x'»pav iativnu 
(Luc. xv. 14), " in that region," as well as "near to." 

Thus, according to one version, the pass of Darius over the Amanus is identified 
with the road given in the Antoniru Itinerary as leading from Nicopolis to Zeugma. 
on the Euphrates, and is called the Amanian Gates : according to the other, the road 
remains the same, but Darius is made to descend near to the " AmaniaB I rates," now 
called Tamir Kapu, or Iron Gates. Arrian relates that Darius having advanced to 
Issus, he took that city and slow whatever Macedonians had remained behind, and 
the next day he advanced to tho river Pinarus. Having heard that Alexander was 
about to his steps and give the Persians battle, he sent fifty thousand horsemen 
across the river to keep the Macedonians at bay till the remainder of tho army could 
take up its position. According to Plutarch, Alexander, whose army was small in 
comparison with that of Darius, took care to draw it up so as to prevent its being 
surrounded, by stretching out his right wing beyond the enemy's left. In that wing 
he acted in person, and fighting in the foremost ranks, put the barbarians to flight. 
Cicero (lib. v. ad Attic, epist. 20) speaks of a castle that Alexander occupied in tho 
same neighbourhood. " We held for some days," he says, " a castle, the very same 
that Alexander held against Darius near to Issus." 

Three streams descend from the Amanus in the regions here alluded to. The most 


northerly is called the Dali Chai, mad or swift river ; the central, Kui Chai, river of 
the village ; and the southerly, Yuslah Chai, from a village of that name : all unite to 
form the ancient Pinarus before reaching the sea. The village of Yuslah has been iden- 
tified by some with Issus, from a remote analogy of name ; but it is certain from the 
description of the movements of Darius as above given from Arrian, that Issus was north 
of the Pinarus. Strabo also says, " After JEg& comes Issus, and then the Pinarus." 
In the villages north of the Pinarus there are to the present day plenty of remains of 
antiquity, — hewn stones, fragments of columns and pilasters, friezes, &c, especially in 
the Muhammadan cemeteries, — to indicate the site of a city which was populous and 
opulent in the times of Xenophon, and once gave its name to the gulf of Alexandretta, 
but which was succeeded in the time of the Romans by Epiphanea, Baire, and other 
towns and stations, and in modern times by Iskandrun — Alexander's favourite little 
site. The distances given by Xenophon are satisfactory so far as regards the posi- 
tioning of Issus. The army of Cyrus marched in two days fifteen parasangs, or thirty- 
five geographical miles, from the Pyramus to Issus ; and from Issus, in one march, five 
parasangs, or fifteen geographical miles, to the gates of Cilicia and Syria, These 
distances woidd place Issus a little northward of the Dali Chai. The course of this river 
has, however, been explored by the annotator from Yuslah to where it issues from the 
mountains, without any trace being discovered of the altars said by Quintus Curtius to 
have been erected by Alexander on the banks of the Pinarus. It is more likely that 
these were erected at the spot which Alexander had reached before he turned back to 
engage with the enemy ; and that they are represented by the massive marble ruin 
called Sakal Tutan by the Turks, Jonas's Pillars by English sailors, and Bomitse or 
altars by Pliny. Mr. W. B. Barker has in the present work identified Issus with 
Bayas, the Baire of the Romans (Bais, Antonine Itinerary), sixteen Roman miles from 
Alexandria. The details above given will explain the various reasons for which we dif- 
fer from him on this point. It must not be omitted here that Mr. Edward B. B. Barker, 
her Britannic Majesty's Vice-Consul at Suwaidiyah, informs me that he has traversed 
the Amanus in the direction which Darius took to arrive in the rear of the Macedo- 
nians ; that it is a hilly, rough, and exceedingly stony country, the road ! ieing rendered 
especially difficult by rounded stones, but that it is not all mountainous. This accords 
with the impressions received by contemplating the Amanus from the acclivities of 
the Taurus above Adana. The mountainous character of the range ceases abruptly 
beyond the parallel of the most north-easterly extent of the Gulf of Alexandretta. 

The position of the various " gates" or mountain passes will be best understood by 
reference to the map ; but to facilitate the reader's comprehension, they are as follow, 
proceeding from Asia Minor : 

The Cilicia n Gates. Pass of Taurus, Kulak Bugliaz. 

The Amanian Gates. Tamir Kapn, or Iron Gate of the Turks : a Cyclopean arch, 
where the liills come down to the sea-side at the head of the gulf. 

The Cappadocian Gates. The pass described by Strabo and explored by the Eu- 
phrates Expedition, leading through Taurus to Marash, ancient Germanicia. 

Darius's Pass. Across the Amanus, north of Issus and near to (koto) the Amanian 
Gates; probably the same road which is given in the Antonine Itinerary as 
leading from Castabala to the Euphrates by Nicoj>ohs, Aliaria, and Gerbidisson. 

Gates of Cilicia and Syria of Xenophon. Ruins near Markaz Kalasi, and at 
Sakal Tutan (Jonas's Pillars of some writers, Bonritre or altars of Pliny). 

Gates of Syria. Pass of Bailan, Pictanus of the Jerusalem Itinerary, Erana of 
Cicero.— W. F. A. 


plistarchus — battle of ipsus ptolemy eyergetes antiochus the 

great zeno and chrtsirpus cilicia under the seleuchxe in- 
vaded by tigranes reduced to a roman province by pompey 

cicero's campaign in cilicia — marc antony and cleopatra at tarsus 

cilicia invaded by the parthians under labienus — athenodorus 

vonones slain in cilicia st. paul insurrection of the cli- 

teans cossuatianus papito governor — polemon, kingjof cilicia, 

marries berenice cilicia declared a roman province in vespasian's 

time fate of the roman empire decided on the plain of issus. 

After the death of Alexander, in the straggles for power carried on by 
his successors, Cilicia, like the other countries of Asia Minor, was over- 
run by the armies which they levied to oppose one another, and was the 
scene of war and bloodshed for several years, till it fell into the hands of 
Plistarchus brother of Cassander, and Demetrius son of Antigonus, and 
Avho ruled there until Antigonus, who had made himself master of all 
Syria, was killed by the forces under Ptolemy, Lysimachus, Cassander, and 
Seleucus Nicator, at the battle of Ipsus, in Phrygia. Cilicia then fell to 
the share of this last-mentioned general, and formed part of the empire 
founded by him, and known in history as that of the Seleucidse. 

Ptolemy Evergetes, the third of that name king of Egypt, invaded 
Syria and Cilicia (b.c. 245), and wrested the government from Antiochus 
Theos, grandson of Seleucus, in revenge for the ill-treatment of Berenice 
his sister, whom he had married ; and this country remained tributary to 
the Egyptian dynasty during the reigns of the two succeeding kings of 
Syria, Seleucus Callinicus and Seleucus Ceracenos. 

Antiochus, surnamed the great, their successor (in the year B.C. 233), 
not only re-established the power of the Seleucida? in Syria and Cilicia, 
but also colonised the whole coast of Asia Minor (of doubtful fidelity) with 
Jews from Babylon and Palestine, from whom were descended the multi- 
tudes of Israelites scattered through those regions at the first preaching 
of the gospel, and among whom none more illustrious than the Apostle 
of the Gentiles; and thus Antiochus was an instrumen tin the hand of 
divine Providence in laying the foundation of the Seven Churches which 
take so prominent a part in the history of early Christianity. 


About this date (b.c. 207) flourished Zeno, a philosopher of Tarsus, 
and Chrysippus, a native of Soli, an adjoining town,* who was a disci- 
ple of "Zeno the Stoic," and Cleanthus his successor; but being of a 
sophistical turn, he departed from some of the principles of these philo- 
sophers. He was nevertheless considered the most conspicuous ornament 
and the most zealous and able defender of the Stoics, so much so that 
"Nisi Chrysipi^us fuisset, Portions non esset," 

passed into a proverb. Some accuse him of incongruity, and say that he 
contradicted himself, as he did not act according to the evil maxims he 
inculcated. He wrote upwards of 300 boohs, on such various subjects 
that he appears, like Voltaire, to have aspired to be considered a universal 
genius. He admitted the possibility of a resurrection of the body, and 
maintained the mutability of the gods: even Jupiter Avas not to be ex- 
empted at the destruction of the universe. He died in the 81st year of 
his age, laughing at an ass eating figs out of a silver plate. 

During the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes, son of Antiochus the 
Great (b.c. 175), the Cilicians revolted, and the king went in person to 
quell the insurrection; which when he had accomplished, he returned to 
Antioch, then become the scat of empire. 

In the civil wars which disgraced the reigns of the succeeding kings, 
and the bloody contests they maintained from time to time with the 
Ptolemies of Egypt, we find little of note occurring in Cilicia until the 

* Soli was, according to Strabo, a city next in renown to Jssus, founded by the 
Acheans and Lindians of Rhodes. Polybius also speaks of the ambassadors from 
Rhodes and from the city of Soli in Cilicia coming together to the ^senate, as their 
interests were the same. When Pompey subjected the pirates of the coast, he ap- 
pointed tliis city as their chief dwelling-place, and changed its name to Pompeiopolis. 
Ptolemy says (lib. v. cap. 8) noimnioinoXis h Kai i.6\oi, Pompeiopolis, formerly Soli. 
The Latins often preserved the Greek diphthong: thus Pomponius Mela says nunc 
Pompeiopolis, tunc Soloe ; Pliny also, Solos Cilicii, nunc Pompeiopolis. Tacitus (An- 
■nal. ii. cap. 58) speaks of Vonones taking up his quarters there ; and Dion Cassius 
(lib. xxxvi. p. 18) relates that the same city was devastated by Tigranes. Strabo 
makes Soli the first city (from the westward) of Cilicia Campestris ; but Ptolemy seems 
more correct in naming Corycus. Livy and Pliny speak of Soli as a colony of Argives 
as well as Rhodians. The word "solecism," ao\oiKicr}i6<; > solcecismus, adopted in our 
language from the Greek or Roman, took its origin, according to Strabo, from the 
barbarian dialect of this city. 

The site of Soli, now called Mazatlu, is distinguished at the present day by many 
interesting remains of antiquity. Among these especially is the beautiful harbour or 
basin, with parallel sides and circidar ends, entirely artificial, and minutely described 
by Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort in his work on Koramania. There are also remains 
of a most noble portico opening to a double row of two hundred columns, once united 
by arches, forty-four of which are now standing ; an elevated theatre, city-walls 
strengthened by numerous towers, an aqueduct, and other detached ruins, tombs, and 
sarcophagi. — W. F. A. 


reign of Seleucus the sixth. This monarch fled from Antiochus Pius, 
and took refuge at Mopsuestia in Cilicia; where endeavouring to levy 
money from the people, he was burnt together with his followers in his 
palace by the revolted populace, who were excited to so severe an act of 
vengeance by his tyranny. Mopsuestia is now a small village called 
Missis on the banks of the Saihun (Pyramus), and on the high road 
from Constantinople to Antioch.* 

Tigranes, king of Armenia (b.c. GO), son-in-law of Mithridates, dur- 
ing the latter part of these civil wars had laid waste Cilicia, and carried 
away the inhabitants of Soli, with many others, to colonise and people 
Tigranocerta, a city he had founded in Armenia and made his capital, 
and which Luculius, the Roman general, took with great difficulty, and 
found there 8000 talents in ready money. f 

B.C. G8. The vast body of pirates who had infested the whole of the 
Mediterranean during the war with Carthage had become formidable to 
the Romans, by intercepting the vessels laden with wheat and other 
provisions into Rome, and committing many great excesses. They pos- 
sessed a thousand galleys and 400 cities in different parts of the Medi- 
terranean, and hired themselves as subsidiaries to Mithridates, king of 
Pontus, with whom the Romans were then at war. Pompey was sent 
with the fullest powers that were ever given to a Roman citizen against 
them, and set out in a fleet of 500 ships and with 120,000 men. He 
divided his forces into thirteen squadrons, which he sent to different 
parts of the Mediterranean, and followed them up into Cilicia, which they 
had made their chief place of resort, and where they had fortified many 
places which they considered impregnable. After various engagements 

* Mopsuestia, more correctly written by Strabo Mopai Hcstia, the house or abode 
of Mopsus the poet and soothsayer, was a holy city ami an asylum, and became free- 
under the Romans, by whom it was enlarged and embellished in the time of Hadrian. 
It was also, as we learn from Procopius, remarkable for its magnitude and splendour 
in the middle ayes; and Abu-al-fada relates that 200,000 Sloslems were devoted to 
death or slavery in this city by Nicephoras Phocas and John Ximisces. A great 
many misrepresentations, regarding both the situation of this city and its name, exist 
in the Byzantine writers, and arc also propagated by Gibbon. It is now a mere village 
of about a hundred houses, known as Missisuh, mlgo Missis, situate on the right bank 
of the river, connected with a mass of ruined dwelling-houses and a caravansarai on 
the other, by a bridge constructed in part of old materials, and from among which 
I copied a Greek inscription now in Colonel Chosney's possession, and possibly the 
same as that given by Gruter (p. 255, num. 4). There is also a large ancient mound 
or tumulus that might bo worth excavating. — W. F. A. 

f A careful consideration of all the circumstances connected with the details of the 
campaign of Luculius against Tigranes have led me to identify Tigranocerta with the 
Amida of the Byzantines, now Dyar-Bakir. {Travels and Researches in Asia Minor, 
dr., vol. ii. p. 362.) St. Martin says that all tho Armenian writers consider Tigrano- 
certa the same as Amida, also called Dorbcta by Ptolemy. — W. F. A. 


carried on for three months, Pompey overthrew the pirates in a pitched 
battle, by sea and land, at Coracesium, now Kurkass,* and took ninety 
men-of-war and 20,000 prisoners. This multitude of men he compelled 
to relinquish their roving and desperate life, and caused them to settle 
and people the cities which had been laid waste by Tigranes in Cilicia, 
particularly Soli, which was rebuilt by him and to which he gave his 
name, and which was afterwards called " Pompeiopolis " on that ac- 

B.C. 65. The kingdom of Syria had been restored by Lucullus to 
Antiochus Asiaticus on the expulsion of Tigranes, king of Armenia; 
but four years after, Pompey, who was called upon to settle the intestine 
broils and factions of the royal family, dethroned Antiochus, on pretence 
that he, who had concealed himself while an usurper sat upon his throne, 
was not worthy of being a king. Syria and Cilicia, with their depen- 
dencies, were then constituted Roman provinces; and with this last scion 
of royalty terminated the dynasty of the Seleucida>, which had lasted 
257 years. Occasionally the governors named by the senate were, how- 
over, alloAved to retain the title of kings, as we shall see later. 

Cicero was named proconsul of the province of Cilicia B.C. 50, and 
set sail from Rome with 12,000 foot and 2G00 horse ; and by prudence 
and good government he effected the reduction of Cappadocia to the 
authority of Artobazanes. Cicero's administration was remarkable for 
the moderation and integrity he displayed; for, although " he drove out 
the thieves which infested mount Amanus," we do not find any brilliant 
action recorded; and on his return he refused the triumph which the 
senate wished to decree him, saying he preferred to see differences set- 
tled and parties reconciled to each other. i 

* Coracesium was, according to Strabo, the first town of Cilicia Aspera; and the 
barren ridges of Mount Taurus, which come down to the shore, sufficiently indicate the 
beginning of that rugged coast. Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort identifies Coracesium 
with the town and promontory of Alaya, where he found the remains of a Cyclopean 
wall, a few broken columns (the remains of Christian churches), and other fragments 
of antiquity. Sir Francis Beaufort says, in allusion to this last stand made at Corace- 
sium by the pirates against the Romans, that certainly no place in the whole coast was 
so well calculated to arrest the march of a conqueror, or to bid defiance to a fleet, as 
this commanding and almost insulated rock. — W. F. A. 

■f" Appian (Mithridates, p. 394) also mentions Mallus, Adana, and Epiphanea, as 
cities which the pirates were made to colonise. — W. F. A. 

J The movements of Cicero in Cilicia require much careful study. The greater 
number of sites mentioned by the then proconsul are even now unknown. In his 20th 
Epistle (lib. v. ad Attic.) he describes himself as proceeding from Tarsus to that por- 
tion of Amanus which divides the waters between Cilicia and Syria. This would ap- 
parently coincide with the actual Gawur Tagh. This is further demonstrated by his 
occupying there a castle (which was formerly held by Alexander) near Issus, and 


B.C. 41. "VVe must not omit, in thus hastily recapitulating the prin- 
cipal events which took place in Cilicia, to notice the visit of Cleopatra 
to Tarsus, whither she went to meet Marc Anthony, and which meeting 
has been commemorated by the immortal bard of Avon. The Egyptian 
queen arrived and sailed up the Cydnus in a galley, the prow of which 
was inlaid with gold, the sails of purple silk, and the oars of silver, and 
the latter were made to beat time to the music of flutes and oboes. 
Under a canopy of cloth-of-gold curiously embroidered, Cleopatra was 
seen reposing, dressed as Venus is generally represented, with beautiful 
little boys like cupids around her, who fanned her, while her maids, 
habited as sea-nymphs were employed, some steering the rudder, some 
working the ship, at the same time that perfumes exhaled from the 
vessel, and wafted by the breezes diffused themselves along the shore. 
Fancy can alone portray to the imagination the glowing descriptions 
given of this pageant, which attracted such crowds of all classes that 
Anthony was left on his throne alone, 

"Whistling to the air, which bat for vacancy 
Had gone to gaze on ( Heopatra too, 
And made a yap in nature." 

Her entertainments, rendered particularly remarkable by an ingenious 
display of brilliant lights, so far exceeded any thing of the kind even in 
that luxurious age, that Anthony was astonished, and avowed himself 
outdone. He was subsequently induced by her artifices to make her a 
grant of the fine pasture-lands in Upper Cilicia, " the noble cedar-woods 

against the Persians. From thence the proconsul ascended into Amanus and d< 
tated the country. In the 4th Epistle fco I xv., he says, that having pacified 

Amanus, he simulated leaving the i d the distance of a day's march 

to a castle near Epiphanea. This would fch< refore appear to correspond to the castel- 
lated ruin which is seen about two i is of Epiphanea. Erana cor- 
respond i. Commorin, and Pomtino, all in Ama- 
nus, ai I bjection of this portion of the Amanus having be 
by the destruction and burning of these strongholds, Cicero proceeded to Pi] 
which I in Eleutherocilicum, and inhabited by the Eteutherooilicians, a \ 
who were never subject to kings (15 ad Fain. Epis. iv. and v. ad Att. 20). Pindenissus 
has been identified by Mr. Barker with Ms; and as it is desci buated on so 
lofty and well-fortified a site, this is very probably a correct identification. Co 
Chcsney and the aimotator visited the rub nient castles north of Sis in the inte- 
rior of the mountains, one of which was called Kara Sis, or the Black Sis, and the other 
Andal Kalah, and one of which prob sentsthe Flaviada placed in the Itinerary 
from Casarea in Cappadoria to Anazarba, eighteen Roman miles north of the latter. 
This is an interesting and unexplored route, on which the sites of PrsBtorium, Badinum, 
Laranda, and Cocuso n The Flaviada of the itinerary is called 
Flaviopolis by Ptolemy, Flavias by Hierocles and by Callistus, who says (lib. xiv. 
cap. xxxix. p. 529), 4>Xd/3tai tirrh inri Tify*Ava£dp/3qc /uqTptooXiv, as if it was below or south 
of the metropolis of Anazarba. — W. F. A. 


above Syedra,"* the iron-mines of Amaxia, and adjacent harbour for a 
fleet, in short all the mountainous part of Cilicia except Seleucia (Selef- 
keh), famed for its admirable police. 

On the departure of Anthony for Egypt (b.c. 39), Labienus, a Roman 
officer Avho had enlisted in the Parthian service, and was chosen com- 
mander of the Parthian forces under Pacorus, the youthful son of their 
king Orodes, took advantage of the dissolute manner of life Anthony 
was leading at Alexandria, and the disorder and discontent in the pro- 
vinces, to march with a large army into Cilicia, and from thence to 
Caria, reducing all the Asiatic towns one after another, and making him- 
self master of all Asia Minor, except Stratonicia, a Macedonian colony 
defended by its impregnable situation. Ventidius, Anthony's lieutenant- 
general, was sent against this formidable force, and he surprised La- 
bienus in Cilicia, where a battle was fought, though not a decisive one; 
but Labienus was killed by a skirmishing party in the mountains, 
whither he had fled. The Parthians, under Barzaphernes, the next in 
command, rallied and seized a narrow pass between the meeting ridges 
of Mount Amanus and the Taurus (now on the road to Mar'ash from 
Adana), where the passage is so narrow that a wall was built across, 
and gates put up to impede the further progress of Ventidius, but unsuc- 
cessfully, that general having overcome this obstacle and obtained a 
brilliant victory. Barzaphernes was killed, his whole army cut to pieces, 
and the victor passed on to meet Pacorus, Avho had assembled a large 
army and crossed the Euphrates : a complete rout of the Parthian forces 
and the death of Pacorus were the result. The Romans recovered the 
possession of Syria and Cicilia, and carried the terror of their arms, under 
Sosius and Canidius, two of Anthony's generals, over the Avhole country, 
and even to Mount Caucasus. 

At the battle of Actium (b.C. 31), among the other tributary kings 
who supported Anthony against Augustus was Tarchondemus, king of 
Cilicia, Avho contributed to his assistance principally by a fleet of ships ; 
and this leads me to notice the few remaining kings A\ r ho, under the 

* Sudpi;, or Sydra, of Strabo, and Si'.cSpa, or Syedra, of Ptolemy ; next town on the 
shore east of Coraeesium, and identified by Sir Francis Beaufort with ruins of a some- 
what imposing appearance seen on the summit of a steep hill, whose rugged ascent from 
the sea-shore deterred the navigator from visiting it. Amaxia or Hamaxia comes next 
in order in Strabo to Syedra, but in Ptolemy it is Iotape. Sir Francis Beaufort found 
plenty of ruined sites in this neighbourhood, but no inscriptions to identify them. It 
would be well worth some modern traveller's time to give us better descriptions, with 
drawings, of this part of the coast, so replete with antiquarian interest, and which, 
abounds in relics of past times. — W. F. A. 

From this place a great deal of timber is now yearly exported to Egypt. 


Roman protectorate, were permitted to rule the country, paying tri- 
bute to the military governor of Syria. Subsequently we find that 
Augustus deposed Philopater, son of Tarchondemus, and placed his 
younger brother, who bore the same name as his father, in autho- 
rity (B.C. 4). 

Augustus, victorious over all his enemies, shut the gates of the 
temple of Janus; mankind enjoyed a respite from anarchy and strife; 
and the eventful period arrived to which so many prophecies referred ; 
— the long-looked-for and now anxiously expected Messiah was ushered 
into the world. Throughout the whole globe the sound of war ceased 
to be heard, and the emperor swayed the sceptre of that vast empire, 
to which so many nations were tributary, with moderation and justice. 

I must here notice Athenodorus (Sandon), preceptor of Augustus, na- 
tive of Tarsus, and one of the wisest philosophers and best men of the age, 
to whom virtue gave that dignity and weight which allowed of his taking 
liberties with his illustrious pupil. Athenodorus had often warned him, 
not only of the infamy, but also of the danger attendant on his dissolute 
life. Finding his expostulations useless, he resolved on carrying his 
reproofs home, and speaking directly to his senses. With this view 
he put himself into a litter and caused himself to be carried into the 
emperor's apartment, at the hour appointed for the reception of one of 
his fair visitors. Augustus lifted up the curtain, when, of a sudden, 
the philosopher sprang out with a drawn sword in his hand, which he 
pointed at his pupil's throat. The emperor fell back in consternation, 
when Athenodorus exclaimed, " Now, Csesar, are you not afraid that 
this stratagem, of which I make an innocent use, may be used by some 
other person to take away your life ?" The remedy was a bold one, but 
adapted to the evil, and had its effect, at the same time that it increased 
the esteem and confidence of the pupil in his master.* On retiring in his 
old age from the court, Athenodorus left Augustus, at his request, as the 
best legacy, the admirable advice, " When you find anger rising within 
you, repeat the twenty-four letters of the alphabet before you speak or 
act." There was another Athenodorus of Cilicia, an older man, of 
the Stoic school, and preceptor to M. Cato, son of Cato the censor. 

* Dion Cassius, Zonaras, and Zozimus attribute to Athenodorus (sumamed Cana- 
nites, from Cana in Cilicia, a site I am unacquainted with, the birthplace oi 
whose name was Sandon, but himself a native of Tarsus) these freedoms with Octa- 
vianus, as also the expulsion from Tarsus of Bocthus, a favourite of Antonius. The 
memory of Athenodorus was, according to Strabo and Lucian, honoured by an annua! 
festival and sacrifice. There was also an Athenodorus sumamed < lordylio, a Stoic phi> 
losopher, born at Tarsus, but who dwelt at Pergamus and Rome ; and an Athenodoru i 
of Soli, a disciple of Zenon. — AV. F. A. 


About this time also flourished Athenams, a peripatetic philosopher of 

Vonones, sou of, king of the Parthians, fled (a.d. 19) to 
Creticus Silanus, governor of Syria, driven out by an insmTection of his 
subjects, in hopes of the support of the Roman republic, which had 
been promised him when placed on the throne by Caius Csesar a short 
time before. Silanus at first favoured his claims, but afterwards thought 
proper to secure his person, and left him, under a strong guard, to enjoy 
the title of king and the parade of royalty. He was sent, by order of 
Germanicus, to Soli or Pompeiopolis, whence he attempted to escape into 
Scythia, with the hopes of obtaining assistance from the reigning king, his 
near relation. With this intent he went on a hunting party, and having 
watched his opportunity he betook himself to flight, and turning off 
from the sea-coast he struck into the woods,* and rode at full speed 
towards the river Pyramus. The inhabitants on the first alarm demo- 
lished the bridges. The river was not fordable; and Vonones, found 
wandering along the banks, was, by order of Vibius Fronto, the com- 
mander of the cavalry, loaded with fetters. He did not long survive; 
for Remnius, a veteran who had been entrusted with the custody of his 
person, in a sudden transport of pretended passion, drew his sword 
and ran the unhappy prince through the body. It would seem that 
this man had been bribed to favour the king's escape, and rather than 
be detected as an accomplice preferred to be an assassin. 

In the next year (a.d. 20), Cneius Piso, after having poisoned Ger- 
manicus by means of his agents, afraid to face his accusers at Rome, 
whither he had been summoned by Cneius Sentius, fled to Cilicia, and 
by circular letters demanded succour from the petty kings of the neigh- 
bouring provinces. "With a body of deserters and these auxiliaries he 
seized the castle of Celendris, a stronghold on the coast of Cilicia (now 

* Tacitus here speaks of trees in Cilicia. In the country traversed by Vonones 
there are now but a few trees here and there, which serve to screen from the noonday 
sun the labourers who collect the abundant harvest of the plain, which might, however, 
be cultivated to an infinitely greater extent. In this plain of Adana and Tarsus I have 
observed the remains of ancient roads, so constructed as to be much higher than the 
level of the land, which bear witness to the high degree of civilisation to which this 
country was brought. It is a stupendous work to raise roads in this way ; and they are 
very numerous, crossing each other in every direction. Although they have been 
allowed to go to ruin, they are still of the greatest importance, as without them 
there would be no possibility of crossing the plains in the spring, when the heavy 
rains that have fallen during the winter on the alluvial deposits, render the surface of 
the country so muddy that no animal can pass, and gazelles are often caught by the 
hand of man when surprised by sudden rains into a little island surrounded by a 
marshy swamp of a ploughed field. 


Kilindriyah),* where he was besieged by Sentius at the head of the 
Roman legions. An engagement followed, but the victory was not long 
in suspense, for after the Romans had forced the ascent of the hill, the 
Cilicians were routed and driven back to the fortifications ; the walls 
were then scaled after a vigorous resistance, and Piso desired to capi- 
tulate. He offered to lay down his arms on condition that he should 
remain in the castle till the Emperor Tiberius's pleasure should be 
finally declared. The proposition was rejected ; but Sentius allowed 
him a safe-conduct to Italy, where he met the reward due to his crimes. 

About this epoch (a.d. 30) flourished Antipater of Tarsus, who 
lived in the reign of Tiberius, and was preceptor to the philosopher 
Blossius, to whom he dedicated his philosophical lectures.f 

Tarsus had now become the rival of Athens and Alexandria ; numerous 
schools were established there, and numbers flocked from all quarters 
to profit by the lessons of the philosophers, and to study the liberal arts 
and sciences. But in the numbers of the learned who have, by the 
lustre of their reputation, reflected a glory over Tarsus as having been 
the place of their nativity, St. Paul is the most illustrious. Born of a 
good family of the sect of the Pharisees, he was early led to study elo- 
quence and rhetoric, and thus laid a foundation for the taste and elegance 
which distinguish his writings. Initiated into the arts of Grecian dis- 
putation, he was well able to perform the difficult task of refuting the 
sophistry of the numerous sects, and to aid in the extension of the true 
doctrines he was chosen to preach ; Avhile being enrolled a free citizen 
of Rome, he became thereby a fit instrument in the hands of Providence, 
from the respectability attached to that title. St. Paid chose Cilicia 
as the first scene of his labours, being anxious that his townsmen and 
kinsfolk should be the first to hear the glad tidings he had to announce ; 
and for several years we find him making this province of Asia Minor 
the field he loved most to toil in. 

* KoAc'^cpir of Strabo and Ptolemy. Apollodorus says (lib. iii. cap. xiv. num. 8) 
that Celenderia was built by Sandocus, son of Astynous. Pomponina Mela and Tacitus 
write Celendrie. Pliny speaks of the district of Celendritis with a tow-n. It is generally 
spoken of as a colony of Samians, with a harbour strongly fortified and well provided. 
Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort speaks of Chelindreh, or Kilindriyah, the modern Celen- 
deris, as a snug but very small port, from whence tho couriers from Constantinople to 
Cyprus embark. Among the ruins of a fortress is a hexagonal tower, that has been rent 
down the middle as if by an earthquake. There are also arched vaults, sepulchral 
houses, and sarcophagi, and near the sea-shore a cenotaph, with a single arch on each 
side, supporting a pyramidal roof of largo stones. — Vv. F. A. 

t Antipater of Tarsus was the disciple and successor of Diogenes, and the teacher of 
Pantetdus, b.c. l-ll nearly. Plutarch speaks of him, with Zeno, Cleanthes, and Chrysip- 
pus, asonc of the principal Stoic philosophers ; and Cicero mentions him as remarkable 
for acuteness (Ja Stoi . Repugnant. p.lii; Cicero dt Divin.i.3; deOff.m. 12).— W. F. A. 


About this time (a.d. 3G), the Cliteans, a bold tribe of moun- 
taineers in Cilicia, impatient of being taxed according to the system 
newly practised in the Roman provinces, retreated to the heights of 
Mount Taurus; and being possessed of inaccessible fastnesses, they were 
enabled to defend themselves against their sovereign and his unwarlike 
troops. To quell the insurgents, Vitellius, who was then governor of 
Syria, despatched Marcus Trebellius at the head of 4000 legionary 
soldiers, and a select detachment of auxiliaries. The barbarians had 
taken their post on two hills; the lesser was called Cadra, and the other 
Davara. Trebellius enclosed both with lines of circumvallation, and all 
who dared to sally out were put to the sword, and the rest were reduced 
by thirst and famine.* 

Sixteen years had scarcely elapsed, when, in a.d. 52, the same pre- 
datory hordes, accustomed to plunder and trained to civil commotions, 
assembled under Trosobor, a warlike chief, and pitched their camp 
on the summit of a mountain, steep, craggy, and almost inaccessible. 
From this fastness they rushed upon the plain, and stretching along 
the coast, attacked the neighbouring cities. They plundered the people 
and the merchants, and utterly ruined the navigation and commerce 
of the environs. They laid siege to the city of Anemurium, and dis- 
persed a body of horse, sent from Syria under Curtius Severus to the 
relief of the place. These freebooters were eveu bold enough to hazard 
a battle with the Romans; and the ground being rugged and disadvan- 
tageous to cavalry and convenient only to foot-soldiers, the Romans were 
totally routed. At length, Antiochus, the reigning king of the country, 
gained the good-will of the Cliteans, and proceeded by stratagem against 
their leader, the confederates having been excited to disunion among 
themselves. Trosobor, with his principal adherents, was put to death, 

* In reference to this little episode in the history of Cilicia, it is worth while notic- 
ing, for the benefit of future explorers, that the mountain strongholds of Cadra and 
Davara have not been made out, at least to my knowledge. Admiral Sir Francis Beau- 
fort says of the kvepoipiov axpa, or promontory of Anemurium of Strabo, that it was 
difficult, from the inflexions of the coast, to select a point for identification ; but he 
identifies the city of Anemurium with the ruins at Aski Anamur. There is, however — 
excepting Strabo's statement of the distance of the confines of Pamphylia to Anemurium 
820 stadia, and from Anemurium to Soli 500 stadia, and which Sir Francis himself 
thinks ought to be transposed — no authority for such a distance existing between the city 
and cape. Scylax speaks of Anemurium as a town and promontory ; Pomponius Mela 
(lib. i. cap. 13) and Livy (lib. xxxiii. cap. 20) as a promontory ; Ptolemy and Pliny 
as a city. There is therefore every reason to believe that Capo Anamur, the most 
southerly extremity of Asia Minor, is the same as the Anemurian promontory, the 
more especially as the city is close by, as the name is preserved, and as Sir Francis 
Beaufort could find no trace of a promontory at the point given by Strabo's figures.— 
W. F. A. 


and by conciliatory measures the rest were brought to a sense of their 
duty, and returned to their several homes. 

In the year a.d. 5G, Cossuatianus Papito was governor of the province 
of Cilicia. He was a man of abandoned character, who at Rome had 
set the laws at defiance, and who thought that he might commit the 
same excesses and extortions in the government of his province. The 
Cilicians sent deputies to complain of his conduct to the senate ; and the 
prosecution was carried on with such unremitting vigour, that Cossua- 
tianus was obliged to abandon his defence. Being convicted of exaction, 
he was condemned to make restitution. 

Polemon, king of Cilicia, a.d. GO, who had been previously confirmed 
on his father's throne by Claudius, was persuaded by Berenice, widow 
of Herod king of Chalcis* (and sister of the Agrippa before whom Pard 
had pleaded), to marry her, in the hope by the marriage to suppress 
the report of the criminality with which Paul had charged her brother 
Agrippa. Polemon was at the same time prevailed upon to adopt the 
Jewish religion; but Berenice abandoned him soon after, and he re- 
turned to his Pagan worship. 

Vespasian proceeding to carry on the Jewish war, a.d. 74, saw the 
inexpediency of permitting the existence in his rear of a number of 
petty princes, who, although tributary to Pome, ever excited revolts 
and commotions. lie therefore reduced them entirely to subjection-, 
and Cilicia, and several other kingdoms, were finally declared provinces 
of the Roman empire. In the fourth year of his reign, a.d. 78, Ceccnius 
Petus, president of Syria, bearing an enmity to Antiochus king of 
Comagena, a country north-east of Cilicia, wrote to Vespasian that 
Antiochus had leagued Avith the Parthians in rebellion against the 
Romans. Petus received from the emperor full powers to proceed 
against Antiochus ; he fell at once upon Comagena, before the king 
could have any notice of his intention. Antiochus did not choose to 
make any opposition, and in order to evince his unwillingness to with- 
stand the Romans, retired to a plain, and pitched his camp not far from 
the city of Samosata, his capital ;f but his sons Epiphanes and Callini- 
cus collected their forces, and made a firm stand against the Roman 
legions. They were, however, defeated, and obliged to disperse in dif- 
ferent directions; some taking refuge in Parthia, and some in Cilicia. 
Antiochus, with his wife and daughters, repaired to Tarsus, where Petus 
seized his person, and forwarded him as a prisoner of war to Rome. 

* See Josephus. 

+ Now Sorne'i'sat, on the Euphrates. (Journal of Royal Geographical Society, vol. 
. p. 422; and vol. s. p. 321 and 333.) 


When Vespasian was informed of the arrival of Antiochus as a 
prisoner in chains, he remembered the friendship that had formerly- 
existed between them. He ordered the fetters of Antiochus to be struck 
off, and appointed Lacedasmon for his residence. In the meantime, 
Epiphanes his son having reached Rome, he also made interest for his 
father; and during Vespasian's reign they remained at Rome, and were 
in favour with the emperor. 

From the reign of Vespasian to that of Trajan, a.d. 117, nothing of 
any note occurred in Cilicia. This last-mentioned emperor, it is well 
known, marched a large army to the shores of the Persian Gulf, re- 
gretting " that he had not the yonth and strength of Alexander, that he 
might add unexplored kingdoms to the Roman empire." On his return, 
he was taken ill in Cilicia, at Selinus (afterwards called Trajanopolis), 
where he died; but his ashes were conveyed to Rome, and deposited 
under the famous column which still exists, to perpetuate his name and 
celebrate his exploits.* 

Hadrian, his successor, passed through Cilicia a.d. 129, with a large 
army, on his way to Syria and Egypt; but no monument remains in 
this province to record his magnificence, or even the fact of his having 
passed through it.f 

After Severus had made himself master of the Roman empire by 
the death of Didius Julianus, a.d. 194, he marched his veteran legions 

* Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort describes many remnants of antiquity as still 
existing at Selinty, or Salinti, the ancient Selinus, afterwards Trajanopolis. Among 
the most remarkable of these is a low massive edifice of seventy feet by fifty, com- 
posed of large well-cut blocks of stone, and containing a single vault. A flight of 
narrow steps, parallel to the wall, leads to the fiat top, on which nothing now remains, 
though there is every reason to suppose that this building was formerly the basement- 
story of some splendid superstructure ; but the columns, which either surmounted or 
suiTounded it, have all disappeared, except a few fragments of some large fluted 
pilasters of fine workmanship. This edifice stands in the centre of a quadrangle, 
along each side of which there was a single row of thirty small columns ; but they 
have been all broken off close to the ground and carried away: the quadrangle is 
about 240 feet in diameter. A similar sepulchral building, but of later date, has 
been joined to this greater mausoleum. "I cannot find," says Sir Francis Beaufort, 
" what honoiirs were paid to his (the Emperor Trajan's) memory by the Cilicians ; but 
it seems highly probable that a mausoleum should have been erected in the city where 
the decease of so accomplished and so popidar an emperor took place ; and if so, it is 
equally probable that this building was designed for that purpose." — W. F. A. 

f The reign of Hadrian was more particularly distinguished by labours of pacifica- 
tion. With the exception of the revolt of the Jews under Barchochab (132-135), the 
East enjoyed profound peace during the reign of this wise prince. Towards the end 
of his reign the emperor visited almost all the Boman provinces with the view to the 
establishment of order. Cilicia profited by these judicious travels. Coins are extant 
which commemorate Tarsus as aapianhc tapcoy MHTPonoAEQC. 

Mopsuestia was especially favoured and embellished by the emperor, and even 



to oppose Pescennius Niger, who had put himself at the head of the 
Eastern army, and had usurped the name and ensigns of Augustus. 
After some skirmishing on both sides in Lesser Asia, a decisive battle 
was fought on the plains of Issus, the same plains which more than five 
centimes previously had been covered with the blood of the Persian 
soldiers of Darius, and which had also been the scene of Alexander's 
victory. Pescennius Niger was totally routed, with the loss of 20,000 
men and of his own life. His head was sent to Pome as a trophy; and 
the troops of Europe again asserted their usual ascendency over the 
effeminate natives of Asia. 

assumed his name. The citizens are called on coins of Antoninus Pius AAPINAQN 
MoS'ETfiN, Hadrianorum Mopseatarum. Grater also records an inscription found 
at Missis, which he translates, " EvergetiB ac servalori Iladriainc Moptitestiee L'i- 
licias sacra, libera ctasyll, suis kgihv.s vivcatis, et fcederalce ac socice R&manorum. — 
W. F. A. 







During a long period, while the Roman Empire was subject to the rule 
of many iniquitous emperors, and while the capital was the scene of 
murder and dissension, Cilicia enjoyed comparative tranquillity. "We 
may except the persecution which the Christians underwent in all parts 
of the empire, and which was particularly severe in the East, where the 
Jews have ever laboured under a public prejudice to their disfavour. 
The legend of the Seven Sleepers, who are said by Christian tradition to 
have fallen asleep in the reign of the Emperor Decius during the seventh 
persecution of the followers of Christ, and to have slept for 187 years in 
a cave near Ephesus, has been adopted and embellished by Mohammed.* 
The Arabian prophet casts a veil of mystery over this tale ;f but some 

* Mohammed or Mahomet. The first orthography is adopted, as being that which 
is now most generally accepted, after the manner in which the name of the Arabian 
prophet is generally pronounced. The correct orthography is, however, Muhammad. 
— W. F. A. 

•f Mohammed has invented and added to this fable the dog (Al Rakim) of the Seven 
Sleepers ; the respect shewn by the sun, which, in order not to shine into the cave, daily 
altered its course, and the care God himself took of the sleepers to preserve their bodies 
from putrefaction by making them turn to the right and left. He says in the Koran : 

"And thou mightest have seen the sun, when it had risen, decline from their cave 
towards the right hand ; and when it went down, leave them on the left hand. And 
they were in the spacious part of the cave. This was one of the signs of God. Whom- 
soever God shall direct, he shall be rightly directed ; and whomsoever He shall cause 
to err, thou shalt not find any to defend or to direct. And thou wouldst have judged 
them to have been awake while they were sleeping ; and He caused them to turn them- 
selves to the right hand and to the left. And their dog stretched forth his fore-legs in 
the mouth of the cave. If thou hadst come suddenly upon them, verily thou wouldst 
have turned thy back and fled from them, and thou wouldst have been filled with fear 
at the sight of them. And so He awakened them out of their sleep, that they might 
ask questions of one another. One of them spake and said, How long have ye tarried 


of his commentators have imagined that the site where this miraculous 
event occurred was not Ephesus, but a cave about ten miles north-west 
of Tarsus. Every Muhammadan who arrives at this place conceives 
himself bound to visit the spot, and thinks a pilgrimage thither obliga- 
tory from the countenance given to this fable by the prophet. Num- 
bers flock there in parties of ten and more, on which occasions a sheep 
is killed and roasted, part of which is eaten, and the rest given to the 

The kingdom of Parthia had been overturned by Artaxerxes Babe- 
gan, first of the Persian dynasty of the Sassanida?, in a.d. 22G; and the 
Persian carried his arms to the frontiers of Syria, declaring war on 
the grounds that Cyrus had conquered, and that his successors had for 
a long time possessed, the whole of Asia as far as the Propontis and 
the ./Egean Sea, and that all Egypt had also acknowledged the Persian 
sovereignty. Artaxerxes, at his death, bequeathed his new empire and 
his ambitious designs to his son Sapor, who took the town of Antioch 
[a.d. 259], then capital of Syria, and marched into Cilicia, ravaging the 
whole country, and treating his prisoners with wanton and unrelenting 
cruelty. He devastated the city of Tarsus and many other towns of 
Cilicia, and proceeded to lay siege to Csesarea (Kaisariyah), capital of 
Cappadocia, after having crossed the Taurus at the Pylaj Cilicia?. At 
this point no opposition was made to his progress by the Roman garrison, 
although he might have been held in check by a handful of men. Sapor 

hero 3 They answered, We have tarried a day, or part of a day. The other said, 
Your Lord best knoweth the time ye have tarried." 

After further reference to the other parts of the legend, he again leaves the prin- 
cipal fact in uncertainty, concluding : 

" Some say the sleepers were three, and their dog was the fourth ; and others say 
they were five, and their dog was the sixth, guessing at a secret matter ; and others 
say they were seven, and their dog was the eighth. Say my Lord best knoweth their 
number ; none shall know them except a few. Wherefore dispute not concerning them 
unless with a clear disputation, according to what has been revealed unto thee ; and 
ask not any of the Christians concerning them. Say not of any matter, I will surely do 
this to-morrow, unless thou add, If God please (Inshallah)." 

* The story of the Seven Sleepers is attached traditionally to many other placos in 
the East, besides Ephesus and the cave near Tarsus, (See D'Herbelot in Ashab-i- 
Kahaf, and Assemanni, i. 336.) Shah- Abad or JundiShapur, in Khusistan, is, accord- 
ing to the Taskarati-Shusteriyah, behoved to represent the city of the Seven Sleepers. 
Colonel Rawlinson says that wherever the tradition prevails in the East, it may bo re- 
ceived as an evidence of antiquity. The tradition probably existed anterior to Chris- 
tianity or to Muhammadanism. Mohammed's clog is a kind of antithesis to Ovid's 
cavernous abode of sleep, near which no cock or dog, or any animal accustomed torouso 
men from their slumbers, was permitted to approach. ( Met. xi. 592. See also Gibbon, 
525 ; and Gregory do Tours, De gloriA Martyrum in Max. JJibliolhccd Fatrum, torn. 
xi. p. 856.)— W. F. A. 


seems, however, to have despaired of making any permanent establish- 
ment in the country, and sought only to leave behind him a wasted 
desert, whilst he transported into Persia the people and the treasures 
of the provinces. 

Odenathus, prince of Palmyra, attacked Sapor, pursued him into 
the very heart of his kingdom, and delivered all the provinces of Asia 
Minor from his tyranny, leaving to his wife Zenobia the splendid but 
doubtful title of " Queen of the East." But the power of Zenobia was 
not of long duration. Aurelian marched a large army into Asia a.d. 
273, reducing the provinces, and annexing them again to the Roman 
empire. He took Zenobia prisoner on the banks of the Euphrates, 
about sixty miles from Palmyra;* and thus terminated the glorious 
but short career of this Eastern power. Aurelian, preparing for his 
Persian expedition, had induced the Alani, a Scythian people who 
pitched their tents in the neighbourhood of the sea of Azof, to assist 
him as auxiliaries with a large body of light cavalry. These barbarians 
arriving on the Roman frontier at the moment of the death of the em- 
peror, and finding the war suspended, overran the provinces of Pontus, 
Cappadocia, Cilicia, and Galatia (a.d. 275). Tacitus, the successor of 
Aurelian, and grandson of the historian, marched to oppose them with 
the veteran legions. Great numbers of the Alani, appeased by the 
punctual discharge of the engagements entered into by Aurelian and 
confirmed by his successor, relinquished their booty and captives, and 
quietly retreated to their own deserts beyond the Phasis. Against the 
remainder, who refused to listen to his remonstrances, the Roman em- 
peror waged in person a successful war, and delivered the provinces of 
Asia from the terror of the Scythian invasion. 

The fatigues of a campaign at his advanced age were fatal to the 
health of Tacitus, and he expired soon after at Tyana in Cappadocia, 
a.d. 27C. His brother Florianus instantly usurped the purple, without 
■waiting for the approbation of the senate. Probus, the general who 
commanded in Syria, declared himself the avenger of the offended senate; 
and fortune was propitious to him, in spite of his having to contend 
against the European legions assembled at Tarsus, with the effeminate 
troops of Egypt and Syria. The hardy veterans of the north sickened 
and died in the sultry heats of Cilicia. Their numbers were also dimi- 

* I have elsewhere explained the events of the decisive battle of Imma, as occurring 
on the marshy plain of the lake of Antioch, now called Al Umk ; and there is every 
reason to believe that Aurelian' s light horse overtook the unfortunate Queen of Palmyra, 
after the battle of Emesa, at her own favourite summer residence, the marble city at 
the pass of the Euphrates, the ruins of which still exist, and are called to the present 
day Zilibah, or Zenobia. — W. F. A. 


nished by desertion, through the undefended passes of the Taurus. 
Tarsus opened its gates to receive Probus ; while Florianus fell a sacri- 
fice to the rage and contempt of a soldiery disgusted with him, and 
unwilling to protract the civil war. 

During the reign of the prudent but artful Dioclesian, Cilicia enjoyed 
a respite of twenty -one years from war and bloodshed, although during 
that time two armies passed through the province on their way to carry 
on the Persian war. On the resignation of this emperor, Maximin, 
the nephew of G-alerius, Avho had been created general of the Eastern 
army, and emperor in conjunction with Severus Constantine and Lici- 
nius, committed the greatest excesses in persecuting the Christians; 
and unhappy Cilicia became again the scene of pillage and confusion. 
Maxitnin, ambitious of supreme authority, collected all his forces and 
marched to attack Licinius his colleague, who met him with 30,000 
men under the walls of Heraclea Perinthus, soon after he had crossed 
the Hellespont and possessed himself of Byzantium, a.d. 313. The 
result of the engagement was a decisive victory in favour of Licinius. 
Maximin fled so precipitately, that he reached in twenty-four hours 
Nicomedia in Asia Minor, one hundred and sixty miles distant from the 
scene of his defeat. His victorious enemy pursue 1 him, and he retreated 
again beyond the Taurus to Tarsus, where he died in the greatest agonies 
of a dreadful disease, Avhich ecclesiastical writers describe as a visitation 
of Heaven for his barbarities in the persecution of the Christians, and the 
horrid blasphemies which he had uttered. 

By the death of Maximin, a.d. 331, Christianity was relieved from 
her last enemy. Constantine the Great, after his accession, ordered all 
the heathen temples to be destroyed ; and by founding the new kingdom 
at Byzantium, he brought the seat of empire nearer to Cilicia The rich 
plains of Cappadocia, and the plains as far as the banks of the Sarus, 
near Adana, were remarkable for a fine breed of horses,* which tempted 
the monarch to appropriate these choice pastures to his own use. With 
this view he founded private estates independent of the public revenue, 
regularly administered by a count or treasurer, and officers of inferior 
rank. These were stationed in all parts of the province, and had spe- 
cial bands of soldiers under them for this particular service, and were 
not subordinate to the authority of the provincial magistrate. 

Constantius, the son of Constantino, was at Antioch a.d. 360, when 

* The Aushar horse is to this clay much prized by the Osmanli. He has not the 
superior excellence of the Arab in resisting fatigue, but he is a much more showy ani • 
mal. He is almost as broad as he is long, and larger than the Arab horse, and his 
walk is unequalled by any breed in the world. 


Lis nephew Julian was declared Emperor of the West, and lie marched 
against him at the head of his Eastern army. A slight fever which he 
caught in Cilicia on his way to oppose Julian, and which was increased 
by the fatigues of the journey and the agitation of his spirits, obliged 
him to halt at the little town of Mopsucrene,* " twelve miles" from Tarsus, 
where he expired after a short illness, in the forty-fifth year of his age 
and the twenty-fourth of his reign. 

It is not very generally known that Cilicia is the native country of 
the renowned St. George, the patron saint of England, who was born at 
Epiphanea,^ a small town near the Amanian gates, in a fuller's shop. 
From this obscure origin he raised himself to the archbishopric of Alex- 
andria, where, in the year a.d. 361, he was massacred by the fury of the 
populace. Although his remains were thrown into the sea in order that 
his party might not have an opportunity of revering them as the relics 
of a martyr, the manner of his death helped to obliterate the atrocities 
of his fife, and he was canonised about a century afterwards, a.d. 494. 

In the next reign, that of Julian, a.d. 363, Cilicia saw the return of 
another army on its way to attack the Persians. The apostate emperor 

* Mopsucrene or Mopsi fons, the fountain of Mopsus, appears to have been in Tau- 
rus, near Tarsus. — W. F. A. 

•f- There is considerable difficulty in determining the position of Epiphanea. The 
numbers given in Ptolemy would approximate to the site of Nicopolis ; while the tables 
of Agathodromon — the designer of the maps winch accompany Ptolemy — place the 
two at some distance from one another. Yet nothing can be more certain than that it 
was not situate far from Issus ; for Cicero expressly relates (lib. xv. epist. 4), that to 
deceive the hostile mountaineers of Amanus, he pretended to depart from the moun- 
tain and to go to other parts of Cilicia, and that he repaired in one day's march to 
the castle that is near Epiphanea. On returning from that part of Amanus which 
Cicero reached in one day from Epiphanea, as he afterwards relates, he repaired to a 
castle at the roots of Amanus, near the altars of Alexander. Quintus Curtius says 
these altars were on the banks of the Pinarus ; but we sought for traces of them there 
in vain, and have been consequently inclined to identify them with the Bomitse, or 
altars, of Pliny, Sakal Tutan of the Turks, and near which there is still a castle called 
Markaz Kalahsi ; and this identification would be strengthened by Cicero's expression, 
" at the roots of Amanus." 

Epiphanea might then be near Issus ; and there are, besides the nuns on the Pinarus, 
other and more extensive ruins near Urzin, at the head of the Gulf of Issus. 

Besides the walls of the city, which are still standing in part, and the ruins of 
numerous dwelling-houses, there are also ruins of a temple and of an acropolis situated 
on a mound in a central and commanding situation. Outside of the town there are 
also ruins of an aqueduct with a double row of arches, running E.S.E. and W.S.W. 
All these buildings being constructed of basalt, and the ruins and environs being 
totally uninhabited, give to the place a very sombre and gloomy aspect. They are 
situated on a plain at the foot of some low basaltic hills, only a few miles from the 
N.E. extremity of the Gulf of Alexandretta. Epiphanea is recorded as an episcopacy 
in the Ecclesiastical Notices of the Lower Empire. 

Stephanus and Arrian, it may be observed, identify Nicopolis with Issus. — W. F. A. 


was obliged to winter the troops at Antiocli preparatory to his expedi- 
tion ; but he was so vexed and annoyed at the conduct of the Christian 
party there, who lampooned him, that he declared he would pass the 
next winter in Tarsus : but it was decreed otherwise, for he died a few 
months after of a wound he received from a javelin whilst animating 
his troops to battle on the other side of the Tigris. His body was em- 
balmed and brought back by the army to Tarsus, where he was buried. 
A stately tomb Avas erected over his remains on the banks of the " cold 
Cydnus," in the city he had a few months before appointed to be his 
residence, and Avhich was now destined to contain only his ashes, — 
another instance of the vanity of human projects. 

Julian was succeeded by Jovian, a.d. 884. The latter was suc- 
ceeded by Valens, during whose reign the king of Persia made many 
inroads into the Roman provinces, and particularly turned his victorious 
arms against Armenia — a country under the protection of the empire. 
Para, the king, fled to the Roman camp ; but the general Trajan, acting 
under the direction of the Emperor Valens, meditated his destruction, 
and, under the semblance of friendship and the specious pretence of 
consulting with the emperor, enticed him into his power. The king of 
Armenia was received with due honours by the governors of the pro- 
vinces through which he passed ; but when he arrived at Tarsus, his 
progress was arrested, his motions watched, and he gradually found 
; himself a prisoner in the hands of the Romans. lie, however, managed 
to effect his escape with three hundred faithful followers, and succeeded 
in crossing the Euphrates and eluding the vigilance of the troops sent 
in pursuit. He thus reached his native country, but was soon after in- 
duced to come to a bancmet prepared by the Roman general, where he 
was inhumanly murdered, in defiance of the sacred rites of hospitality. 

During the succeeding reigns of Theodosius Arcadius and Theodosius 
the younger, bands of adventurous Huns, who had overrun the north 
of Europe and Asia, ravaged the provinces of the East, from whence 
they brought away rich spoils and innumerable captives. They ad- 
vanced along the shores of the Caspian Sea, traversed the snowy moun- 
tains of Armenia, passed the Tigris, the Euphrates, and the Halys, 
recruited their cavalry with the fine breed of horses, and occupied the 
hilly country of Cilicia. Here they came in contact and clashed with 
the Isaurians, a savage horde who had possessed for several centuries 
the fastnesses of Mount Taurus, and who from time to time made 
predatory inroads on the sea-coast. 

These bold mountaineers had maintained for 230 years a life of 
plunder and independence, and seriously disturbed at several epochs the 


tranquillity of Asia Minor, although sometimes soothed with gifts, and 
sometimes restrained by terror. When their countryman Zeno as- 
cended the throne at Constantinople (succeeding Theodosius Marci- 
anus, Leo I. and Leo II.), he invited a large and formidable band of 
Isaurians to surround him as a body-guard, and rewarded them by an 
annual payment of five thousand pounds of gold. After the death of 
Zeno, his successor Anastasius abolished their pension and banished 
them from the empire. In revenge for this treatment, they placed a 
brother of the late emperor at their head and marched towards the 
capital, it is said to the number of 150,000 men (including auxiliaries), 
whose standard was for the first time sanctified by the presence of a 
fighting Christian bishop. The valour and discipline of the Goths, Avho 
were sent against these Isaurian rebels, sufficed to drive them back to 
their fortresses, which were after six years' warfare successively be- 
sieged. All their bravest leaders were killed, numbers of those made 
prisoners were transported to Thrace, and the remnant submitted to 
Anastasius. Some generations, however, passed before they were com- 
pletely reduced to the same level of slavery as the rest of the subjects 
of the empire, for we find from time to time that the Counts of Isauria, 
the Praetors of Lycaonia and Pisidia, were invested with full military 
power to restrain their licentious practices of rapine and assassination.* 
No event of any moment occurred during the nine years' reign of 
Justin I. (a.d. 537) ; but his successor Justinian, in a long reign of thirty- 
eight years, saw his supremacy established in every part of the Roman 
empire in the East, by his victorious general Belisarius, and gained 
battles as brilliant as those which had rendered the ancient Romans so 
distinguished in the time of their republic. On preparing for the African 
campaign, the mountains of Cilicia contributed their quota of infantry, 
and the sea-ports furnished their complement of transports and sailors, 
to make up the number of five hundred vessels and twenty thousand 
mariners with which Belisarius set out from Constantinople (a.d. 541). 
Four years afterwards Justinian undertook the defence of the East, 
which had been invaded by Nushrnvan, king of Persia. Nushirwan 
had destroyed Antioch, and carried away the inhabitants captives to 
colonise the new city he had founded at Ctesiphon ; but Belisarius 

* The general system of policy, rendered necessary by the weakness of the suc- 
ceeding governments, and which we shall see particularly exemplified as we proceed in 
our modern history of these countries. — W. B. B. 

Mr. William J. Hamilton was the first to bring to light in modern times the 
city of Isaura, the stronghold of the Isaurians ; and he has given a peculiarly interest- 
ing description of the existing ruins in his Researches in Asia Minor, Pontus, eke. 
vol. ii. p. 331.— W. F. A. 


compelled liim to retreat with precipitation, and in a subsequent cam- 
paign (a.d. 543) repossessed himself of all the cities taken by the Per- 
sian king in Cilicia. He, at the same time, so strengthened the de- 
fences of the country, that no further inroads were made .on that part 
of the kingdom for many years. 

After the death of Justinian (a.d. 590), and during the reigns of 
his successors Justin II. , Tiberius II., and Maurice, the Persian wars 
continued without any decided advantage on either side, the Persians 
never having been able to retain any conquest beyond the Euphrates. 
But in the lifetime of the latter prince, Chosroes, the grandson of 
Nushirwan, on the revolt of his subjects and the deposition and death 
of his father Hormuz, fled to the Roman emperor for support. He 
was ultimately reinstated on the throne of his ancestors, after two bat- 
tles against the usurper had been fought, in which the Roman troops 
were the victors. Chosroes was grateful for this signal sendee; and 
until the death of Maurice peace between the two empires was faith- 
fully maintained. 

But the disorders introduced by the tyrant Phocas, who succeeded 
Maurice (a.d. G11-G1G), afforded a pretext to Chosroes to invade Syria 
and Asia Minor. The pretence was to revenge the death of his friend 
and benefactor ; and the first intelligence from the East which Ileraclius, 
the successor of Phocas, received, was the taking of Antioch. In five 
years the armies of Chosroes had overrun all Asia Minor, Syria, Pales- 
tine, Egypt, and Lybia as far as Tripoli, and the Bosphorus; and a 
Persian camp maintained its position for some time in sight of Con- 

The emperor Heraclius (a.d. G22), roused at length by such extraor- 
dinary successes, prepared to attack the Persians. He embarked his 
forces on board a fleet of transports, and landed near the Syrian gates 
(Markaz Kalahsi) in the Gulf of Alcxandrctta, within the confines of 
Cilicia. The natural fortifications of that country protected and con- 
cealed the camp of Heraclius, which was pitched near Issus, on the same 
ground where Alexander had defeated Darius. Cilicia was soon encom- 
passed by the Persian army, who were astonished to find the enemy had 
taken up a position in their rear. Their cavalry hesitated for some 
time to enter the defiles of Mount Taurus; but by superior manceuver- 
ing, Heraclius drew them into general action on the plain; and having 
defeated and routed them, the emperor was enabled to cross the moun- 
tains, and winter his army in the province of Cappadocia on the banks 
of the river Halys. 

In the next year (a.d. G23) Heraclius sailed by the Black Sea to Tre- 


bizond, passed the mountains of Armenia, and penetrated into Persia 
as far as Tabriz, which, with several other cities, he took and sacked, 
destroying all the temples and images, and retaliating on the Persians 
the horrors committed on the Christians at the destruction of Jerusalem 
nine years previously by Chosroes. 

Heraclius next penetrated into the heart of Persia (a.d. 624), and by 
a well-concerted succession of marches, retreats, and successful actions, 
drove the enemy from the field into the fortified cities of Media and 
Assyria. In the spring of the next year, after crossing the Tigris and 
Euphrates, he returned laden with spoils to the banks of the Sarus, in 
Cilicia, to maintain that important position. He found the banks of the 
river lined with barbarian archers ; and after a bloody conflict, which 
continued till the evening, on the bridge of Adana, he dislodged and dis- 
persed the enemy, a Persian of gigantic size being slain and thrown 
into the river by the emperor himself. 

In his fourth campaign (a.d. G27-628) Heraclius marched into Persia, 
obtained a complete victory on the plains of Nineveh over Chosroes 
(who fell and was put to death by his son Siroes), recovered three hun- 
dred Eoman standards, delivered numerous captive Christians, and re- 
turned to Constantinople in triumph, after concluding an advantageous 
peace Avith the Persians. But these signal successes were not attended 
with any lasting benefit to the empire, for a very few years afterwards 
the followers of Mohammed possessed themselves of the same provinces 
which Heraclius had recovered with so much labour and bloodshed 
from the Persians ; and even the kingdom of Persia itself, in less than 
thirty years from this date, was brought under the yoke, civil and re- 
ligious, of the Arabian kkalifs. 










The Saracens, who (a.d. 639) had just sprung up in a corner of Arabia, 
impelled by religious fanaticism, were carrying, under Khaled their chief, 
surnamed the Sword of God, all before them in Persia, Syria, and 
Palestine. Pursuing their progress to the north, they reduced Cilicia, 
with its capital Tarsus, to obedience. Passing on, they crossed Mount 
Taurus, and spread the flames of war as far as the environs of Trebi- 
zond. These conquests were soon followed by the siege of Constan- 
tinople (a.d. 677), by Sufiyan, general of the khalif Muawiyah, when 
80,000 Moslems perished, and the Arabs were obliged to retreat and 
conclude a peace of thirty years with the Emperor Constantine IV. 
They also agreed to pay a tribute of three thousand pieces of gold, 
fifty horses, and fifty slaves ; and the feeble hand of the declining em- 
pire was once more extended over unfortunate Cilicia. 

A second attempt was made by the Saracens (a.d. 717), when they, 
to the number of 120,000, marched again through the provinces of Asia 
Minor, under Muslimah. Crossing the Hellespont at Abydos, they laid 
siege to Constantinople on the European side; but after some months of 
fruitless warfare, their fleet was burnt by the renowned Greek fire, and 
they were glad to retreat through Asia Minor, dreadfully dispirited and 
diminished in numbers. Five galleys only of their fleet of 1800 ships 
returning to Alexandria. 

In the reign of Irene the Great (a.d. 781), Harun al Eashid invaded 
the Greek provinces at the head of 95,000 men, and the Christians sub- 
scribed to an ignominious treaty and an annual tribute of 70,000 dinars 
of gold, which bought the khalif's clemency. The payment of this 
tribute was delayed after he returned; but at eight different times the 


Greeks were taught to feel that a month of devastation was more costly 
than a year of submission. 

On the accession of Nicephorus (a.d. 800), open war was declared, 
and Harun al Eashid crossed the Amanus and Taurus in the depth of 
winter, ravaged Cilicia and Asia Minor, and sacked Heraclea, on the 
Black Sea. The famous statue of Hercules, with the attributes of the 
club, the bow, and the quiver, and the lion's hide of massive gold, was 
demolished by him. Nicephorus was compelled to recognise the right 
of lordship which Harun assumed ; and the coin of the tribute, in servile 
obedience to the conqueror, was stamped with the image and super- 
scription of the khalif and his three sons. 

Al Mamun, the son of Harun al Eashid, undertook (a.d. 829) an ex- 
pedition into Asia Minor, when he advanced as far as Tarsus, .and took 
fifteen towns of Cilicia. On his way back he encamped on the banks of 
a little stream in Cilicia, which the Arabs call Bazizun, not far from 
Tarsus. Here he stayed to enjoy the shade of the trees and coolness of 
the stream, and expressed a wish to have some dates from Azad, which 
he said were alone wanting to make his felicity perfect. By an extra- 
ordinary coincidence, a caravan of mules happened to be just passing, 
and two baskets of dates, fresh from Bagdad, were set before him. Of 
these he eat so heartily, drinking at the same time so copiously of the 
cold waters in the adjacent rivulet, that he was seized with fever, of 
which he died. His body was transported to Tarsus, and there interred, 
but no trace now exists of his tomb. 

Al Mamun* was a great encourager of science and literature. 
During his reign mathematics, astronomy, and chemistry were intro- 
duced among the Arabs ; and the first library was established at Bagdad, 
to which all nations and sects were invited to contribute copies of their 

The Emperor Theophilus, the son of Michael the Stammerer, marched 
in person (a.d. 838) five times through Asia Minor in his wars with the 

* An extraordinary tale is told by an Arabian writer of the birth, of Al Mamim. 
His father, Harun al Rashid, having won at chess from the celebrated and admired 
Sit Zibaidah (Zobaide of the Arabian Niglds), his wife and cousin, the privilege of dic- 
tating to her any caprice which struck his fancy, compelled her to walk barefoot across 
the centre of the bath, over the hot stones, measuring the whole distance by putting 
one foot in succession before the other. This she was obliged to do ; but she resolved 
to take signal vengeance for this unfeeling frolic on the first opportunity which pre- 
sented itself after her recovery. She challenged him to renew the game for the same 
stakes ; and being this time the victor, she chose the ugliest female black slave in the 
harun, and obliged him to take her to wife. Al Mamun was the fruit of this union, 
born about the same time as Aram the son of Sit Zibaidah, and he grew up as clever. 
as his brother was stupid. 


Saracens; and in his last campaign lie destroyed the small town of 
Zabatra in Syria, in spite of the solicitations and remonstrances of the 
Khalif Mutassim,* third son of Harun al Eashid, whose casual birthplace 
it happened to be. 

Mutassim levied a large army to resent the affront. The troops of 
Persia, Syria, and Egypt were collected together in the plains of Cilicia 
at Tarsus, and moved on over Mount Taurus to Amorium in Phrygia, 
the birthplace of the father of Theophilus. The emperor hastened the 
defence of what appears to have been at that time a most flourishing 
city, but to no purpose ; for although 70,000 Moslems had perished in 
this war, Mutassim persisted in the siege, and totally ruined the town, 
slaughtering 30,000 Christians, and carrying off an equal number of 
captives to Tarsus, Syria, rnd Persia. These were treated with great 
cruelty ; for although an exchange or ransom of prisoners was sometimes 
allowed^ in the national and religious conflicts of these two parties, 
quarter was seldom given in the field, and those who escaped the edge 
of the sword were condemned to hopeless servitude or the most cruel 

The Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus relates with visible satis- 
faction the execution of the Saracens of Candia, who were flayed alive 
or plunged into caldrons of burning oil. Gibbon, in speaking of the 
taking of Amorium, makes the following observation: " To a point of 
honour Mutassim had sacrificed a flourishing city, two hundred thousand 
lives, and the property of millions. The same khalif descended from his 
horse and dirtied his robe to relieve the distress of a decrepit old man, 
who with his laden ass had tumbled into a ditch. On which of these 
two actions did he reflect with most pleasure when he was summoned by 
the angel of death?" 

* Mutassim was the first khalif, according to an Arabian writer (Ibn Shuhny or 
Shuh-na), who added the name of the Almighty to his own — a practice continued by 
his successors, as if maintaining their right by divine authority. Thus we have epithets 
oiBilloli, JSunur-illnh, Lidin-allah ; as we should say, By the grace qfGfod, kc. kc, 
Prophet of the Faith, &c. 

*T Thcro is reason to believe that Zabatra corresponds with the place now called 
Rum-Kalah, or "Castle of the Romans," on the Euphrates ; but there is great difficulty 
in determining this point satisfactorily, as the site is only mentioned by the mediaeval 
writers. — "YV. F. A. 

% Abu-1-faraj relates one of these singular and characteristic exchanges as having 
taken place on the bridge of the Lamas (now Il-Lamas), in Cilicia, the boundary of the 
two empires, and one day's journey westward of Tarsus, where, 4460 Moslems, SCO women 
and children, with 100 allies, were exchanged for an equal number of Greeks. They 
passed each other in the middle of the bridge ; and when they reached their respective 
friends, they shouted "Allah Alcbarl" and "Kyrie Eleison!" No doubt many o) 
these were prisoners of Amorium ; but the most illustrious of them {the forty martyrs 
had been the same year beheaded by order of the khalif. 


Arabian writers also mention a victory gained by Mutassim over the 
Greeks at Mopsuestia, called by them Mamuriyah, and state that 30,000 
of the enemy were left on the field of battle. This engagement must have 
preceded the taking of Amorium, for from this date Cilicia came under 
the dominion of the khalifs ; and Tarsus became a capital city of great 
importance, from its vicinity to the frontiers of the Muhammadan domi- 

During the whole of the next century the khalifs of Bagdad, the suc- 
cessors of Mutassim, retained possession of Cilicia; and the hostilities car- 
ried on between this Arabian dynasty and the Greeks were confined to some 
trifling inroads by sea and land, the fruits of their close vicinity and inde- 
lible hatred. But towards the middle of the tenth century the intestine 
broils and revolutions which convulsed the throne of the Abbassides, and 
reduced the khalifs to the position of royal prisoners, encouraged the 
Greek emperors Nicephorus Phocas and John Zimisces to make a last 
effort(A.D. 963) to obtain possession of the fine provinces which their prede- 
cessors had lost. The twelve years of their military command form the most 
splendid period of the Byzantine annals. An immense army laid siege 
to Adana (erroneously called Mopsuestia by Gibbon*), which double 
city, divided into two by the Sarus, was surrounded and taken by assault, 
and two hundred thousand Moslems were led to death and slavery."] - 

* See Colonel Leake's learned work on the Ancient and Modern Geography of Asia 
Minor. 1824. 

It would appear, however, that Gibbon was in the right as far as regards the 
city in question being Mopsuestia. The mistake of saying that Mopsuestia was cut in 
two by the river Sarus originated with Zonaras and Cedrenus : it should be by the 
Pyramus. Adana does not appear to have been ever divided into two towns by the 
river Sarus, but Mopsuestia always was by the Pyramus ; hence Colonel Leake ap- 
pears to increase the confusion by changing the town to meet the error in the name 
of the river. Mopsuestia was also an important city in the middle ages ; Adana did 
not rise into notice till after the time of the Khalifs : nor is it likely that two such 
excessive populations as those of Adana and Tarsus could have existed so close to one 

It may be remarked also, that Abu-1-fada describes this butcheiy of Moslems — so 
much exaggerated_as far as numbers are concerned — to have taken place at Mopsu- 
estia, not Adana. 

Sir Francis Beaufort, in his Ka.ram.ania, remarks that Anna Comnena has made 
the same mistake, when she describes (Alexiad. lib. xii.) part of Tancred's army as 
proceeding up the Sarus to invest Mopsuestia. — W. F. A. 

+ "A surprising degree of population," says Gibbon, "which must at least include 
the inhabitants of the dependent districts." And yet there is more probability of this 
number being less exaggerated than that ascribed to Seleucia, near Antioch, computed 
to have had upwards of 300,000 ; as the environs of Adana are very extensive and fer- 
tile, and well calculated to afford sustenance for an infinitely large number, whereas 
the position of Seleucia is circumscribed within very narrow limits by the sea on one 
side, and the rocky Mount Rhossus on the other, which could never have furnished 
sufficient food for such multitudes ; particularly in the vicinity of so vast a metropolis 


The city of Tarsus was reduced by the slow progress of famine. The 
Saracens capitulated on honourable terms, and were dismissed with a safe- 
conduct to the confines of Syria. "A part of the old Christians had 
quietly lived under their dominion, and the vacant habitations were re- 
plenished by a new colony; but the mosque Avas converted into a stable, 
the pulpit was delivered to the flames, and many rich crosses of gold and 
gems, the spoils of Asiatic churches, were made a grateful offering to 
the piety and avarice of the emperor ; and the gates of Adana and Tarsus 
were transported to Constantinople, and fixed in the wall there, a lasting 
monument of victory." Antioch was recovered, and subsequently all Syria 
(except Acre), and many cities on the other side of the Euphrates were 
overrun and despoiled. The Emperor Zimisces returned to Constan- 
tinople laden with Oriental spoils, and displayed in his triumph the silk, 
the aromatics of the East, and three hundred myriads of gold and silver. 
But this transient hurricane, the last efforts of a declining storm, blew 
over, and left few traces of its effects ; for shortly afterwards, being unable 
to maintain their conquests, the Greeks evacuated the Asiatic towns, and 
the Saracens again purified their mosques, and overturned the idols of 
the saints and martyrs, the Xestorian and Jacobite Christians preferring 
their Saracen rulers to their heretical brethren. Antioch, with the 
cities of Cilicia and the island of Cyprus, were the only possessions re- 
tained by the Greek Emperor, and the sole advantages of this bloody 

The Turkmans, wandering hordes of Scythians who had come from 
the north and overrun all China and Central Asia, had been invited 
some years previously (a.d. 1000) by the khalifs into Persia, to prop 
up by their military energy a feeble and tottering power, opposed by re- 
bellious and refractory vassals. Converted to Muhamraadanism by their 
new connexion with the Saracen Arabs, they seized upon the monarchy, 
but suffered the monarch to exist ; they declared themselves the lieu- 
tenants of the Khalifs, and distributed their numerous clans over the 
whole of the countries between Bagdad and India, which they divided 
among themselves: hence the different dynasties of Sammanides, Grazna- 
vides, Suljukiam, Karizmians, &c, and at length Ottomans or Osmanlis, 
which last became the most celebrated from the duration and extent 
of their power, and which they have had the good fortune to retain 
to the present day. The Turkmans of the court and city have been 
refined by the business and intercourse of social life, and softened by 
luxury and effeminacy ; but the greater number of their brethren still 

as Antioch, which was said to contain 000,000 souls. Commerce aloue might have 
been equal to tho support of such numbers. 



continue to dwell in the tents of their ancestors, and lead the same wan- 
dering life which they led eight centuries ago. 

During the life of Tugrul Bay (a.d. 1050), one of the Suljukian 
family, many parties of Turkman horse invaded the provinces of the 
Greek Empire, and overran a frontier of 600 miles, shedding the blood 
of 130,000 Christians. But these incursions did not make a lasting 
impression on the Greek Empire, which still extended to Antioch and 
the boundaries of Armenia. The torrent rolled away in the open 
country, obscure hostilities were continued or suspended with various 
vicissitudes of good and bad fortune, and the bravery of the Mace- 
donian legions renewed the fame of the successors of Alexander. The 
Turkmans, however, had the advantages of a new and poor people over 
an ancient and corrupt government, and were besides continually re- 
cruited by fresh hordes of their companions, impelled by the thirst of 
rapine, and the necessity of forming new settlements. 

a.d. 1068. Tugrul Bay left to his nephew and successor, Alp 
Arslan (become, by the overthrow of the Gaznavide dynasty, the most 
powerful head of the numerous clans, and who had assumed the title of 
Suldan), the care of prosecuting the war against the Christians, and he 
invaded Asia Minor with a large army headed by his Amirs or generals. 
Laden with spoils, which they seized indiscriminately, and careless of 
discipline, these troops were, in the security of conquest, scattered in 
numerous detachments all over the provinces. The Greek emperor, 
Eomanus Diogenes, who had been invested by the Empress Eudocia 
with the purple for the purpose of defending the state against these 
barbarians, surprised and defeated them separately, and drove them 
beyond the Euphrates in three laborious campaigns. 

On the report of these losses, Alp Arslan flew to the scene of action 
(a.d. 1072) at the head of 40,000 horse, and overcame and captured 
Eomanus Diogenes. He accepted, however, a ransom of a million 
of gold pieces, and sent him back on promise of paying a tribixte of 
360,000 pieces. But in the treaty of peace it does not appear that he 
extorted any province or city from the captive emperor, and his revenge 
was satisfied with the trophies of his victories and the spoils of Anatolia, 
from Antioch to the Black Sea. 

Sulaiman, the son of Kutulmish, a relative of Arslan, and of the 
family of the Suljukians, invaded Asia Minor two years after (a.d. 1074), 
and declared himself in favour of Nicephorus Botoniates, in opposition 
to his rival Bryennius, and materially contributed to the success of the 
former, Avhom he settled on the throne of Constantinople. 2000 Turks 
were at this time transported into Europe, the first of that nation who 


crossed the Hellespont, — a fatal precedent, for the Turks took the op- 
portunity of fortifying themselves in the country ; and the elevation of 
a tyrant, who was soon deposed and put to death, was purchased by the 
sacrifice of many of the finest provinces of the empire 5 and from this 
date the Turks could no longer be expelled from Asia Minor, the whole 
of which they soon subdued, except Trebizond, which held out to the 

Sulaiman following up his successes, completed (a.d. 1084) the con- 
quest of Anatolia, and established the new kingdom of the Suljukians of 
Eoum. At Nicsea, the metropolis ofBithynia, 100 miles distant from 
Constantinople, " on the very spot where the first general council or 
synod of the Christians was held, the divinity of Christ was denied 
and derided; and the Kuran was preached in the same temple which 
had witnessed the assemblage of the heads of the Christian Church, now 
converted into a mosque. The Cadis judged according to the laws of 
the Kuran, the Turkish manners and language prevailed over the cities, 
and Turkman camps were scattered over the plains and mountains of 
Asia Minor. On the hard conditions of tribute and servitude, the Greek 
Christians were permitted to enjoy the exercise of their religion; but 
their holy churches were profaned, their priests and bishops insulted; 
they were compelled to suffer the triumphs of the Pagans and the apos- 
tacy of their brethren, and many thousand captives were devoted to the 
service or pleasures of their masters." Here I pause to observe how well 
adapted to the present state of the country is this picture drawn by 
Gibbon, from contemporary writers, of the degraded state of the Chris- 
tians in those times, and which has continued to the present day with 
little or no alteration or diminution. In consequence of this tyranny, 
they have, in self-defence, been induced to resort to that cunning and 
deceit which are now their leading characteristics, and which alone are 
the features that distinguish them from their oppressors, for they have 
in every other respect adopted the manners and prejudices of the Mu- 
hammadans. None of their churches have been restored to them that 
were converted into mosques; but they are permitted, on payment of 
large sums, to build new churches, on heaps of ruins where it is im- 
possible to say what edifice had stood, whether theatre, bath, or Pagan 
temple. Under the late Sultan some of the restrictions on Christian 
worship have been diminished, and firmans are to be obtained with less 
difficulty and comparatively moderate fees; and this they owe to the 
progress of civilisation, consequent on the march of intellect which 
produced in Sultan Mahmud an enlightened monarch and a man of 


On the establishment of a Turkman dynasty at Nicrea (a.d. 1095), 
which lasted 220 years, the provinces of Asia Minor came under its 
subjection, and were the scene of slaughter and rapine ; while the pil- 
grims from every part of Europe, who began to flock to Jerusalem, en- 
countered innumerable perils ere they were permitted to salute the Holy 
Sepulchre. A spirit of zeal, engendered by the exclusiveness ofMuham- 
madanism, prompted these hordes to insult the clergy of every other sect. 
The Patriarch of Jerusalem, we are informed, was dragged by the hair 
along the pavement and cast into a dungeon, to extort a ransom from 
his flock ; and the divine worship in the Church of the Resurrection was 
often disturbed by the rudeness of its masters. Peter the Hermit roused 
the martial nations of Europe to avenge their wrongs ; and the Crusades 
were undertaken by our ancestors in a spirit of enthusiasm to peril 
their lives in the defence and rescue of their co-religionists — a feeling 
which seems to have been entirely extinguished in the hearts of their 

Kilitch Arslan, the son of Sidaiman, was king of Niea?a (a.d. 1097) 
when the army of the first Crusaders besieged that city on its way to 
the Holy Land, and took it after a siege of seven months. The Turk- 
man sultan, no way dismayed by the loss of his capital, retreated to 
Dorylajuui in Phrygia, and assembling there all the forces he had in the 
province, resolutely attacked the Latins, and eventually engaged them 
in a pitched battle. But victory declared for the Crusaders ; and 
Kilitch Arslan was compelled to retreat, and implore the aid, by 
kindling the resentment, of his eastern brethren, which he did, laying 
waste the countries he traversed. The Crusaders proceeded to Koniyah, 
Arakli, and Marash, and thence over Mount Taurus to Kucusus, now 
Kursun, a town remarkable as having formerly been the place of exile 
of St. Chrysostom. Two of the chiefs, Tancred and Baldwin, the brother 
-of Godfrey of Bouillon, were here detached from the main army, with 
their respective squadrons of 500 and 700 knights. They overran in 
rapid career the hills and sea-coast of Cilicia, from the mountainous 
■country to the Syrian gates, and planted the Norman standard on the 
w r alls of Tarsus and Malmistra (Mopsuestia). The former of these cities 
Baldwin, excited by jealousy and ambition, obliged Tancred to deliver 
into his hands ; and he had the barbarity to refuse admission to 300 
of the soldiers of Tancred, who were consequently obliged to pass the 
night outside the Avails, where they were cut to pieces by a strong party 
of Saracen Turks. But Tancred by his moderation had gained the 
affection of the soldiers, and Baldwin was soon obliged to return to 
the camp, to endure the reproaches of the Latin chiefs. Tancred for- 


tiffed and garrisoned the towns he had taken, and these were the most 
lasting possessions of all that the Crusades acquired. 

a.d. 1118. While the brave Tancred and his warlike associates were 
winning laurels before the walls of Jerusalem and Antioch, the wily- 
Alexius, Emperor of Constantinople, improved the opportunity afforded 
by the victories of the Crusaders, and recovered the provinces previously 
taken from the Greeks by the Suljukian Turkmans, by following in 
their steps, and taking possession of and fortifying all the towns on the 
coast, including the islands of Cyprus and Ehodes. The seat of power 
of the Turkmans was thus confined to the districts of Koniyah, where 
the dynasty of Alp Arslan fixed their debilitated throne. Their power 
eventually became nominal ; for in spite of the high titles they assumed, 
the last of their race were happy to be considered as generals of the 
Great Mogul, and owe their sway to his bounty, until they were finally 
destroyed by Gazan in 1298, the year 706 of the Ilegira. In the mean- 
while the ambitious but prudent Alexius had resolved to annex Cilicia 
to his empire, and that the Syrian gates should be the boundary of his 
possessions : for this purpose he made war on Tancred and Bohemond, 
now tranquil masters of their conquests. Bohemond, unable to cope 
with this new enemy, left Tancred to govern at Antioch, and returning 
to Europe, levied an army of 5000 horse and 40,000 foot, with which ho 
returned to punish the faithless Greek. But the sudden death of Bohe- 
mond happened about this time ; added to which, the venal arts of 
Alexius, by which he won over his confederates, compelled Tancred to 
sign a treaty of peace, whereby all Cilicia was restored to the Byzantine 
empire. Thus the towns of Tarsus and Malmistra (or Mopsuestia), so 
bravely won by Tancred, fell under the government of the Greeks. 







The crafty Alexius was succeeded (a.d. 1143) in the throne of Con- 
stantinople by his son John Comnenus, surnamed Kalo Joannes or John 
the Handsome, a prince Avhose reign of twenty-five years was marked by 
virtues rarely met with in such degenerate and guilty times. He intro- 
duced a gradual reformation in the manners of his capital, without as- 
suming the tyrannic office of a censor. The only check on the public 
felicity was love of military glory, — the ruling passion of the emperor. 
But the frequent expeditions he undertook may be justified in some 
measure by the necessity of repelling the Turks and repressing their in- 
roads. The Sultan of Karamania was confined to his capital, the barba- 
rians were driven to their mountains, and the maritime provinces of Asia 
enjoyed a tranquillity which was highly appreciated. 

John Comnenus repeatedly marched at the head of his victorious armies 
from Constantinople to Antioch and Aleppo; the whole coast of Anatolia 
to the north and south was subjected to his power, and in the sieges and 
battles of the Holy War his Latin allies were astonished at the superior 
spirit and prowess of a Greek. But while the Greek king began to in- 
dulge the hope of restoring the ancient limits of the empire, the decrees 
of Providence were about to frustrate his plans ; and the thread of his 
life and of the public happiness was broken by an unfortunate and rather 
singular accident. While hunting a wild boar in Cilicia, near the town of 
Anazarba, he had fixed his javelin in the body of the furious animal, and 
in the struggle to recover himself a poisoned arrow dropped from his 
quiver, and a slight wound in his hand produced mortification and proved 
fatal to him.* 

* La COicie de"pendait des rois Seleucides ; mais Tigranes roi d'Armenie ayant de- 
trone ce prince, la Cilicie, du moins la partie qu'on appellait Campestris, obeit au roi 
d'Amienie jusqu'a Pan 688 de Rome, dans laquelle Tigranes fut vaincu par Pompe'e. 
Cette partie resta soumise aux Rornains. Jules-Cesar confirma le titre de Metropole a, 
la ville de Tarsus. L'Empereur Auguste lui confe"ra de nouvelles graces, et elle jouit 


The second Crusade, under Conrad III. Emperor of Germany and 
Louis VII. (a.d.1147), experienced the same disasters that befel the first 
expedition. Misled by the guides in the pay of the perfidious Greek 
Emperor Manuel, who succeeded Kalo Joannes, and who was secretly 
leagued with the Saracens, the unfortunate Conrad and Louis were be- 
trayed ; and unable to penetrate farther than the Taurus and the confines 

du titre et des preeminences de metropole jusqu'au cinquieme siecle de J<5sus-Christ. 
Les villes d'Anazarba d'Eges (Ayash) et Mallus (Kara Tasb), et autres, lui e'taient 
soumises. La ville d'Anazarba, decore'e du titre de Cesaree, e"tait illustre ; elle eprouva 
les plus grands malheurs ; elle fut renversee par un tremblemeut de terre, et l'Em- 
pereur Nerva la fit bientot retablir. Cette ville resta dans un etat fleurissant pendant 
plusieurs siecles ; un autre tremblement do terre la ruina sous le regne de Justin cm 
Justinian. Elle se rcleva encore du milieu de scs mines par la munificence des princes, 
et Vacantaije de la situation et la fertilite de son tcrritoire furent cause qu'elle fut 
bientot retablie. Anazarba riche, peuplge, et dans une position avantageuse, par uno 
rivalite alors commun entreles grandes villes d'uno mtme province, ambitionna le titre 
de metropole, et elle le prit suivant Vaillant sonsle regno d'Elagabule ; niais elle 1'avadt 
obtenu anparavant: sur un nu'daillo frappee en l'honneur de Caracalla Fan daz 232 
de l'ere de la villo, 966 de Rome, 214 do Jesus-Christ, quatrieme du regne do ce prince, 
elle prend le titre de MHTPOIIOAEQS, me'tropole, qu'elle consorva sous les empereura 
.suivant ; mais oe titre ctait simplement bonorifique, sans donner aucunc jurisdiction 
dans la province; il donnoit la preseance aprea Tarsus, dans lea assemblies generates 
Pareils honneurs furent accordes aux villes de Niece en Bytfainie, de Laodicee en Syrie, 
et de Sidon en Phe"nicic. 

La ville d'Anazarba ne so content i pas ilu titre de me'tropole; elle y ajouta l't'pi- 
thl-te (Tillustre, ENAOHOYMHTPonoAl n, . qu'elle fitgraver sur plusieursde scs mommies. 
Elle conscrvait encore ce titre sous le regne de Diocletian. On lit dans les Actes des 
Martyrs publiees par Don Ruinart, que Taraque, Andronique, et Probus furent mis a 
mort pour la religion Chrcticmio fan 30 1 de Jesus-Christ iv °'Ava£ap/S$> rn ewio? if juqrpo- 
uo\ti, d Ana-zarba illustre Mitropole. — Dissertation sur fEn & Anazarba par I' Abbs' 
Belley, in the Mimoires eh VAeadhnie, vol.50, p. 350. Vide Journal, .Inn. 18, 1848. 

Tarsus under tbe reign of L.Verus had inscribed on its medals n M k, which has 
puzzled antiquaries ; the Abbe says it means Tpo-rnv ^>)Tpo7r6\t<or K<\ik»'os-. Anazarba had 
the same engraved on its medals, out of opposition. 

Under the reign of Arcadius, Cilicia was divided into first and second provinces, 
of which Tarsus and Anazarba became the chief metropolitan towns. 

Anazarba, under the Emperor Commodus, obtained the privilege of being atWiWojuor, 
by which it had the right of choosing its own magistrates, and of being governed by 
its own laws. — W. B. B. 

Anazarba, which appears to have been erroneously called Ain-zarbeh,' — the na 
being merely corrupted by the natives to Anawarzah, — figured for a short period as 
one of the most flourishing cities of Cilicia. Ptolemy calls it Csesarea ad Anazarbwtn; 
Pliny, Anazarbewi qui • < : Eiieroclee rails it Metropolis; ami it is enume- 

rated among the Christian episcopacies in the Ecclesiastical Notices of the Low Empire. 
It was the country of Dioscoridcs, who is called by Suidas the physician of Anazarba, 
and of Oppian, the poet of the Cynegcticus. Carolus Stephanus, in his historical dic- 
tionary, says that this writer of elegant verses died of plague at his birthplace, which 
he calls Zefluin. This splendid town was destroyed by a fearful earthquake in the 
reign of Justinian. This is narrated by Procopius and by Ccdrenus. 

Little was known of the actual condition of this place till it was visited by a party 
from the Euphrates expedition. The walls still remain, but in a ruinous condition. 


of Cilicia, they were obliged to embark with a few retainers only in 
Greek vessels for the coast of Syria, the one from the Hellespont, and 
the other from Satalia. The greatest part of their miserable and mis- 
guided followers, to the number of several thousands, were abandoned to 
their fate and exposed to the cruelty of the Saracens at the foot of the 
Pamphylian hills, and in the forests of Mount Taurus. 

Andronicus, grandson of Alexius and cousin of Manuel, was twice 
sent during the lifetime of this emperor to govern the important pro- 
vince of Cilicia. His romantic adventures and hair-breadth escapes 
would fill a volume ; I can but refer to the most striking passages 
in his life. In his first campaign he pressed the siege of Mopsuestia, 
which had been seized by the Armenians. By day his boldness was 
equal to his success ; but the nights were devoted to the song and 
dance, and a band of Greek comedians formed the choicest of his 
retinue. One evening he was surprised by a sally of the vigilant foe; 
but while his troops fled in disorder, his invincible lance transpierced 
the thickest ranks of the Armenians. In his second command of the 
Cilician frontier, some years afterwards, the Armenians again exercised 
his courage and exposed his negligence, while he wasted his time at 
Antioch in balls and tournaments. Among three princesses whom he 
seduced was the Queen of Jerusalem, whose shame was more public and 
scandalous than that of either of her predecessors. Pie remained twelve 
years in prison, took the Cross as a Crusader, wandered as an outlaw to 
Bagdad and Persia, settled among the Turks in Asia Minor, became a 
robber of Christians and the terror of the kingdom of Trebizond, usurped 
the throne of Constantinople, and after a bloody reign of three years was 
put to death in a cruel and ignominious manner by the enraged populace. 

The third Crusade, under the conduct of Frederic I. Emperor of 
Germany, surnamed Barbarossa (a.d. 1188), did not eventually meet with 
much more success than the last. After passing the Hellespont, his army 
was harassed by innumerable hordes of Turkmans during twenty days 
that he was traversing the dense forests of Bithynia; but he overcame all 
obstacles to his progress, and attacked and stormed the capital of the Turk- 
mans, and compelled the Sultan of Koniyah to sue for peace. But the 
veteran warrior reaped no harvest from his exertions ; he was not fated 

Few public buildings exist, however, within the walls, be3^ond an extensive castle of 
various ages, built upon the top of a rocky hill, and many of the rooms of which are in 
perfect keeping, — but these appear to belong to the Muhammadan era. A great num- 
ber of beautifully sculptured and highly ornamented tombs and sarcophagi still attest, 
however, to the opulence and civilisation of this former metropolis of Cilicia. Nor 
must we omit to mention the ruins of an aqueduct, which brought water direct from 
the mountains, a distance of many miles. — \V. F. A. 


to tread the soil of the Holy Land, nor to terminate the triumphs which 
he had begun. He was drowned while crossing a river in Cilicia, which 
had been swollen by the tropical rains, — the Cydnus according to some 
writers, and who have taken this occasion to draw a comparison between 
him and Alexander, to whom this river had nearly proved fatal above a 
thousand years previously. But I am unwilling to give credit to this story, 
as it seems unaccountable that a general at the head of his army should 
be lost in fording a river which is nowhere more than six feet deep ; and 
I think it more probable that he was attacked by the malignant fever of 
the country. However this may be, his troops were decimated by sick- 
ness and famine, and his son, who had contrived to reach the Holy Land 
with a few remaining followers, expired at the siege of Acre. These 
losses led succeeding Crusaders, grown wiser by the fate of their prede- 
cessors, to abandon the overland route, and Cilicia was no longer trampled 
under foot by the zealous but little disciplined hosts. 

The fourth Crusade, undertaken by the Venetians and French 
(a.d. 1204), was diverted from the coast of Syria, to which it was origi- 
nally directed, by the enticing shores of the Bosphorus ; where, on pre- 
tence of revenging the death of Alexius, who with his father Isaac had 
been murdered by Murzufli, the Latins made themselves masters of 
Constantinople, sacked and burnt the best part of the capital, and elected 
Baldwin Count of Flanders Emperor of the East. The successors of this 
monarch maintained themselves in the capital during a period of fifty- 
seven years. But Theodore Lascaris, the son-in-law and relation of 
Alexius, having fled, he set up the standard of the Greeks at Nica-a, 
and with the alliance of the Turkish sultan he saved a remnant of the 
falling empire. During a reign of eighteen years, this emperor extended, 
by his military talents, the small principality of Nicrca to the magnitude 
of a kingdom, in which Cilicia was included. 

Theodore Lascaris was succeeded at his death (a.d. 1222) by John 
Ducas Vataces, his son-in-law, who fixed the throne on a more solid 
basis, and in a long reign of thirty-three years displayed both the 
virtues of peace and the energy of war. In the long administration of 
this prince, the provinces of Asia Minor, and among them Cilicia, en- 
joyed the blessings of a good government. The lands were sown with 
corn or planted with olives and vines ; the pastures were filled with 
cattle and horses ; the education of youth and the revival of learning 
were also serious objects of his care, and both by his precepts and 
practice, simplicity of manners and domestic industry were encouraged. 

It was somewhere about this period that the Venetians and Genoese 
founded commercial emporia on the coasts of Asia Minor, in Cilicia, 


and in Syria, somewhat after the principle adopted by the early Hel- 
lenic colonists, fortifying themselves in their positions by adequate 
defences, and often by castles to command the passes of the interior, or 
to keep the surrounding populations in awe. Few records of the era of 
the foundation of these emporia exist, and equally few are to be met 
which record their history, their prosperity, or their adverses, and their 
final extinction. 

Upon this subject the able historian Sismundi says, " The chronicles of 
the maritime cities of Italy throw very little light upon the colonies which 
their citizens founded in the towns of the East, or even at Constantinople. 
These colonies governed themselves, they named their own authorities, 
and did not receive them from the metropolis ; and whatever their popu- 
lation or their wealth, they could not be considered as belonging to the 
state. Hence it is that the national historians have attached but little 
importance to the debates of a number of Venetian and Pisan individuals 
at the other extremity of Europe, although the results brought about by 
them still astonish us in the present day ; while, on the other hand, the 
continual wars of the Pisans and the Genoese, which appear to us in the 
light of freaks of pirates, captivated their whole attention." 

There are, however, a few fragments referring to these conquests 
which it may be interesting to record here. 

The earliest fleet of the Venetian republic that accompanied the first 
Crusade, a.d. 1099, was composed of 200 ships, and commanded by the 
son of the new doge, Vital Michieli. They fought off Ehodes a bloody 
battle against the fleet of the republic of Pisa, each forgetting that they 
were Christians and crusaders. The Venetian fleet took Smyrna at a later 
period, and assisted the land troops of the crusaders in taking Jaffa.* 

The Genoese republic sent, in August 1100, twenty-eight galleys 
and six larger vessels into the East. The historian Caffaro Avas of the 
expedition. Another fleet was despatched about this time by the republic 
of Pisa under the Archbishop Daimbert, who became afterwards Patriarch 
of Jerusalem. The combined fleets passed the winter at Lattakiya ; and 
when the death of Godfroy de Bouillon had endangered his new king- 
dom, they kept the maritime provinces, including Cilicia, in subjection 
to the Latins. 

The troops of the two republics undertook the siege of Ca?sarea, 
a.d. 1101. Caput Malio, the Genoese consul, was the first to climb the 
ramparts, on simple maritime scaling-ladders, and the town was taken 
from the Musulmans and consigned to pillage. One -fifteenth of the booty 
was given to the sailors that remained on board the fleet. 
* Andrea Danduli Chron. 1. ix. c. 10, -p. 256. 


Constantinople was retaken by the Greeks under Stratigopulas from 
the Venetians, a.d. 12G1 ; and Michael Paleologus, whose troops had 
been assisted by the Genoese, granted privileges to the latter which he 
had promised them beforehand, but established them at Galata, out of 
the city. The Venetians and Pisans formed each a separate quarter, 
and the three were governed by a separate magistrate, which their re- 
spective towns sent to them ; and here were formed three small republics, 
which maintained their liberty and independence, in a city the emperor 
of which was still at war with the Latins. The latter ceded the island 
of Scio to the Genoese, which was the largest held by them (till 1556), 
the jealousy of the Greeks having induced them to look with favour 
upon the occupation of the island by the Musulmans. 

The final conquest, by Melek Seraf, of St. Jean d'Acre, when 30,000 
Christians were massacred, occurred a.d. 1291 ; and the taking of Tripoli 
of Barbary by the Genoese admiral Philip Doria, in a.d. 1355. 

The Genoese of Pera attempted in the year 137G to take the island 
of Tenedos, ceded to them by Andronicus, who had been half blinded 
by his father, John Paleologos. They were prevented by the governor 
of the island, who remained faithful to the deposed emperor, and called 
the Venetians to his assistance, thus defeating the objects of the Genoese. 

Nicotia was taken June 16th, 1373, by Catani (Genoese admiral of 
some galleys sent by the Genoese to revenge the massacre), and seventy 
captive virgins dedicated to Venus were restored to their parents. 

Famagosta was taken October 3d by Petre di Campo Fregoso, 
brother of the Doge of Genoa, at the head of thirty-six galleys and 
14,000 men. Petro Lusignan, the young king, and son of the deceased 
king of the same name, was taken prisoner on that occasion, and the 
island subjugated to the Genoese. The young king, however, attacked 
the Genoese in Famagosta in 1378, assisted by the Venetian galleys ; 
but he was repulsed, and forced to quit not only the island, but the 
seas of Cyprus. 

Sinope (Samsun), Trebizonde, and Cerasus were taken by Moham- 
med II. a.d. 1462. 

Pope Pius II. died in 1461, and thus the hopes of assistance enter- 
tained by the Christians of the Levant were destroyed. 

Pope Paul II. endeavoured in vain to revive an interest in the 
Christians of the Levant, and the fleet that had assembled at Ancona 
(a.d. 1465) to proceed to the assistance of the Christians, was sent by the 
Venetian senate to attack and plunder the island of Rhodes, under the 
Great Master of the order of St. John of Jerusalem. 

Petro Mocenigo, after ravaging, with eighty- eight galleys, the north 


of Asia Minor, attacked, a.d. 1472, Attalia, or Satali, a rich town of 
Paraphilia, which furnished Egypt and Syria with provisions, devastated 
the environs, and then returned to Rhodes. He also ravaged Ionia, 
opposite Scio, and Smyrna, without making any distinction between 
the Christian churches and the Muhammadan mosques. 

Mocenigo received from Venice, a.d. 1473, the order to put him- 
self in communication with Ozun Hassan, to whom the republic sent 
Josaphat Barbaro (a person advanced in age, speaking the Persian 
fluently, and of great talent and perspicuity), three galleys laden with 
presents and a great quantity of artillery, together with 100 artizans 
whom the republic offered to the service of the sovereign of Persia. It 
was through Cilicia that they had decided on passing into Persia to accom- 
j)any the Persian ambassador. The latter was on his return to his master 
after having been received at Venice, to negotiate that mutual assistance 
should be given by the Latins and Persians against their common enemy 
Mohammed II. The princes of Karamania, two brothers, who had been 
despoiled by the Muhammadans of great part of their possessions, but 
who still defended themselves bravely in the remainder,* were awaiting 
them. One of these Avas besieging Seleucia (Sulufsky), which it seems 
was a place still of some importance even at so late a period. 

Mocenigo, with forty-five galleys, two from the Knights of Ehodes 
and four from the king of Cyprus, proceeded to their assistance. Land- 
ing first at Cyprus, he had a meeting with Hassan Bay, the younger 
brother (the eldest, Pyramet,f being in the Persian camp), near Suluf- 
sky, where his envoy, Victor Seranzo, was informed by the young 
bay that the Muhammadans kept the people of Karamania, who were 
devoted to the Christian prince, under subjection by means of three 
fortresses, Sichesii, Seleucia, and Coryco (Sikin, Sulufsky, and Kurkus), 
which they could not take for want of artillery. Mocenigo forced the 
Muhammadan troops occupying these three places to capitulate, and 
made them over to Hassan Bay 4 

These were the first attempts made to open a communication with 
the Persians; and they are of an interesting character, not only as re- 
garding the country we are now engaged upon, but also as pointing out 

* M. Antonio Sabellico, deca. iii. 1. ix. f. 215 verso. Coriol. Cepio, 1. ii. p. 361. 

+ Many of the names used by Mr. Barker in this portion of his narrative are de- 
rived, as will be seen from tbe foot-notes, from Italian writers of the middle ages, and 
they are exceedingly corrupted. Pj-ramet, for example, could not be a Turkish name. 
— W. F. A. It is a corruption of Pyr and Ahmed, which conjointly mean old Ahmed, 
or the chief Ahmed W. B. B. 

X M. Ant. Sabellico, deca. iii. 1. ix. f. 216 vo. Callimachus Experiens de Venetis 
contra Turcos, f. 409. Coriolan Cepio, 1. ii. p. 352. 


the progress of the human mind. They opened unknown regions to 
the observations of western nations ; they brought together people that 
had been long separated ; they threw the first dawn of light on geo- 
graphy, till then so confused ; and they inaugurated the period in 
which we are now living, a period the most remarkable character of 
which consists in the communication established between all the nations 
of the globe. 

After the taking of Sulufsky by Mocenigo, finding it impossible to 
penetrate into Persia with his suite, Josaphat Barbaro left in Crete the 
presents with which he was charged, and proceeded with the Persian 
ambassador to cross these barbarous lands, accompanied only by a few 
servants. He started from Tarsus through " Little Armenia," no doubt 
following the usual route that leads by Anazarba and Sis through a 
jiassage made in the mountains by the river Pyramus ; thence he 
crossed Kurdistan, a country that has remained to this day as wild 
as its inhabitants are intractable. Here he was attacked by robbers ; 
his companion, the Persian ambassador, was killed, as were also his 
secretary and two of their followers. Barbaro himself was severely 
wounded and despoiled of every thing ; he did not, however, lose courage, 
but proceeded to join Ozun Hassan at Tabriz, with whom he remained 
five years, and received from that sovereign great marks of kindness 
and favour. In 1488 he returned to Venice by way of Aleppo. 

Mocenigo in the mean time proceeded to attack different places on 
the coast of x\sia Minor. He took Myra, having defeated and killed 
Arasa Bay, the governor of the province, who had come to the rescue. 
.He then disembarked near Phygas in Caria, where he received a mes- 
sage from Catherino Zeno, who was accredited by the republic of Venice 
at the Persian camp, to come to Cilicia, in order to be able to afford any 
assistance in his power to the Persians, who were then advancing west- 
ward. On his arrival at Kurkus he received another messenger from 
Zeno announcing the defeat of the Persians, after their partial success, 
and their retreat into Armenia. 

About this time we find that the Genoese still possessed some strong 
places in Cyprus ; — among others, Famagosta. It would be beyond our 
limits to enter into the details of the wars between Charlotte, daughter 
of Janus III., the fourteenth king of Cyprus, and her natural brother 
Jacques, the Venetians siding with Janus, and the Genoese with the 
legitimate princess ; suffice it to say, that in 1-44-4 Famagosta opened its 
gates to Jacques de Lusignan, after three years' siege. 

Mocenigo continued up to the year 1473 to make descents on 
the coast of Lycia, Caria, and Cilicia ; but his attention seems to 


have been principally taken up with subduing the island of Cyprus 
to the adopted daughter of St. Mark, the niece of Marc Cornaro, a 
Venetian gentleman established in Cyprus, and who had been an exile 
from his country. This is the lady whom Jacques de Lusignan married, 
in order to contract an alliance which should qualify him as " son-in-law 
of the republic."* 

The Genoese, up to the year 1475, possessed a colony in Caffa in the 
Crimea, anciently called Theodosia ; it had been more than two cen- 
turies in the hands of these people, and had acquired riches and a 
population almost equal to its mother city. It was the centre of com- 
munication between Europe and the East, by means of the Genoese, who 
received the spices of India, and the stuffs of silk and cotton manu- 
factured in Persia, by way of Astrakan.f 

Caffa was taken by Hamid, a commander of Mohammed II. (a.d. 
1475). He conducted the Frank inhabitants to Pera, selecting there- 
from 1500 youths to be brought up among the Janissaries at Constan- 
tinople; and thus was destroyed the dominion of the Genoese in the 
Black Sea. 

An army of 80,000 men was sent by Bayazid II. (a.d. 1488) to 
attack Kayit Bay, the sovereign of Egypt, in Avhose hands, at this time, 
was Syria and Cilicia. This army, after having taken Adana and Tarsus, 
was defeated by the Mamluks at Issus, at the foot of Mount Amanus. 
The Ottoman fleet was dispersed and partly destroyed by a tempest, and 
the Turks renounced the invasion of Egypt.J 

Jam or Zezim, son of Mohammed II., and brother of Bayazid II., 
aspired (a.d. 1489) to the throne of his father, under the plea that he . 
Avas " Porphyrogenetus," that is, born when Mohammed II. had become 
sultan, whereas his elder brother was born during the earlier period of 
their father's life, before he had reached to the height of empire. He 
was vanquished, however, in his endeavours to bring about a revo- 
lution in his favour in Asia Minor, and he took refuge in Cilicia, which 
which was then under the dominion (as we have just seen) of the Sultan 
of Egypt. From this he embarked for Rhodes, to solicit the assistance 
of the Knights of St. John.§ 

It would seem that the latter did not dare to keep him on the 

* Marin Saimto Vite du Duchi, f. 1185, vol. x. p. 339. Andrea Navaziero Stor. 
Veneziana, f. 1127-1131. Annal. Ecelesiast. 147, § 47, f. 229. 

*(■ Ubertus follata Genuens Hist. 1. xi. p. 626. 

J And. Navaziero Stor. Venez. p. 1197, and Raynaldi An. Ecc. 1488, § 9, p. 3S9. 
Sisniondi, vol. ii. p. 321. 

§ Raynaldi Annal. Eccles. 1482, § 35, f. 312. Turco Gratia Hist. Politica, 1. i. p. 
30. Demetrius Centimir, 1. iii. chap. ii. § 7 and 8, p. 128. 


frontiers of a state that had become so powerful ; they therefore sent 
him to France, from whence he passed into the hands of Pope Inno- 
cent VIII. (a.d. 1489), who detained him in honourable confinement by 
the bribery of Bayazid, who paid the pope 40,000 ducats yearly for the 
" pension" of his brother ! 

In the year 15G6 the Genoese lost the island of Scio, which was 
taken from the family of the Giustinianis by Sidtan Sulaiman. They 
were on the point also of losing Corsica, which had been invaded by the 
French in 1558, had revolted in 1564, and continued to repel the op- 
pressive yoke of this republic until 15G8, when it was again brought 
into subjection. 

The Venetians signed a treaty (20th October, 1540) by which they 
ceded to Sulaiman all the islands of the Archipelago already conquered 
by the Turks. 

In 1570 the Turks attacked Cyprus, which was defended until 
1573 by an immense sacrifice of men and money, till the inhabitants 
were forced to sign a treaty of peace, and abandon the island to its new 

To resume, however, the thread of our history, in and about 
a.d. 1255. 

The three years of the reign of Theodore, son of John Ducas, were 
marked by cruelty and evil passions ; and although he thrice led an 
army against the Bulgarians in Europe, he obtained no signal advan- 
tage. He left at his death the crown to his son John Lascaris, a boy 
eight years of age, who was soon set aside and blinded by Michael 
Pala:ologus (a.d. 1259), one of his relations, who seated himself firmly 
on the throne of Constantinople two years afterwards, by which event 
the Latin dynasty was superseded, and the Greek emperors triumphantly 
entered the metropolis, after a banishment of fifty-seven years (a.d. 1261). 

But the removal of the seat of empire from Nica;a to Constantinople 
was fatal to the Greeks, as the countries on the Asiatic side of the Helles- 
pont were left exposed to the Turkish invaders, and the barrier which had 
been effectual for so many years against their inroads was removed farther 
north. The attention of Michael Paloaologus was also almost totally 
absorbed in propitiating the Roman pontiff, in order, by artful and hypo- 
critical means, to avert the western storm which was hanging over 
his head, so that the eastern part of the empire was neglected and 
left to its fate. While the Greeks and Latins were engaged in disputes 
on trifling points of religion, a colossal and irresistible power had over- 
turned all the Asiatic kingdoms ; and even those of Europe were shaken 
to their foundation. The whole of Central Asia, China, Persia, part 



of India and Eussia, were overrun by the Moguls and Tartars, who 
about the year a.d. 1206, under Yanghiz or Genghiz Khan and his 
followers, rendered themselves masters, during sixty-eight years of 
unparalleled success, of the greater part of Asia. The sultans of the 
Suljukian dynasty at Koniyah in vain attempted to stop the torrent in 
its course ; they were swept away by the victorious arms of the Moguls, 
and Azzaddin fled to Europe, taking refuge in Thrace. The whole of 
Asia Minor felt the iron sway of the conquerors ; and Hulagu Khan, 
grandson of Yanghiz Khan, laid the whole country waste with fire and 

But as these shepherd-kings soon returned to their own country 
with their spoils and captives, the destructive inundation ceased to flow 
after a while, and Cilicia once more formed a part of the Greek empire. 

Michael Palajologus was succeeded by his son Andronicus, (a.d. 
1282,) whose long reign of nearly fifty years Avas disgraced by super- 
stition and weakened by the disputes of the Greek Church, and this at 
the very time that a new power, destined to subvert his oavii, was rising 
on the ruins of the Suljukian dynasty. 

ruin AT anazarba. — (From a Sketch by Edward B. B. Barker, Esq.) 







OthmaNj son of Orthogrul,* a Turkman chief of a tribe of four hundred 
families -who had settled in Lesser Armenia on the banks of the Eu- 
phrates, after his father's death enlisted in the service of Ala-addin, 
one of the last sultans of Karamania. Becoming emir or lieutenant of 
the feeble monarch, he founded a kingdom, the scat of -which was first 
established at Brusa, then at Adrianople, and lastly at Constantinople. 

The founder of the Osmanli dynasty first invaded the territory of 
Nicomedia, a.d. 121)9, and during twenty-seven years he made repeated 
incursions on the Greek empire. At last, when oppressed by age and 
infirmities, he received the news in his camp of the taking of Brusa by 
his son Orchan, which then became the capital of the new dynasty. 

Orchan afterwards subjected all the countries of Asia Minor, almost 
without resistance ; but it appears that he allowed his brother-generals 
to divide the spoil, for we see that the emirs of Gharmain and Karamania 
(in the latter of which Cilicia was included) are said to have been in a 
condition to bring each an army of 40,000 men into the field. From 
these proceeded the vast tribes of Turkmans established all over Cilicia 
and Karamania, who maintain their original way of living to this day, 
and who are a separate race from the wandering tribes to the north, — of 
those, for example, in the districts of Kaisariyah. The latter are mostly 
of Kurd origin, and speak a perfectly different language. 

Orchan, profiting by the civil wars of the elder Andronicus and his 
grandson, caused his emirs to build a fleet and pillage the adjacent 
islands, and even the sea-coasts of Europe. 

* It is proper in names so long accepted as Osman or Otlmian, Orthogrul, and 
Osmanlis or Ottomans, to retain the accepted orthographies ; otherwise, as there is 
no o in the original, a more correct orthography would he 'Usman, 'Usmanli, 'Urthu- 
grul, &c. 



John Cantacuzene, who, in conjunction with John Pala?ologus, son of 
the younger Andronicus, had become emperor, basely invited to his aid 
(a.d. 1346) the public enemies of his religion and country; andOrchan 
was induced to come to his assistance by the stipulated condition that 
the daughter of Cantacuzene should be given him in marriage. Parental 
tenderness was in this case silenced by the dictates of ambition, and the 
Greek princess was delivered over to her Asiatic lord without the rites 
of the Church. The Turks were thus introduced into Europe ; and in 
the very first step they made they trod down with contempt one of the 
first and most sacred rites of the Christians, by taking the daughter of 
their emperor as a concubine in their harims ! Sulaiman, the son of 
Orchan, marched at the head of ten thousand warriors into Europe to 
support the wavering power of his ally. In the civil wars of Romania 
he performed a small degree of service and a greater degree of mischief. 
By degrees the Chersonesus was insensibly filled with a Turkish colony, 
while the Byzantine court solicited in vain the restitution of the fortresses 
of Thrace. The walls of Galipoli, the key of the Hellespont, had been 
throAvn down by an earthquake ; they were rebuilt and fortified by the 
policy of Sulaiman, and Constantinople would have next fallen a prey 
to the ambition of the Turks, had the Turkish chief not died by a 
fall from his horse, and the death of his father soon after fortunately 
intervened to stay for a little while the shock of the impending 

a.d. 1360. Amurad I., second son of Orchan, succeeded to the 
throne, which he removed from Brusa to Adrianople. During a reigu 
of nearly thirty years he subdued without resistance the provinces of 
Romania and Thrace, from Mount Ha?mus to the suburbs of Constanti- 
nople ; and John Palrcologus, almost a prisoner in his palace, was obliged, 
with his four sons, to follow the court and camp of the Ottoman prince. 
The Bulgarians, Servians, Bosnians, and Albanians were all made tribu- 
tary, and brought by a famoiis institution to be, by their bravery, 
the supporters of Ottoman greatness. The redoubtable corps of the 
" Janissaries" (Yani-chari), chosen from among the stoutest and most 
beautiful Christian youths, became the terror of nations, and in later 
times of the sultans themselves. 

It was reserved to Amurad's son Bayazid, who succeeded him, 
a.d. 1389, to extend the conquest begun by his grandfather to the bound- 
aries of the Greek empire in the East. All the countries from the 
Hellespont to the Euphrates acknowledged his sway ; while on the 
other side, whatever yet adhered to the Greek empire in Thrace, Mace- 
donia, and Thessaly, submitted to Turkish masters. Bayazid stationed 


a fleet of galleys at Galipoli to command the Hellespont. At Nicopolis 
he defeated a confederate army of 100,000 Franks under John Count 
of Nevers, whom he made prisoner. 

At length (a.d. 1395) his attention was directed to the conquest of 
Constantinople; and the dreaded catastrophe was only averted by the 
consent of Manuel, successor of John Palaeologus, to pay an annual tri- 
bute of 30,000 crowns of gold. 

But this respite was of short duration ; the truce was soon violated 
by the restless siiltan, and an army of Ottomans again threatened the 
devoted capital. Manuel in his distress implored the assistance of his 
Latin " brethren," and a reinforcement of troops from this quarter (a 
forlorn-hope) protracted the siege until Timur-lang, known in Europe 
by the name of Tamerlane, the Mogul conqueror, diverted the attention 
of Bayazid by invading his Eastern possessions. Thus the fall of Con- 
stantinople was deferred for some fifty years longer. 

a.d. 1402. Timur-lang, surnamed the lame, although a descendant 
of Yanghiz Khan in the female line, rose from the state of a shepherd- 
lad to the possession of an empire more extensive than that of Alex- 
ander. His first conquest was Sogdiana; from thence he advanced to 
the conquest of Persia, took Bagdad, penetrated to the farthest part of 
India, and on his return from thence he fell upon Syria and Asia Minor. 
His aid was solicited by the Muhammadan princes whom Bayazid had 
deposed, as also by the brother of the absent Greek emperor. 

Timur summoned the Turkish sultan to raise the siege, and the two 
formidable enemies met on the plains of Ancyra (Angora) in Galatia. 
After one of the most furious battles ever recorded in history, Bayazid 
was defeated and taken prisoner, and put into an iron cage, according 
to the vulgar tale.* Thus the Moguls became masters of all Asia ; and, 
if they had been possessed of ships they might have overrun Europe. 
But the invasion of these hordes led to no permanent conquests ; Timur 
had no troops to leave behind him to maintain his power, and the popu- 
lations were abandoned to anarchy. f 

* Local tradition records the exact locality of this great engagement to have been 
the plain of Chibuk-Abad, north of Angora, now Anguri. — W. F. A. 

T The Turks tell a characteristic story regarding the spirit of discord prevalent in 
Cilicia, which is not equalled in any part of the world. Each inhabitant would, if he 
could, drink the blood of his neighbour. 

They say that Timur-lang used to carry with him forty cases containing his trea- 
sure, and that lie had eighty slave;-, to whom he confided the guard of his person and 
these cases, half of whom by turns watched while the other half reposed. Arrived 
before Adana on his way back, ho overheard his guards concerting among each other 
to kill him, and divide the spoil between them; and he imderstood them to say that 
they would wait till their companions awoke, to be all agreed. Upon this Timur-lang, 


Of the five sons of Bayazid Avho after his death contended for the 
sovereignty, Muhammad I. was the most conspicuous, and obtained the 
ascendency. He employed the eight years of his reign in eradicating 
the vices produced by civil discord, and in establishing the Ottoman 
power over Cilicia and the other provinces of Asia Minor on a firmer 

His son Amurad IT. besieged Constantinople, a.d. 1422, with an 
army of 200,000 Turks and Asiatic volunteers; but after a siege of two 
months he was called away to Brusa to quell a domestic revolt excited 
by his brother. The effete empire was allowed a respite of thirty 
years, during which Manuel sank into the grave, and his son John Pa- 
lseologus II. was permitted to reign in consideration of a tribute which 
he paid to the Turks of 300,000 aspres, and the renunciation and aban- 
donment of all the territory Avithout the walls of Constantinople. Amu- 
rad was much taken up with the Hungarian war, and twice abdicated 
the throne, preferring the prayers and religious practices of the society 
of the dervishes to the cares of royalty. 

John Pala^ologus was succeeded by his brother Constantine (a.d. 
1443), a youth of fair promise, and who defended his country bravely 
for a time. Biit it was ordained that the last of the Greek emperors 
should bear the same name as the first and founder of Constantinople. 
On the 29th of May, a.d. 1438, the ill-fated city fell into the hands 
of Muhammad II., the son of Amurad, who took it after a siege of fifty- 
three days. Thus was sealed the fate of the Christian government in 
the East, at the same time that the Turkish government was finally es- 
tablished in Europe. 

Muhammad II. marched a large army into Asia Minor against Uzzum 
Hassan, a powerful Turkman chief, and obtained a complete victory 
over him on the plain of Gialdaran in Upper Armenia. 

Bayazid II. succeeded his father a.d. 1481, and inherited his mar- 
tial character, but did not meet with all his success in military affairs. 
During the long wars which his father had carried on in Europe the 
eastern provinces had been neglected, and the sultan of Egypt, taking ad- 
vantage of this supineness, had made himself master of all Syria, Cilicia, 
and part of Anatolia. Bayazid undertook a great expedition into Asia 
Minor to recover these provinces, and two battles were fought by the 
rival sultans in Cilicia, and the cities of Adana and Tarsus were taken 

pretending to awake, ordered the whole army in motion, saying that there must be 
something treacherous in the very ground whereon they were encamped, which could 
make the select of his followers so faithless. And that is the reason, say the Turks, 
why he did not take Adana. 


and retaken by both parties with alternate success. At length Bayazid, 
although vanquished, had the tact to conclude an advantageous peace, 
by which all Cilicia was ceded to him as far as the Syrian gates (a.d. 
1492). He then returned to prosecute the wars against the Venetians in 
the Morea; in which expeditions he caused all the dust from his shoes 
to be collected, in order that the same being put into his coffin, might 
witness in his favour at the day of judgment, of his having carried on 
the war against the infidels with unremitting vigilance. 

Bayazid was succeeded, a.d. 1512, by his son Sulaiman I., who be- 
gan his reign by poisoning his father and putting his two brothers to 
death. His next step was to make war on Shah Ismail Sufi of Persia, 
whom he defeated in the plain of Gialdaran in Upper Armenia (which 
had before been the scene of Muhammad II.'s victory), and obliged him 
to retreat to the southern part of his dominions. The city of Tabriz fell 
into Sidaiman's hands, and he at first resolved on wintering there, but 
was dissuaded by his officers on account of the intense cold; and he re- 
turned to Amasiyah, and soon after to Constantinople, to prepare for a 
greater expedition. A very formidable army was again levied, at the 
head of which he marched into Syria and Egypt, carrying every thing 
before him, and completely subduing both countries, the military sove- 
reigns of which were both slain, and he led in triumph to Constantinople 
the last khalif of the second dynasty of the Abbassides. 

Sulaiman II., surnamed the Magnificent, a.d. 1520, succeeded his 
father Selim. He is looked upon as the greatest of the Turkish em- 
perors, for, independent of his great victories, he was the friend of litera- 
ture and art, as well as a just prince. He took Belgrade, and also the 
island of Rhodes, after a gallant resistance, and won the famous battle 
of Mohatz (a.d. 152G). In the following year Buda fell into his hands. 
In his war with Austria he was not so fortunate; for after having made 
twenty assaults on Vienna, he was obliged to raise the siege and return 
to Constantinople. Unable to remain inactive, he set out on an expe- 
dition against Shah Tamasp of Persia, besieged and took Bagdad, and 
through the zeal of his lieutenants carried his arms into Africa. Many 
cities on the coast of Barbary were added to the empire during his long 
and victorious reign of forty- six years. 

The short reign of Selim II., who ascended the throne in a.d. 156G, 
was distinguished by no remarkable event except the taking of the 
island of Cyprus and the loss of the battle of Lepanto in the Morea, in 
which it is said that 32,000 Turks perished. 

Amurad III., son of Selim, began his reign (a.d. 1574) by strang- 
ling five of his brothers. The Shah of Persia having invaded his eastern 


provinces, lie marched to attack him, and retook the city of Tabriz, 
Avhich the Persians had seized during the last reign. 

Muhammad III., one of the greatest monsters that ever disgraced the 
annals of history, succeeded the "weak Amurad a.d. 1594. He began 
his reign by strangling nineteen of his brothers, and causing ten of his 
father's wives to be thrown into the Bosphorus, in the fear that they 
might prove pregnant. His reign of nine years was marked throughout 
by cruelty and treachery, and just before his death he executed his own 
son and his son's mother on suspicion of treason. 

Ahmed I., second son of Muhammad III., succeeded to the throne 
a.d. 1 G04, at the age of fifteen ; and after a reign of twelve years he was 
succeeded by his brother, 

Mustafa I. (a.d. 1617), who made himself so odious by his savage 
disposition, that he was deposed by the Janissaries after a reign of three 
'months, and his nephew 

Osman II. was placed on the throne ; and after a brief reign of four 
years and four months he also was deposed, and Mustafa I. was once 
more elevated to the throne by the intrigues of the Janissaries. These 
were at this time a real Praetorian body, and very soon after put the 
sovereign of their choice to death. 

Amurad IV., son of Ahmed I., succeeded (a.d. 1622), and proved 
as sanguinary a tyrant as his grandfather Muhammad III. had been; 
for he perpetrated all sorts of excesses, some of which seem to be 
scarcely credible, — such, for example, as amusing himself by shooting 
his subjects from a balcony. The Pasha of Erzerum having thrown 
off his allegiance, and united with the Shah of Persia to devastate some 
of the Turkish provinces in Asia, Amurad marched at the head of 
200,000 men to stop their progress. With this immense force he 
entered Cilicia, and laid waste the Taurus and other countries. Hav- 
ing reduced Trebizond and Erzerum, he marched into Syria, with the 
intention of proceeding on a pilgrimage to Mecca ; but it appears that 
he did not go beyond Damascus, and returned to Constantinople in 
1635. Three years afterwards he undertook the conquest of Persia; 
but after taking Bagdad he was persuaded to sign a treaty of peace, and 
he again returned to Constantinople, to execute a project he had long 
been revolving in his mind, which was no less than the utter destruc- 
tion of the Ottoman race. Death, however, put an end to his design. 
The house which this sultan inhabited at Adana is still to be seen, 
but in a dilapidated condition. The door leading to the upper story is 
walled up, as, according to traditionary report, it is unlawful for any 
one to occupy the seat of the monarch, to prevent which this precau- 

SULTANS FROM 1640 TO 1807. 71 

tion was taken ; or perhaps, we might also conclude, in superstitions 
horror of his character and crimes. 

Ibrahim I., the brother of Amurad, succeeded him a.d. 1640. This 
prince fitted out an expedition against Candia. The siege is remarkable 
in history for the horrible murders and atrocities perpetrated during its 
progress ; but this island, the pride of the Archipelago, was not an- 
nexed to the Ottoman dominions till the reign of his successor. 

Ibrahim I. was strangled by the Janissaries a.d. 1648, and his son 
Muhammad IV., a boy seven years old, was placed on the throne. In 
the early part of the reign of this prince the siege of Candia was pushed 
with vigour, and terminated favourably for the Turks. In the latter 
part of Ibrahim's life the reverses he had met with in Hungary so 
enraged him, that he swore he would feed his horse on the altar of St. 
Peter at Eome. For this purpose he prepared a large army, with which 
he besieged Vienna in 1633, but was completely foiled and compelled to 
raise the siege by the bravery of the celebrated Sobieski. After a long 
reign of nearly forty years he was succeeded, a.d. 1687, by 

Sulaiman III. his brother, who only reigned three years. 

Ahmed II., brother of Sulaiman, succeeded in a.d. 1690, and reigned 
four years. 

Mustafa II., a nephew of the two former sultans, was elected by the 
Janissaries a.d. 1605, and, after a reign of eight years, was deposed in 
favour of his brother, 

Ahmed III., who, after an inglorious reign of twenty -seven years, 
was obliged to abdicate in favour of his nephew 

Muhammad V., who, raised to the throne a.d. 1730, reigned twenty- 
four years, and was then succeeded, in a.d. 1754, by his brother, 

Osman III., who reigned only two years, and was then succeeded by 
his nephew (a.d. 1757), 

Mustafa III., son of Muhammad V., during whose reign the wars 
with Eussia began. Mustafa III. was succeeded (a.d. 1776) by his 

Abd'ul Hamid I., who was not more fortunate in repelling the en- 
croachments of the Russians on his territory than his brother had been ; 
at his death the throne was filled (a.d. 1789) by 

Seliin III, the only son of Mustafa III. This ill-fated prince sus- 
tained repeated losses in his wars with Russia, in spite of the reforms in 
the army and navy which he introduced, and the adoption of European 
customs and improvements, and which proved so displeasing to the 
Janissaries that they deposed him, and soon after put him to death. 

Mustafa V., cousin of Selim III., was proclaimed sultan a.d. 1807 ; 



but he reigned only one year, when he was also murdered. Of the pre- 
tended son of this prince, Nadir Bey, I shall have occasion to speak 
further on. 

Mahmud II., the brother of Mustafa V., and the only surviving male 
of the Ottoman line, was raised to the throne a.d. 1808 by the Janissa- 
ries, and he proved himself superior to any of his predecessors in poli- 
tical courage and sagacity. He temporised and cajoled the Janissaries, 
until he could seize a fitting opportunity, which occurred on the 14th 
June, a.d. 1826, when he caused them all to be put to death, and 
restored tranquillity to the empire. His name will ever be memo- 
rable by the reforms he began, and which have since been slowly but 
steadily carried out by his son, Abd'ul Masjid, the present sultan, who 
ascended the throne on the 11th July, 1839, and a few months after 
gave to the world the before unheard-of spectacle of a despotic monarch 
granting voluntarily a constitution to his people, by the well-known 
Hatti Sherif of Gulhanah.* 

* As this document is quite unique in Eastern history, we give a few extracts : 
" These new institutions should have three objects in view : — first, to guarantee to 
our subjects perfect security of life, honour, and property ; secondly, the regular levy- 
ing and assessing of taxes ; and thirdly, a regular system for the raising of troops, and 
fixing the time of their service. 

" For, in truth, are not life and honour the most precious of all blessings ? What 
man, however averse his disposition to violent means, can withhold having recourse to 
them, and thereby injure both the government and his country, when both his life and 
honour are in jeopardy ? If, on the contrary, he enjoys in this resjuect full security, he 
will not stray from the paths of loyalty, and all his actions will tend to increase the 
pros2i>erity of the government and his countrymen. If there be absence of security of 
property, every one remains callous to the voice of his prince and country. No one 
cares about the progress of the public good, absorbed as one remains with the inse- 
curity of his own position. If, on the other hand, the citizen looks upon his property 
as secure, of whatever nature it be, then, full of ardour for his interests, of which for 
his own contentment ho endeavours to enlarge the sphere, thereby to extend that of 
his enjoyments, he feels every day in his heart the attachment for his prince and for 
his country grow stronger, as well as his devotedness to their cause. These senti- 
ments in him become the source of the most praiseworthy actions." 







The history* of the Ottoman Empire during the last two centuries, till 
we come to the epochs of Mahmud II. and of his son Abd'ul Masjid, 
furnishes little or no pleasing retrospect; but is on the whole a dark 
picture of tyranny, cruelty, and barbarism. The sultans, no longer 
permitted to be at the head of their armies, -were buried in the 
effeminacy of the seraglio and the mazes of an intriguing court. They 
gave up the administration of affairs to their officers, who sold the 
government of the provinces to the highest bidder, while the purchasers 
were permitted to indemnify themselves by the plunder of the towns 
and villages. The population, oppressed by repeated acts of injustice, 
were glad to screen themselves behind a lesser evil, and submit to the 
usurped rule of factious chiefs who became rebels to the authority of 
the Porte, and erected de facto petty independent kingdoms, which 
they left at their deaths either to their children or to the most in- 
triguing, brave, or impudent of their followers. The weakness of 
a government enfeebled by venality, and no longer maintained or 
held together by those principles which called it into existence, pre- 
vented the adoption of vigorous measures to punish rebellion, and sub- 
due those chiefs who had availed themselves of the general discontent 

* If a blank occurs in the history of Cilicia for the last two hundred years, the 
reason is, that no archives are kept in the provinces as at Constantinople, as each 
succeeding governor carries away with him in a bag the small bundle of official docu- 
ments ; and that for two reasons : first, because he is afraid to leave behind him any 
traces of his misrule, which might be employed subsequently by his enemies against 
him ; and secondly, from the summary way in which business is transacted, — mostly 
by word of mouth, — very few papers are necessary, and the small stock can be trans- 
ported with great facility, the whole object and aim of these governors being to 
make money as qiuckly as they can before the order for their recall is obtained by 
their enemies. 


to flatter their followers with the hope of impunity, and who were thus 
enabled to depose or set aside the pashas sent to execute the orders of the 
Porte ; and the ministers at Constantinople, unable to carry on the busi- 
ness of the government (or even to maintain themselves in their posts,) 
from the exhausted state of the treasury, drained by increasing luxury 
and extravagance, were induced to compound with a power they had not 
the means to destroy. 

From these causes may be traced the circumstance that, for a long 
series of years, many of the provinces, particularly those of Asia Minor, 
were wrested from the Porte, or merely held in nominal allegiance to it, 
by the strength of successive chieftains of powerful Turkman tribes, 
called " Darah Beys," vulgo Darah Begs, among whom the famous 
family of Kara Osman Uglu, " son of the black Osman," hold a dis- 
tinguished place. Cilicia has been in the same position, torn by con- 
tending factions of chiefs among the Turkman tribes which have in 
succession contended for the supreme authority; and I think it not 
irrelevant to my subject to follow up the history of some of these 
chieftains during the last forty-six years, which may perhaps expose 
in a clearer point of view the state to which the country has been 
reduced by the defective system of government above alluded to, and 
explain the effects of such a system on the provinces, better than a more 
studied or elaborate account. 

One of these Darah Beys, Khalil Bey, better known by the name 
of Kutchuk Ali Uglu,* was in 1800 a Turkman chief of the mountains 
in the vicinity of Bayas (near the ancient Issus), which is now almost 
deserted,! but in his time was a populous and flourishing town, that 
carried on a considerable trade with Egypt, and produced annually ten 

* A sketch of the life of Khalil Bey (or Bat/, the a pronounced as in nay, say, may, 
bay-tree, &c), commonly called Kutchuk Ali Uglu, has been published by Messrs. 
Mangles and Irby, and still more lately by Mr. Neale, in both cases from statements 
or documents obtained from my father, Mr. John Barker ; but as the real facts of the 
case have been much mutilated at second-hand, and as I shall have to give the life of 
the chieftain's two sons, which are intimately connected with the history of Cilicia, a 
more correct and detailed history will not perhaps be unwelcome to the reader, and 
will serve as an introduction to events in later times. 

•f- There are in the present day a group of very handsome buildings at Bayas. A 
spacious stone bazar, or more properly speaking, bazastain, solidly arched over, and 
approached by noble portals, opens at the centre, to the east, into a khan with a large 
paved yard, having a fountain in the centre, and the usual stables with galleried apart- 
ments above. 

To the west, another passage, after leading by some massive domed buildings which 
constituted the public Hammam or bath, opens into a court-yard, at one end of which 
is a pretty little mosque (masjid) with a graceful minaret (minar), and at the other the 
entrance to a polygonal castle of considerable strength and dimensions. This is in- 
deed the most complete and compact thing of its kind to be met with perhaps in the 


thousand pcmnds of silk. Kutchuk Ali laid the foundation of his power 
by making nocturnal excursions from the mountains to rob the gardens 
of Bayas. Some gardeners, with a view to purchase exemption from 
his depredations, stipulated to pay him a trifling yearly tribute, or blaclc- 
ninil. Their example was followed by others, who were petty merchants, 
glad to secure the mass of their property by entering into similar 
engagements; and from a rotolo* of coffee, or a few rotolos of rice, the 
whole town became at length compelled to furnish a stated contri- 

This fund enabled Kutchuk Ali to support himself at the head of a 
band of forty or fifty robbers; and he then aspired to render himself 
master of the place. He began by waylaying the heads of the principal 
families ; and in the course of a few years he succeeded in exterminating 
every individual of such as possessed any weight or influence at Bayas 
or in its territory. The last member of the most influential of these 
families, whose adherents he could neither subdue by open force nor 
corrupt by bribery, successfully contended for some time with him for 
the supreme authority, till at length Kutchuk Ali, having lulled his 
suspicions by giving him his daughter in marriage, murdered him with 
his own hands; and he has often been heard to warn his own children 
against a male infant the offspring of that marriage; advising them to 
crush the crocodile in the egg, lest he should one day revenge on them 
his father's blood. j" "With a very inconsiderable number of dependents, 
who often did not exceed 200 in number, Kutchuk Ali succeeded in 
impressing Avith terror and dismay the minds of the people by a system 
of cruelty, continued for many years; and he occasioned much trouble 
to the Porte, between whom and the rebel there existed, however, a 

East. Every thing that is essential to the nucleus of an oriental city is gathered into 
the smallest possible compass, and is in excellent preservation. 

These structures are attributed in the Mecca Itinerary to Ibraham Khan-Zadah, 
better known as Sakali Muhammad Pasha, or the " bearded pasha Muhammad," who 
was wuzir to Sultan Sulaiman II. 

The river of Bayas flows past these buildings on the soutli side ; and at the port, 
distant about a mile and a half, is a castle with a square bawn and a small village. 
The modem village of Bayas, where the governor resides, is about two and a half 
miles north, upon another and lesser rivulet ; and between the two is the village of 
Kuratas. There is also a small village of Syrians of the Greek Church on the river, 
a little above the castle and khan of Bayas. This, as the site also of the antique Bale 
or baths, was certainly one of the most charming spots on the coast of Syria. — W. F. A. 

* A rotolo is a Turkish weight, varying in different parts of the empire ; in Cilicia 
it is equal to five and a half pounds. 

f Kutchuk Ali Uglu's second son, Mustuk Bey, as we shall see by the sequel, 
mindful of his father's injunctions, actually put them in practice, and murdered this 
unfortunate individual. 


reciprocal desire to be on a footing of friendship, founded on mutual 
advantage, and which prevented their continuing long on terms of either 
real or ostensible hostility. 

Kutchuk Ali's territorial government was, it may naturally be 
imagined, such as to afford him but very slender means of drawing 
wealth from the impoverished inhabitants of Bayas and its environs. 
His revenue, therefore, in a great measure, was derived from the casual 
passage of travellers and caravans through his territory, and whom he 
laid under such contributions as he thought they would bear, rather than 
be obliged, by going another way, to make a very inconvenient journey. 
Sometimes his rapacity and naturally brutal inclinations impelled him 
to overstep the bounds he meant to prescribe to his own extortions, and 
then the Porte testified its displeasure by prohibiting travellers from 
passing through Bayas. As soon as the rebel found his coffers in need 
of fresh supplies, the Porte succeeded in forcing him to sue for pardon, 
which was seldom long withheld, on account of the necessity of procuring 
a safe passage for the annual grand caravan of pilgrims from Constanti- 
nople to Mecca, which Avas obliged either to pass through his territory 
or to make a circuitous and fatiguing journey through the mountains 
of Cappadocia. When the caravan of pilgrims came into Kutchuk All's 
dominions, it yielded him a very considerable revenue; for he taxed 
every individual according to his own caprice, but always, however, 
with an eye to the rule above mentioned. On the approach of this 
caravan to Bayas, Kutchuk Ali sent some of his household to compli- 
ment on his arrival the chief of the caravan — a personage of great dis- 
tinction, who dismissed the rebel's emissaries with rich presents for him. 
On such occasions, the horses it was customary to present to Kutchuk 
Ali would be returned, with a hint that they would be preferred com- 
pletely accoutred in the usual gilt and silver trappings. Much time 
was invariably lost in negotiating and stipulating the precise tribute 
required, but as invariably the measure of his rapacity was filled, the 
caravan was permitted to proceed. 

In order the better to dispose the pilgrims to submit to his extor- 
tions, Kutchuk Ali was always careful to exhibit, as proofs both of his 
power and his cruelty, the spectacle of two bodies impaled at the gate of 
Bayas. It happened on one of these occasions, when the caravan was 
approaching, that his prisons were empty, and he had no victims that 
he could impale. He imparted his embarrassment to a convivial com- 
panion. " The caravan," said he, " will be here to-morroAV, and we 
have not yet prepared the customary execution. Look ye, pick me out 
two from among my servants." His friend expostulated ; and while he 


was endeavouring to induce him to abandon his design by the assurance 
that every thing would proceed in due order without the execution in 
question, Kutchuk Ali, still revolving the matter in his mind, and stroking 
his beard, exclaimed, " I have it: go fetch me Yakub the Christian; he 
has been four months in bed sick of a fever, and can never recover." 
The poor wretch was forthwith dragged out of his bed, strangled, impaled, 
and hung up! When it is considered that the forces of this monster did 
not exceed two hundred armed men, it becomes a matter of surprise, 
even to those who are well aware of the once existing weakness and in- 
dhTerence of the Sultan's government, that such a bandit could have been 
so long allowed to brave the authority of the Porte. But it was at that 
time rendered almost powerless by evils and abuses that have since, to a 
great extent, been remedied and corrected. 

Kutchuk Ali was well aware that his usurped power rested on the 
tottering foundation of public opinion, and the little arts he put in 
practice with a view to conceal his weakness are characteristic and 
curious. Whenever an individual of distinction came into his terri- 
tory (which was only to be approached through dense woods), in order 
to deceive the new comer by an ostentatious display of his forces, he dis- 
posed his men in the thickets, so as to pass and repass at several points 
before the traveller like soldiers on a stage; thus the reports even of 
an ocular witness became fallacious, and the power of Kutchuk Ali 
was extolled and exaggerated all over the Turkish dominions. He also 
erected numerous tall towers, which he scattered along the eminences of 
his mountains, and which from afar appeared like the turrets of so many 
impregnable castles. They were, however, in reality nothing more than 
rude edifices composed of mud and straw, and white-washed with lime, 
which a night's heavy rain frequently damaged. 

Kutchuk Ali also occupied the narrow passage known in history, 
more especially in the Anabasis, as the Cilician and Syrian gates, as 
well as the castle of Bayas. It was at this latter spot that Heraclius 
in his first campaign disembarked, choosing it as the most secure spot 
in which to strengthen himself and concentrate his forces against the 

Cicero also apparently writes to his friend from this place : " Castra 
habemus ea ipsa qua? contra Darium habuerat apud Issum Alexander 
Imperator, haud paulo melior quam tu aut ego." 

Its modern name is derived perhaps from the Turkish word laijaz 
(white), descriptive of the snow that for a great part of the year is seen 
on the summit of its grey mountainous cliffs, which descend abruptly 


towards the sea, leaving a narrow tract between its precipices and the 

Kutchuk Ali was short in stature, and in 1800 appeared to be about 
sixty years of age; his body was thick-set and muscular, and his head 
disproportionably large. His face was round, bluff, and flat, and it was 
rendered apparently flatter by a chronic disorder which had carried 
away the bones of his nose, and caused him to snuffle as he arti- 
culated ; and it is remarkable that his son, Mustuk Bey, speaks much 
in the same way, although he is quite free from any infirmity. But 
this is a fashionable tone prevalent among the Turks, and which they 
ape from one another, doubtless considering it very impressive and 
sonorous. Kutchuk Ali had nevertheless a very insinuating address, and 
often deceived by his mild and courteous demeanour those who did not 
discriminate his real character in the tiger-like glances of his restless eye. 
When he was raised to the high rank of a Pasha of three tails, he altered 
nothing from the rude simplicity of his way of life when only a Turkman 
freebooter. As an instance of this he had two wives, who so far from 
being secluded and guarded by eunuchs (yunuks) in splendid apart- 
ments, Avere in no way distinguished from the other women of his family. 
They made bread and fetched water from the spring unveiled, having 
only one distinction, that of occupying exclusively two separate rooms, 
which were divided by a slight wooden partition, instead of the curtain 
which served the same purpose in the tents of his forefathers. When- 
ever he intended to honour one of his consorts with his company, 
he sent to bid her prepare for the occasion; and the thought being 
always suggested when he was wholly or partially intoxicated, the 
poor woman had generally to watch in vain for his appearance, while 
he gradually sank down on his carpet in forgetfulness of everything 
in this world. But however deep might have been his nocturnal po- 
tations, he always rose at the first dawn of day to call his men to their 
daily labours, and in all seasons and in all weathers accompanied 
them to the field of their toils. He sat without mat or carpet on the 
ground to superintend their operations, which were not, as might be 
supposed, in the chief industry of the country (mulberry-plantations for 
silkworms), nor in the useful labours of rearing garden fruits and vege- 
tables, of which he knew not the want. His habitual occupations were 

* Between Bayas and Alexandretta is the river Markatz (ancient Kersus), with 
village and castle (Markatz Kalahsi) on its banks, and ruins towards the sea-shore ; 
while beyond is the Macedonian relic now called Sakal Tutan, — the Bomitfc or altars 
of Pliny, — all comprised within the Cilician and Syrian Gates. — W. F. A. 


in pulling down, rebuilding, and changing the form of the white-washed 
turrets and sham battlements before described, with the view, no doubt, 
of preventing revolt among his followers by keeping them constantly 
employed in hard labour. 

He prided himself on the discipline he maintained. " I am not," he 
would say, " as other Darah Beys are,* fellows without faith, who allow 
their men to stop travellers on the king's highway; — I am content with 
what God sends me. I await his good pleasure, and, A llmmdUllah (God 
be praised), he never leaves me long in want of any thing." 

Upon Ali's attaining the rank of Pasha it was thought in- 
dispensable that he should exchange the Turkman sash and turban for 
the kciuk, a head-dress of distinction. A Tartar accidentally passing 
through Bayas was commissioned to bring him one, but it proved to be 
too small for his head: he wrote for another, but it again fell short of the 
proper dimensions. Disgusted at his ill-success, he gave up the attempt, 
coming to the conclusion, as he said, that if kaxdes could not be made 
for heads, his head could not be made expressly for them. 

In 1798, Mr. Fowls, master of an English vessel in the harbour of 
Alexandretta, went with four of his men to water at the Markatz Chai, 
a river in the territory of Bayas, at a place before alluded to, and called 
by sailors Jonas' Pillars. Here they were seized by Kutchuk Ali Uglu, 
and thrown into prison, and a large sum was demanded for their release. 
Before the necessary arrangements could be made for its payment, the 
master was driven by despair to put a period to his existence by pre- 
cipitating himself from a high tower in which he was confined; and all 
the others perished soon after, except a boy twelve years old, named 
Charles Edwards, who was sent by Kutchuk Ali as a present to his 
friend Mr. Masseyk, Dutch consul at Aleppo. It is not known exactly 
what measures were taken by the mission at Constantinople to obtain 
the necessary satisfaction for this act of violence, but it is certain that 
none was ever given by the savage perpetrator. 

Two years after this event (in 1800) a French ship from Marseilles, 
richly laden with merchandise fur Aleppo, was, by the captain's igno- 
rance of the locality, taken under the walls of Bayas, when the master, 
with a part of the crew, supposing that they had anchored at Alexan- 
dretta, landed in search of the consular establish ment, and were con- 
ducted to the governor, who received them with every mark of hospi- 

* Chiefs of Turkman tribes, and self-appointed governors of districts in Turkey, 
whom the Porte used to find it necessary to confirm in their posts, and even to load 
with presents and raiso to various dignities, in order to obtain through their means 
a portion of the contributions which they levy, — having no better means to enforce 


tality ; but while he was entertaining them with a sumptuous repast, his 
men were occupied in taking possession of the vessels. This accomplished, 
he immediately unloaded and sunk the ship, sending the crew by land 
to the French consul at Alexandretta. Remonstrances were made to 
him on this act of violence by all the consular authorities at Aleppo, 
and in particular by his intimate friend the Dutch consul, to whom he 
replied in these terms : 

" My dear friend, — You know very well that consistently with the 
friendship subsisting between us, property and life itself are indifferent 
matters. Nay, I swear by God, that for your sake I would sacrifice my 
son Dada Bey; but I entreat you not to drive me to the extremity of 
denying you what it is impossible for me to grant. My dear friend, 
place yourself in my position. I am in disgrace with my sovereign, 
without having given him any just cause for this displeasure ; I am 
threatened with attacks from the four quarters of the earth ; I am with- 
out money, I am without means ; and the ever-watchful providence of 
the Almighty sends me a vessel laden with merchandise ! Say, would 
you in my place lay hold of it or not ? I know very well the Franks 
will claim restitution of the property from the Sublime Porte, and that 
is precisely what I want, because an opportunity will then be offered to 
me of negotiating my pardon." 

On the receipt of this letter all hopes of recovering any thing by ami- 
cable means were given up in despair, and the French consul made ap- 
plication to his superior at Constantinople, and obtained several imperial 
commands on the subject. Three Turkish caravallas (ships of war) 
were sent to Bayas to enforce obedience to the orders of the Porte. 
Kutchuk Ali retired to his mountains. The caravallas fired a few guns 
against empty houses and dilapidated fortresses, and in a very short 
time, having consumed their stock of provisions, the officers and men 
on board were glad to accept such as were liberally tendered them by 
Kutchuk Ali, who soon obtained, through the customary means of brib- 
ing with French watches and fine French broadcloth, the good will of 
all the commanders of the ships sent against him. So great was their 
astonishment and satisfaction at the rebel's princely magnificence, that 
they contracted with him solemn engagements of private friendship, and 
promised him their intercession in his behalf with the Porte on their 
return to Constantinople. The dignity of an additional tail was ob- 
tained for him on this occasion, with an imperial firman pro forma, 
ordering restitution of the property. In compliance with this order, 
Kutchuk Ali addressed a letter to the French consul at Aleppo to an- 
nounce that he was ready to obey the commands of the sultan, but the 


cargo of the ship in question having been converted to use, he offered as 
an equivalent to make over to the proprietors of the goods sundry plan- 
tations belonging to him in the territory of Bayas. The merchants of 
Aleppo rejected with scorn the proposal, as adding insult to injustice ; 
particularly as they considered that the environs of Bayas are unhealthy, 
and their agents would be liable to take the malignant fever of the place 
whilst directing such an arduous enterprise as the cultivation of land. 
The neighbourhood was also reputed dangerous ; and the poverty of the 
inhabitants was supposed to render it impossible for them to sell any 
produce for a quarter of its value. Yet the merchants could not obtain 
any other redress.* 

In the beginning of 1801, Mr. John Masseyk, Dutch Consul-general 
in Aleppo, was arrested by Kutchuk Ali Uglu, as he was returning from 
Constantinople, although furnished with an imperial firman for the ex- 
ercise of his official functions, at a jDeriod when the Porte was at j>eace 
with Holland. The proceedings of Kutchuk Ali on this occasion will 
serve to elucidate his character, which will be exhibited in a curious 
light when it is considered that there had for many years previous to 
the detention of the Dutch consul existed between him and the pasha, 
as has already been observed, habits of the most cordial friendship and 
interchange of gifts, according to oriental custom. 

On the arrival of the consul at Bayas he was immediately thrown 
into prison, bound with chains, and stripped of everything except the 
apparel he wore. But the pasha, with great circumspection, avoided all 
opportunities of being thrown in contact with his prisoner; for it is a 
peculiarity worthy of remark, that this tyrant, whenever he ordered a 
bad action to be committed, kept himself personally aloof from the scene 
of its perpetration, from an idea that it would lower his importance to 
assume the office of executioner to his own orders^ or perhaps in this in- 
stance from very shame for thus ill-treating an old friend. The sum 
fixed for the consul's ransom Avas 25,000 piastres of those days (about 
2000/.); but being unable to produce more than 7500, Mr. Maaseyk 
underwent during the period of eight months every species of ill-usage. 
Every means was tried to force him to embrace the Muhammadan re- 
ligion, and to extort from him the money required for his ransom ; to 
which end they would at one time confine him in a damp dungeon with- 

* No doubt, fevers prevail at Bayas at certain seasons of the year, as in otl. 
of the coast of Syria ; but the situation is open and dry, the soil gravelly yet fertile, 
and well supplied with clear and rapid streams. The climate is mild and serene ; th< re 
is no marshy ground except at Markatz, which could be easily drained. Altogether; 
Bayas is differently circumstanced to Alexandretta, and would appear to be as healthy, 
as fertile, and ought to be as wealthy, as any snot on the coast of Syria. — W. P. A. 



out light, and often without sustenance for twenty-four hoius. At an- 
other they would threaten him with immediate death ; and once, in order 
to shew that their menaces were not wholly nugatory, two innocent 
wretches, who had been arrested under similar circumstances with him- 
self, were impaled before him, for having delayed, as he was informed, 
to procure the money for their ransom. 

When the news spread abroad that Kutchuk Ah had entrapped an 
European, the mountaineers descended in crowds to see how much 
humanity the tyrant exhibited; and Mr. Masseyk used to relate that 
being one day engaged in writing, a man who had thrust his head 
through the bars of his prison-window, after contemplating his person 
and occupation for some time, exclaimed with reproachful indignation, 
" What, is it possible the wretch is so lost to all sense of shame as to hold an 
effendi(a, clerk) in captivity?" referring evidently to the well-known rights 
and immunities enjoyed by the learned, as weU in this barbarous region as 
in Europe. This picture indeed resembles more the state of society in the 
twelfth and thirteenth centuries than that of the nineteenth ; and to those 
who are unacquainted with Oriental ideas and customs, which have un- 
dergone so few changes for centuries past, might appear unfaithful to 
nature, were it not for what history has related of those dark ages. 

Although Kutchuk Ali persisted in refusing to admit his prisoner to 
his presence, he more than once sent to him his lieutenant with consoling 
messages to assure him of his sympathy. " Tell him," said he, " that un- 
fortunately my coffers were empty when his fate brought him into this 
territory; but let him not despair, God is great and mindful of us. Such 
vicissitudes of fortune are inseparable from the fate of men of renown, 
■and from the lot of all born to fill high stations. Bid him be of good 
cheer ; a similar doom has twice been mine, and once during nine months 
in the condemned cell of Abd'ul Eahman Pasha : but I never despaired 
of God's mercy, and all came right at last, — Alia karim (God is 

At length, fortunately for this poor man, the arrival at Bayas of a 
caravan from Smyrna proceeding to Aleppo afforded Kutchuk Ali Uglu 
an excuse for extorting his ransom from the travelling merchants by 
obliging them to advance the money on the bond of his prisoner, whom 
he delivered into their hands as a slave sold to them for 17,500 piastres. 
This was a debt beyond Mr. Masseyk's means of discharging at once, 
but he paid it off by instalments, not without the hope that the 
Dutch Eepublic would come to his assistance. This it did in part, but 
he never recovered the whole amount. The restriction placed on his 
person proved, however, beneficial to the consul in one respect, inasmuch 


as he was by means of the rigid prison fare entirely cured of the gout, to 
which he had been much subjected previous to his incarceration; and he 
has frequently remarked to his friends, that Kutchuk Ali had in this 
respect unwittingly conferred on him an almost priceless favour, and had 
proved himself a better physician than friend. 

The Porte at different times sent several pashas with considerable 
forces against this rebel ; but whether owing to the natural defences that 
abound in the precipitous mountains, covered with forests into which he 
retreated, or to the system of compromise already described, the Sultan 
was never able to subdue him during forty years' existence in open de- 
fiance of his authority.* 

Such is the individual whom Mr. John Barker, then British Con- 
sul at Aleppo, to whom I am mainly indebted for the foregoing facts, 
had the address to propitiate, in order to facilitate the transmission of 
despatches from the East India Company, which passed through his 
hands ; and his influence with the rebel was so great, that he once in- 
duced him to give up goods to the amount of 6G00/., belonging to British 
merchants, which he had seized along with other property. 

* My readers will perhaps be startled on hearing that, in the beginning of the pre- 
sent century, there was so little personal security even in the vicinity of a well-fre- 
quented harbour like that of Alexandrctta, that the crews of two European vessels 
could have been subjected to such treatment, or that such an affront as the incarcera- 
tion of a public officer could have been suffered to pass without redress of any kind 
having been obtained from the Porte. Let us hope, however, that as time has wrought 
many changes in Turkey since the establishment of the Nizam, or regular troops, by 
Sultan Mahniud, by which some of the chief rebels have been crashed and piracy put 
down in the Mediterranean, that a new turn to this state of things has been now defi- 
nitively brought about, and that the light which is dawning even in the benighted 
East will prevent the recurrence of such scenes. 








In 1808 Kutchuk Ali Uglu died, and was succeeded by his son 
Dada Bey. Mr. Masseyk, while in prison, having gained the goodwill 
of Dada Bey, conceived the hope that he might be induced to make 
him some reparation for the ill-treatment he had met with at his father's 
hands ; and he wrote him a letter of condolence on his recent bereave- 
ment, in which he took occasion to remind him of the reprobation he 
had always expressed of his late parent's cruelty, and in a particular 
manner of his injustice to himself. Dada Bey received Mr. Masseyk's 
application with the usual tokens of sympathy and aflection,but replied, 
" My dearest friend, you know very well that were I called upon to 
make restitution of all the money my late father (God have mercy on 
his soul !) unjustly acquired during a long life, all the stones of the 
mountains of Bayas converted into gold would not suffice." 

Dada Bey was of large stature, and had an expressive countenance 
and a fine full black beard: he was about thirty years old when he suc- 
ceeded to his father. He had not, however, the same tact and cunning, 
as he evinced in the circumstance of his being unable to keep out of the 
grasp of his enemies for more than nine years ; and during this period 
he encouraged his people in all kinds of piracy, and his boats infested 
the coast, attacking vessels at anchor off Alexandretta, and among others 
a large ship belonging to Abdalla Bey, son of Abd'ul Eahman, Pasha of 

An individual still living, who formed one" of an expedition under- 
taken to carry off some ships at Ivaisanli, the roadstead of Tarsus, 
related to me the following fact: 

" We were twenty- two in number, and started one night from Ivara- 
Tash (Black Eock, ancient Mallus and Megarsus,) in a small boat. We 
found eleven small brigs of the country moored at Ivaisanli, loading and 


unloading. We attacked them one by one with as little noise as possi- 
ble. As they were not armed, and were taken by surprise, we had no 
difficulty in binding such of the crew as made any resistance ; and having 
cut the cables, we made use of the lads on boai'd to manoeuvre the ves- 
sels, which we brought safely to Bayas, where they were detained till 
their proprietors sent large sums to ransom them." 

Amin Pasha Chiapan Uglu, who governed at Uzgat, received an 
order from the Porte to send the head of Dada Bey to Constantinople. 
The Turkman chief of Uzgat sent 2000 irregular troops of those days to 
accompany an expedition which he ordered to be assembled from among 
the various Turkman tribes in the district of Tarsus and Adana : Kur- 
mud-uglu Ali Bey, Kalaga, Bashaga, Tur-uglu, and Takal-uglu, from 
the territory of the former ; and Osman Bey Jarid (son of Hussain 
Pasha), Ma!amangi-uglu, Kara Hajili, Karagiya, and Hamid Bey, 
father of Haji Ali Bey, from that of the latter. These chiefs collected 
about twelve or fifteen thousand men, and encamped on the sea-shore 
near Bayas for many days, without being able to make up their minds 
what plan to adopt in attacking the lion in his den; at last they agreed 
with Abd'ul Rahman Pasha of Baylan, and Chulak-uglu of Mar'ash, to 
fall upon him on all sides at the same time. 

Dada Bey, who had more friends than enemies in this motley band, 
composed of all his neighbours, being informed by his spies of the position 
of the tent which contained the ammunition of the troops, sent a boat 
in the night, with two cannons of wood filled with powder and old nails. 
These were disembarked by some of his men, Avho having succeeded in 
placing them near the tent, set fire to the match and retreated to the boat. 
Only one exploded, and it had no other effect than that of awakening 
the astounded chiefs, who the next morning gave orders for a general 
attack. Dada Bey wished for nothing so much as to try the mettle of 
his men against a multitude of peasants, who he knew were assembled 
against their inclination to make war on a person whom they considered 
invincible. He posted Jin Yusuf of Karatash and a few men in the fort, 
with strict orders not to fire till the enemy arrived so close that every shot 
might tell, and to wait the signal of a discharge of tw r o cannons from the 
turret above. He himself, with about 100 picked horsemen, fell on the 
troops in the rear; while Jin Yusuf, on the first volley, killed forty men; 
and the roaring of the cannon from above, the shot of which came over 
the heads of the dismayed Turkmans, sufficed to inspire all the terror 
he could desire. In half an hour there was no one to oppose him in 
the field, from which the soldiers retreated to Adana, and the Turkmans 
dispersed to their respective homes. Thus it constantly happened be- 


fore the institution of the Nizam, that when any of the Turkman chiefs 
revolted, the Porte had no effectual means of compelling them to obe- 
dience, but was obliged to have recourse to the neighbouring tribes, who 
were unwilling to excite a lasting feud among their relatives (as they all 
intermarry), and only made a feint of attacking them. Thus the govern- 
ment was obliged to conform to their desires by coming to a compromise, 
wherein the outward dignity of the Porte was only consulted, whilst all 
the interests of these petty rebels were attended to, inasmuch as they 
were only submissive as long as it suited their purpose. 

That which could not be effected by open violence was, however, 
effected by treachery. Mustafa Pasha, son of Abd'ul Rahman, Pasha of 
Baylan, Dada Bey's neighbour and personal enemy, seized on an ac- 
cidental opportunity of destroying him. During four years that Mustafa 
had been pasha at Adana, he had endeavoured, by influence and in- 
trigues at Constantinople, to obtain from the government an order that 
the whole of the country as far as Baylan, his native town, should be 
placed under his orders. Having accomplished this object, the first 
thing he did was to summon Dada Bey to submit to his authority, 
which of coiirse the latter refused to do. Whereupon Mustafa Pasha 
sent his brother Ismail Bey, with four or five thousand men, to Bayas. 
Dada Bey, happening to pass alone at this time through a village close 
by, was betrayed by an old woman into the hands of a Baylanli named 
Tal-uglu, who chanced to be there. This man, with the assistance of a 
few others, succeeded in taking Dada Bey by surprise, when they bound 
him and took him prisoner to Adana. The people of the country had 
such an instinctive dread of Dada Bey, that it is reported that even the 
pasha refused to see him till he had been heavily chained. Dada Bey 
retorted upon his exulting enemy in terms of indignation all the insults 
he had received, and expressed infinite contempt for " a wretch who 
could so abuse the power which chance had given him over a fallen 
lion? His head was nevertheless cut off and sent to Constantinople, and 
his body was burnt in the court-yard under the windows of the palace, 
and the ashes scattered to the winds. Such Avas the insatiable feud that 
existed between these families ! 

Mustafa Pasha had in earlier years killed his brother Mulla Bey, 
in order to become master of Baylan ; but another brother, Abdullah 
Bey, raised the populace against him and drove him away. He pro- 
ceeded to Constantinople, where he obtained the pashalik of Adana, 
which he held seven years; he was then sent to Erzerum, and after- 
wards to Aleppo, where he remained two years. Prom this place he 
went to Acre, to attack Abdullah Pasha of that place; and he acted as 


lieutenant to Durwish or Dervish Pasha, commander-in-chief of the 
troops. He then returned to Aleppo for another year and a half, and 
was thence removed to the governorship of Damascus; and when at 
that place, he laid Jerusalem imder heavy contributions. He was after- 
wards transferred to Bosna and Kurk-Kilisa, and subsequently he ob- 
tained the command of some troops, with whom he treacherously at- 
tacked the Russians in time of a truce or peace. On the Russian mission 
representing this perfidy to the Porte, he was, in outward appearance, 
disgraced and sent to Brusa, where he was lately living, as a private 
individual, in the enjoyment of his ill-acquired wealth, the reward of 
his crimes and cruelties. Few such adventurers, however, meet with 
such good fortune. They rarely escape the intrigues entered into against 
them, and generally return to the same state of obscurity as that from 
which they emerged, unless possessed of extraordinary ability, or of 
means to bribe their way to other employments as lucrative, by large 
sums which they have had time to amass during their stewardship. 
"When well supported, they frequently secure the pecuniary assistance of 
their Armenian bankers (sarraffs), which they repay with an interest of 
50 per cent. 

People may have read in the newspapers published at Constantinople 
of such an effendi, to whom every virtue is attributed, having been pro- 
moted for his patriotic conduct to a post of distinction, and might have 
been led to imagine these men to be something above the common order 
of Turks ; whereas those who, like myself, have had opportunities of 
knowing the truth, are aware that they were generally chosen from 
among the servants of older pashas. 

On the death of Dada Bey, a.d. 1817, his brother Mustuk Bey, 
then twelve years old, took refuge in Maraash with Kalandar Pasha, 
and with whom he remained for some years, till after the departure of 
Mustafa Pasha ; and during his minority of ten years, his uncle Zaitun- 
uglu governed for him. 

On his return to Bayas in 1827, Mustuk Bey was attacked by Haji 
All Bey;* at the same time that a certain Kel-Aga, chief of the Turk- 
man tribe of Kugiuli, whose residence was in the mountains to the 

* This man had constituted himself master of Adana and independent of the Porte's 
authority, and ho had driven Muhammad Pasha (who had hought the post of governor 
of this province, and was on his way to take possession of his government) back from 
Kulak Bughaz. Muhammad Pasha was by this flagrant act of rebellion reduced to 
the necessity of returning to the capital, where he complained of his having been sent 
to occupy a post, which had cost him a large sum, of which he could not take quiet 
possession ; and the pashalik of Erzeruni was assigned to him to compensate him for 
his loss. After the usual delays in nominations of this kind, he was installed governor 
of that district. 


north-westward of Taurus, and who had become absolute master of 
this last-mentioned town, thinking this a favourable moment to take 
Adana, had proceeded against that town with a large body of followers. 
Haji Ah Bey, hearing of this movement, made peace immediately with 
the young Mustuk Bey, and by a forced retrograde march reached 
Adana; and coming suddenly upon the encampment of Kel-Aga at 
night, and in the outskirts of the town, he surprised the chief, who was 
found dead drunk, and had his head cut off on the spot. 

The father and grandfather of Kel-Aga both lost their heads in 
rebellion, the one by means of the bands of Tur-uglu, and the other 
by Sadik Aga; and Durwish Ahmed, son of Kel-Aga, is not an un- 
worthy descendant of such ancestors. As a young man, Ahmed held 
the government of all the villages to the westward of Tarsus, in which 
Mursina and Kaisanli are included. Being related to most of the in- 
fluential families of the country, he did what he pleased with impunity, 
abandoning himself to all and every imaginable excess. A dozen 
horsemen accompanied him wherever he went, and were made the 
ministers of his pleasures and vices by dragging instantly to his pre- 
sence any woman or child he might call for in his drunken fits. The 
inhabitants of the villages in his district were obliged to submit to his 
heavy impositions, and to furnish the sum requisite to complete the 
taxes due from nearly a thousand persons whom he exempted from all 
contributions, because he shared with them the produce of their lands. 
This system of " protection," as it is termed, used to be very general in 
the Ottoman dominions; the ayans or nobles of all the large cities 
appropriating to themselves a large tract of country by sharing the 
produce with the proprietors, who give up a third or fourth of their 
income for the advantage of being exempted from paying the dues to 
government. This exemption the nobles were enabled to afford them, 
being members of the council of the city, to whom all political affairs 
were referred in conjunction with the pasha. The pasha himself was 
generally, if not invariably, won over to their party, for without their 
participation he could not hope to carry on public business. Thus they 
contrived to protect each other's interests, and the whole weight of taxa- 
tion fell on the poorer classes and those who had not the advantage of 
an "ayan's support." This system resembled in some respect the feudal, 
and took its origin when the country was ruled by rebel chiefs, whose 
partisans were respected by their independent colleagues in return for 
the same courtesy mutually shewn to one another. 

Intrigue and the love of power perpetuated this state of things after 
the cause which had given rise to it had vanished, and it was carried 


on in miniature in all the villages, each elder having his protected. 
Durwish Ahmed had led this dissipated life for some time after his 
father's death, when his cousin, Mustafa Aga, was induced to bribe the 
governor of Tarsus with 15,000 piastres to appoint him instead of 
Ahmed; and he was accordingly summoned to Tarsus, where he agreed 
to appear at the governor's house, on the guarantee of his father-in-law 
and chief of the Zaims (Turkish irregular troops). On this occasion, 
an account of the revenue that had passed through his hands was 
demanded of him, and he was brought in a debtor to the government 
of 95,000 piastres. Ahmed evaded paying any portion of this by 
privately bribing the governor with a sum for himself of 30,000 pi- 
astres; and he might, probably, have been re-established in his post, 
had not the governor been shortly afterwards recalled. 

But to return to Haji Ali Bey. A year after the death of K el- Aga, 
(a.d. 1828,) Hussain Pasha, general-in-chief of the army sent into Syria 
against Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt, arrived in Cilicia at the head of his 
troops. Haji Ali Bey, unable to resist so overwhelming a force, was 
compelled to dissimulate; and therefore, putting on the semblance of 
perfect submission, he went as far as Kulak Bughaz to meet the com- 
mander-in-chief, and busied himself in procuring means of transport for 
the army, at the same time furnishing the troops with provisions of all 
kinds. Hussain Pasha, acting under the orders, doubtless, of the Porte, 
was glad of an opportunity of destroying a Darah Bey who had become 
so formidable and independent as to have refused to receive a pasha 
sent by the Sultan to his district, and who might cause some uneasiness 
by tampering with the Egyptians. He accordingly resolved to manage 
matters so as to induce him to go to Constantinople; and in order to 
lull his suspicions, treated the Turkman chief with marked distinction 
until the army had passed the formidable pass of the Cilician gates, 
when the pasha having no further need of his services, he exhibited 
a firman he pretended to have just received, but which he had had long- 
by him, wherein Haji Ali Bey was ordered to proceed to Constantinople, 
and promised that there he should be preferred to great honours for his 
late services. The Turkman chief fell into the snare, and on his arrival 
at Constantinople he was put under arrest, and soon afterwards dis- 
appeared, in the same way as many others have done before him. 

As the head of Haji Ali Bey was exacted from his keeper, that of 
some other man, who may have died about that time, was procured; 
and the escape of the Haji having at the same time been connived at, 
he found his way from a Turkish bath, disguised in a Frank dress, on 
board a vessel then setting sail for Italy. The bribes requisite for this 


manoeuvre had completely stripped liim of every thing of any value, 
and he was maintained by the government of the Pope, as a convert 
to the Catholic religion, under the name of Signor Giovanni, on an 
allowance of a dollar a day. 

His family, hearing of his escape, sent an old Christian servant who 
had brought him up to see and identify him, and if possible to persuade 
him to return. The man came back with assurances that Haji Ali Bey 
was really alive, and passing under the assumed character of a Christian 
in Europe ; but that he refused to return to his country until his great 
enemy old Khusru Pasha should be no more. It was further reported 
that Haji Ali Bey, during the long period of his exile, had once visited 
the province in European costume, and that a Turk who saw him at the 
French consulate in Tarsus was observed to say, " That Frank, sir, is so 
like Haji Ali Bey, that were it not for his being in this dress, and his 
ignorance of Turkish, I should have no doubt it was he, in spite of his 
being reported dead." 

When the army of the sultan was routed by Ibrahim Pasha in 1832, 
MustukBey did not fail to conciliate the favour of the conqueror by pillag- 
ing the vanquished, and he was confirmed in his government of Bayas, 
which he kept for several years ; but he could not bear the restraint of 
the regular and strict discipline of the Egyptian soldier, and he retired to 
the territory of Marash. Ibrahim Pasha, however, finding it difficult to 
maintain order among the turbulent factions of the Turkmans, who were 
continually in revolt and committing all kinds of disorders, and his time 
being too much taken up with more important matters to admit of par- 
ticular attention to the mountain of Bayas (over which he was obliged, 
however, to lead his forces twice in person, to reduce the turbulent 
mountaineers both of Am anus and Taurus to obedience), he thought it 
expedient to invite Mustuk Bey to return, and resume the direction of 
the thirty Darahs of whom he is the chief, and over whom he has much 

When the Egyptian army evacuated Cilicia, Mustuk Bey did all he 
could to restrain his people from plunder until the troops had passed 
the strait of Bayas, in order that the army might not be provoked in 
its passage to lay waste a country which he felt was more particularly 
returning under his own immediate control ; but as soon as the army 
had passed his own domain he fell on its rear, robbing all the loiterers 
and runaways. 

It is but justice to Ibrahim Pasha to say here, that the affairs of 
the province of Cilicia were ably and efficiently administered in his 
time by Selim Pasha and Hamid Minikli. These worthy individuals 



did an immense deal of good in being the first to introduce the adminis- 
tration of justice into the province; and they are still much regretted, 
although the people suffered considerably in their time from military 

Ibrahim Pasha is said to have maintained at one time as many as 
20,000 men in this province out of its own revenues, and yet to have 
saved money. He re- opened the long-closed mines in the Taurus ; he 
exported to Egypt vast quantities of timber from Mounts Rhosus, Ama- 
nus and Taurus ; he introduced the sugar-cane, and favoured agricul- 
tural pursuits; and he founded in the gates of Cilicia, at Kulek Boghaz, 
a line of defences which were constructed with great engineering skill, 
but which were blown up by the army previous to their retreat. 


A ruin at a place near Alexandretta, known by sailors as " Jonas's Pillars," and 
supposed to be the gates mentioned by Xcnophon, and called by him the gates of Syria 
and Cilicia ; they are on the battle-field of Issus, and from the top of these Alexander 
may bo supposed to have witnessed the retreat of Darius's army before his brave 






I now proceed to the history of the last five pashas who have succes- 
sively governed the province of Cilicia since the evacuation of the 
Egyptians in 1840, and to narrate the various facts of note that have 
taken place since that epoch. 

Muhammad Izzet was the first appointed by the Porte to preside over 
this province. He is one of the employes of the Porte that I have known 
who most deserves well of his country. This worthy man filled his post 
with dignity and honour, and combined much of the munificence of the 
"old school'' with the simplicity of the new. This good man fell into 
disgrace without meriting it, and remained some time neglected, until he 
obtained, through the greatest pecuniary sacrifices, the post of governor 
at Uzgat, where he died. He was so much beloved, that on his leaving 
Adana the people actually wept at the loss they were about to sustain; 
and this is a fact for which I can vouch as an eye-witness. But per- 
haps, although I would not detract from his merit, this mildness of temper 
was owing in a great measure to the times he lived in as governor of 
Cilicia ; because as he was the first appointed after the evacuation of 
the Egyptians, he would no doubt have had particular instructions to 
be extremely lenient. 

It was during the administration of Muhammad Izzet Pasha that an 
event occurred in Cilicia which I must pause to relate, for the facts are 
as extraordinary as they are inexplicable. 

In February 1843, an individual calling himself Nadir Bey, accom- 
panied by an amiable young Englishman of good family and education, 
whose parents live in London, arrived at Tarsus. The former (Nadir 
Bey) appeared to be little past thirty, of a very prepossessing cast of 


countenance and engaging manners, highly accomplished, and acquainted 
•with fourteen languages, which he appeared to know as well as a native 
of the countries whose language he spoke. 

He had been in the service of Ibrahim Pasha, under the assumed 
name of Murali Mahandas (Grecian engineer), and was well known to 
the inhabitants of Tarsus and Adana. Indeed, he seemed to know every 
body all oA r er the Levant. It was remarked that on his former visit to 
Tarsus, while in the Egyptian service, he used to gamble a good deal, 
and often lost of an evening all he had about him, frequently large sums, 
upwards of 20,000 piastres (200Z.) ; and the next day his purse would be 
replenished as usual. He had, however, maintained his incognito ge- 
nerally, and only confided to a few of his private friends his real history, 
which was that " being the son of Sultan Mustafa, and the elder brother 
of Mahmud, he was the rightful heir to the throne." His knowledge 
of English was perfect, and he sang Italian music like a vocalist of that 
country ; and* I have since been informed by his companion that he had 
at Palermo a palace filled with a large collection of first-rate paintings of 
the old masters, chosen by himself, and " a live portrait" of a young 
and beautiful Circassian whom he looked upon as his wife. He had 
passed in all the courts of Europe under an assumed Italian name. Count 
Eicchi of Corfu, and was much respected and beloved by all who knew 
him. Indeed, his companion has since assured me, that one day having 
called unexpectedly on the brother of the King of Naples, who was at 
dinner, that prince rose from table to receive him with more cmpresse- 
ment than even the greatest courtesy could exact or court etiquette allow. 
As I cannot doubt the veracity of my friend the young Englishman, who 
has since informed me that he believed Nadir Bey was allowed 5000/. a 
year by the Emperor of Morocco, I am at a loss how to proceed in 
my history, as I have to state that these two gentlemen arrived in Tarsus 
without any pecuniary means whatever, and on the wildest of all imagi- 
nary schemes ! 

Nadir Bey applied to a friend in Tarsus for a small sum in order to 
obtain a suit of Turkish clothes, as he was dressed in the European 
costume. Having obtained what he desired, he departed for Adana the 
third day of his arrival, leaving his friend in Tarsus ; and the latter 
has repeatedly declared that he was only his travelling companion, and 
had no idea of the rash step Nadir Bey was about to take, or he cer- 
tainly would not have allowed him to go, as he was very much attached 
to him. 

Nadir Bey had two private interviews with the former governor of 
the city, who had been Mutsillim, or town-governor, in the time of 


Ibrahim Pasha, and who it seems knew him well. They agreed to go 
to the Mufti's ; and the next day, on presenting themselves there, whilst 
smoking the first pipe, and before they could enter on the subject of 
Nadir Bey's views, the Tufankji Bashi, or chief officer of police, sum- 
moned them to appear before the pasha in council, where they found 
all the ayans (nobles) assembled. 

When Nadir Bey entered, he proceeded to take his seat next to 
the pasha, and began a discourse in Turkish, saying that he felt it a 
duty he owed his country to take the present step, inasmuch as his 
heart bled to see it suffering under the present tyranny, and that if 
they would rise and declare him sultan, he would make them all his 
ministers; " for," said he, " you must know that I am the rightful heir 
to the throne, being the son of Mustafa V., the elder brother of the 
late Sultan Mahmud. On the murder of my father, my mother 
escaped on board a Russian vessel, and I was born a few months after 
her escape to her family in Georgia." He had subsequently been sent 
to Russia, where he was educated. To support his claims, he shewed 
them a letter addressed to him by Muhammad Ali Pasha of Egypt, 
wherein he is styled " Effendim Sultanim," and recognised as the lawful 
heir to the throne.* The pasha observed that his proposed enterprise 
could only be undertaken with a large body of men, and much money 
would be requisite. To this he replied, that if they would only promise 
to rise, he would engage that early in the spring there should arrive 
25,000 men on the coast, and that pecuniary means should not be wanting. 
The Nakib then observed, " Our pashalik is small, and we think you 
had better go to Kuniyah and have a conference with the pasha of that 
place, whose district is much more extensive. Yes," said the pasha, 
"that is the best place; so you had better retire to the coffee-room" 
(where the principal attendants of the pasha remain in waiting, and 
which often serves for a more honourable confinement to a person 
of distinction than a public prison), " until two Tufankjis (military 
police) can be got ready to accompany you." 

* I cannot suppose this letter authentic, because I must also note that he had last 
come from Egypt, which country he and his companion had been obliged to leave so 
suddenly on board an Egyptian frigato bound for Tarsus, that the latter had not time 
to apprise his friends of his destination, and he had to wait some time before he could 
hear from them and receive remittances. The officers of this Egyptian man-of-war 
have often asked me very anxiously concerning him, and acknowledged that he had 
confided his secret to them during the passage. They appeared to idolise his memory, 
for he contrived to engage the affections of every one wherever he went ; but I cannot 
help thinking that his sudden departure from Alexandria was in consequence of Mu- 
hammad Ali's determination not to be compromised personally, though he allowed him 
to try his luck, or rather risk his life, in attempting to raise the people elsewhere. 


Nadir Bey remained twenty-four hours under this arrest, weeping, 
and vouching for the truth of what he advanced, and saying that 
now his life would be the forfeit of his patriotism. " Yes," he ex- 
claimed, " I am a sacrifice for my poor people ; still my rights shall be 
recognised." He then would cheer up with the delightful prospect 
with which his madness deceived him, that he would obtain justice 
eventually, and then again he would relapse into despair. 

Mounted on a bad horse, he set off the 4th of March, 1843, under 
the escort of two ar-med men, to Kuniyah. Before leaving the town, he 
called at the house of a French resident at Adana, and without being 
allowed to dismount, asked him for a little money and a cloak to screen 
him from the inclemencies of the season. Having obtained the latter, 
he then begged him earnestly to send a portfolio he had taken the pre- 
caution to confide to his care previous to his entering on this mad enter- 
prise, to the English consul at Tarsus, with a request that he should 
take notice of the papers contained therein, and immediately inform the 
British embassy of his position, " that, if necessary, the ambassador 
may intercede to save his life, as he had already done once before." 

This is in allusion to a statement which is also current, that Nadir 
Bey had been a great favourite with Sultan Mahmud, who entrusted 
him with the government of a province in Europe, where he tried to 
excite a conspiracy, and being brought to Constantinople would have 
lost his life but for the humane intercession of his excellency. 

I have seen the contents of this portfolio, wherein there is no paper 
of any consequence except a very urgent one from the Emperor of 
Morocco to the late Sultan Mahmud, recommending Nadir Bey very 
strongly to his kindness, as " his nephew and own flesh and blood." 
This letter I have perused with great attention, and have no doubt of 
its authenticity ; but I have not heard how or by what means of per- 
suasion it was obtained. 

Here I should mention, that when Nadir Bey was seized by the 
pasha, the British consular agent at Adana thought it his duty to claim 
him as a person furnished with a passport, and consequently under his 
jurisdiction; but the pasha smiled and said, " No, no, Ave know this man 
well; his name is Ahmed, and we have all along been on the look-out 
for him." Nadir Bey reached Kuniyah in safety, and a European, who 
had been apprised by letter of his coming, immediately went to the 
palace of the governor to inquire after him. He was informed that 
such an individual had arrived, and had prosecuted his journey to Con- 

The people of the country, who all took interest in his fate, said 


that at Kuniyah he had been recognised by the Mullah Khunkar, or 
chief of the dervishes, on whom devolves the duty of buckling on the 
sword of every newly-elected sultan, and that he was presented with a 
good mule, and furnished with money and servants to proceed to the 
capital as became his rank. Be this as it may, nothing more has ever 
been heard of this mysterious young man. Two or three months after 
this event, the British vice-consul at Samsun, who had been informed 
of what had occurred in Cilicia, taking a ride, saw a horseman who 
answered the description given of Nadir Bey. He was in Egyptian 
clothes,* and was whistling as he rode before him into town an Italian 
air with the greatest correctness. The resemblance of this man to what 

he had heard of Nadir Bey did not at the time strike Mr. C ; but 

he had scarcely reached his home before the thotight occurred to his 
mind that this might be the same individual, and he immediately sent 
people to all the public khans and coffee-houses, and to every place 
where he could suppose it possible he could go, to find him out; but 
although the town is small (not containing 6000 inhabitants), he was 
not able to discover any person agreeing to the description he gave of 
the individual he had met that afternoon ! This is all I have been able 
to ascertain and collect regarding this extraordinary character, who 
has interested me exceedingly, and the more so as I found that he was 
universally beloved and esteemed by all who have known him per- 
sonally. I regret that I did not see him (being at the time confined to 
my room by fever), to be enabled to give a more particular description 
of his person. There appeared, some days later, an article in one of the 
Constantinople papers saying that an impostor had been seized in Tarsus 
who pretended to the throne, and that he had been sent to Constan- 
tinople, where he was daily expected; but his arrival there was never 

But the circumstance of his appearing in Cilicia as a claimant to the 
throne of Constantinople alone and without funds, to create a revolt in 
a coiintry where he was well aware the natural feelings of patriotism 
are unknown, and where the inhabitants are driven like sheep by the 
strongest or by those who pay them, at the best, can only be reconciled 
to common sense by supposing that he must have lost his senses be- 
fore entering on his project : for what reasonable hope could there be 
of exciting a sympathy or enthusiasm in a population reduced by 
poverty to the last stage of indifference, and that too in the character 
of a man who had passed the greater part of his life among infidids, the 

* Like those purchased by Nadir Bey at Tarsus, previous to proceeding to Adana 
on Ms inexplicable undertaking. 


enemies of their religion and nation, himself tainted by the odium of 
having been allied to the hated Jawurs, and hence unfitted for the sacred 
office of defender of the faithful, — a prejudice impossible to eradicate 
from the minds of those who aspire to be strict Mussulmans, and who 
form by far the great majority of the population? Politically speaking, 
the attempt was madness ; and we are lost in a maze of conjecture when 
we reflect on the infatuation of this individual, who was well acquainted 
with the country and people, and who in all other respects excited the 
astonishment while he captivated the hearts of all who knew him.* 

The second pasha who was appointed (12th May, 1843) to govern 
Cilicia after the evacuation of the Egyptians, was Ahmed Izzet Pasha,! 
son-in-law of old Ali Pasha of' Bagdad. Ahmed Avas jealous of the 
influence which the Muhassil (financial agent of the Porte) Abdullah 
Rushdi exercised, and by which he could appropriate to himself all the 
emoluments arising from bribes. He therefore persuaded Mustuk Bey 
to quarrel with the Muhassil, in order to frighten him out of his post. 
The pasha hoped thus to get a more complaisant Muhassil, who would 
allow him to take into his own hands the advantage of directing through 
him the financial government of the Porte in the country. Mustuk Bey 
accordingly seized the earliest opportunity of quarrelling with the 
Muhassil, and which presented itself as they were seated during Ramadan 
at the door of a large caravansarai, enjoying the coolest place they could 
find in that sultry town. Mustuk Bey began by threatening to take 
away the Muhassil's fife, and made a shew of drawing his pistols for that 
purpose. But the Muhassil, so far from being intimidated, wrote to 
Constantinople, and had, it appears, sufficient influence to get the pasha 

In the meanwhile, however, before an answer could come from Con- 
stantinople, and it could be known which influence would ultimately 
prevail, Mustuk Bey had nothing to fear from the resentment of the 
Muhassil ; but as family matters called him to Bayas, he took his leave 
of the pasha at Adana and returned home, whilst the latter set off in a 
contrary direction for Tarsus, " to make hay while the sun shone," that 

* I must also add, for the satisfaction of the reader, that his friend and companion, 
before leaving Tarsus, did not fail to pay whatever debts Nadir Bey had incurred 
during his passage through Tarsus. See Appendix. 

+ The Porte had been for some time uneasy about old Ali Pasha of Bagdad, not 
knowing whether he would submit or throw off his allegiance. This man undertook 
to persuade Ali to be faithful to the Sultan, and proceeded to Bagdad, where he ingra- 
tiated himself so completely in the old man's good graces that he gave him his daughter 
in marriage, and, as a proof of his obedience to the Porte, agreed to give up his post 
and accept the pashalik of Damascus, in order to spare the bloodshed of the faithful, 
consequent on civil war amongst Muhammadans. 



is, to profit by his position and make a tour among the Turkman tribes, 
from each of whom it was customary that every new pasha should receive 
one or more horses, valued at from 101. to 20Z. sterling, the number of 
which in this province generally amounted to a hundred given to each pasha. 
These horses were afterwards taken away to be sold, in the interior or at 
Constantinople, by the pasha when he was recalled, and thus the coun- 
try was drained of all its best steeds. The money to purchase these horses 
was raised by contribution from the inhabitants of the district the pasha 
visited, and they were charged by their chiefs at twice their value!* 

Ahmed Izzet Pasha had just arrived at Tarsus, when he was aston- 
ished to see Mustuk Bey make his appearance there, at a time when he 
thought him at Bayas. I happened accidentally to be present at their 
meeting, and witnessed the embarrassment of the pasha, who was per- 
suaded that something very serious could alone have brought him thus 
suddenly to Tarsus. He was soon, however, relieved from his anxiety 
to know the cause of this sudden visit, by Mustuk Bey's informing him 
privately, that he was come to obtain his sanction to make away with 
his own relation, who had conspired against him during his absence from 
Bayas, whilst paying his court to the pasha at Adana. Mustuk Bey ob- 
tained the permission he had come to solicit and returned home, where, 
the better to cloak his design, he soon after made peace with his nephew 
Hassan Aga Zaitun Uglu, the very individual against whom his father 
had warned his children, and whose father, as has already been stated, 
Kutchuk Ali Uglu had murdered. Mustuk Bey accepted from his 
nephew a dinner of reconciliation, and went with his followers to visit 
him. Soon after dinner Mustuk rose to depart, and ordered his nephew's 
followers to escort him, leaving his own to finish their meal; and when 
the master of the house, who is required by the etiquette of the East 
to be the last to rise from the table, had just got up, and was in the 
act of washing his hands, his cousin Osman Aga shot him with a pis- 
tol, and the rest despatched him with their swords, after which they 
mounted their horses to follow their master. The dying man is said 
to have exclaimed, "Is such treachery possible?" referring to the 
maxim common to all nations, that there should be " honour among 

Mustuk Bey resembled his father ; his face was large and fiat, with 
rather a scanty beard, becoming grey. He also spoke through his nose 

* When a new pasha arrived, all the local officers employed by his predecessor were 
expected to make him a present of greater or less value, according to the importance 
of their office, in order to be continued in then - posts, which was generally done till the 
pasha had had time to look about him, when he took occasion to turn them out, and 
place in some of his dependents. 


like his father. His conversation was pleasing, his manners very polished, 
and he treated all travellers who visited him, particularly the English, 
very kindly, and with much respect. He occupied a little palace above 
Bayas, which his predecessor Rustam Bey, the governor appointed by Ibra- 
him Pasha, had embellished after the Turkish fashion.* His great gene- 
rosity reduced him to be often in want of the necessaries of life ; and the 
debts he contracted towards the government by reason of his munificence 
afforded an opportunity to his enemies wherewith to work his ruin. 

The moment Ahmed Izzet Pasha had lost his post through the 
superior influence of the Muhassil Eushdi Effendi's friends and sup- 
porters at Constantinople, the latter availed himself of his power to bring 
Mustuk Bey into disgrace. 

Sulaiman Pasha, who succeeded Ahmed Izzet Pasha in the month of 
November 18-±o,Avas, under the advice of the Muhassil, induced to sum- 
mon Mustuk Bey to appear in Adana. He replied, that he was ready to 
obey as soon as the Muhassil should be recalled, or else to enter the city 
with a suite of 500 horsemen; whereupon the Muhassil took secret mea- 
sures to induce the Porte to believe that Mustuk Bey refused to pay the 
tribute he owed to the government, the greatest of all crimes in the 
estimation of the ministry. 

In order further to excite the government against his enemy, the 
Muhassil gave private orders to the Tartar bearer of letters from Da- 
mascus to Constantinople not to pass through Bayas, but to take a boat 
and go across the (xulf of Alexandretta to Kara-Tash. The post having 
thus been delayed in its progress, the Muhassil had a pretext for accus- 
ing Mustuk Bey of interrupting public communication, although caravans 
and passengers were never in the least molested, and although that very 
week two Hajjis arrived from Syria, after having been treated on their 
way by Mustuk Bey with his usual hospitality. 

The Porte, giving ear to these insinuations, issued an order to attack 
Mustuk Bey. Two conscripts, one on foot, the other on horseback, were 
exacted from every village ; and such, of course, were sent as could best 
be spared from agricultural labours. These were therefore boorish 
shepherds, many of whom had never used any other arms than those 
given them by nature, unless it were a club or stone against the 
wolves that attacked their sheep, and were equally unacquainted with 
riding. Each man was also furnished by the village to which he be- 

* He was in great favour with the first two pashas after the evacuation of the 
Egyptians, and was honoured with a Nishan Iftichar, and the title of Kapitchi Bashi, 
by the Sultan, — an honorary grade given to governors of towns and chiefs of Turkman 
tribes who render themselves useful to the Porte. 


longed with a hundred piastres for his expenses during the campaign, a 
pound of powder, and four leaden bullets. In this manner five or six 
thousand men were collected outside the gates of Adana, where biscuit 
and barley were the only things provided by the government for the use 
of their levies. On the other hand, 1800 cartridges were discovered in 
the corner of some magazine, and were broken open in order to distribute 
the powder therein contained to the Turkmans by the handful. No chief 
would at first condescend to lead such a rabble; and this honour was 
finally reserved for Durwish Ahmed, son of Kil-Aga, who was the only 
man who had the courage to march against the redoubtable Mustuk Bey. 

For more than a month the conscripts were still assembling, and the 
encampment had been transferred to Kurt-Kulak, twelve hours' ride from 

In the meanwhile the caravan of Mecca was approaching ; and the 
Tufankji Bashi and Oda Bashi, or chamberlain, resolved to advance 
with about sixty followers, with the impudent boast of their doing so in 
order to protect the caravan. Mustuk Bey received their valiant on- 
slaught with a handful of his followers, took them all prisoners, and 
ignominiously stripped them of their clothes, sending them back with a 
message to the effect that he would not make them pay with their lives 
the insult they had offered him, and that the only thing he would retain 
would be their horses, in part payment for a herd of cattle which the 
enemy had a few days previously carried off. These fellows, ashamed and 
disgusted, returned to Adana. The caravan passed with all due hon- 
ours, and the chief undertook to intercede at Constantinople for Mustuk 
Bey, and to explain the exact state of things. Mustuk accordingly, 
satisfied with the hopes which the promises of the Suramini had inspired, 
and umvilling to be the cause of the effusion of " Muhammadan blood," 
as also not to implicate himself still further, retired to his mountains, 
although he could, as the people expressed it, " have eaten them up all at 

As soon as Durwish Ahmed heard of Mustuk's retreat, he fell on 
Bayas, and pillaged and burnt every thing that came in his way, even 
to the wood for building belonging to merchants of Adana that happened 
to be on the sea-shore ready for embarkation. Neither the sex nor the 
rank of one of Mustuk Bey's harim, who remained behind, saved her 
from being stripped and ill-treated — an act unprecedented in the annals of 
the East, as women are always respected by the most barbarous. Mus- 
tuk Bey went to Mar'ash and afterwards to Aleppo, where he was hospi- 
tably received by the pasha, who took him with him to Beyrut, and 
thence to Constantinople. 






During this period, as I have already stated, Sulaiman Pasha governed 
Adana. This old man was of all pashas the most stupid, except in 
matters relating to money, the sound of which alone could awaken his 
attention. During his government, an oke of sugar as a bribe would 
not be refused by him or his officers when nothing more valuable could 
be had. 

On his arrival to take the reins of government, this pasha told me 
that he had been named for his peaceable disposition, in opposition to 
that of his predecessor ; and in this the Porte really shewed great discri- 
mination. He was rich, although he maintained a whole troop of 
women servants, together with a wife. On the landing of the latter at 
Mursina, the wife of the doctor of quarantine called to pay her respects. 
To excuse her very ordinary apparel, and the tattered garments of her 
children, she said, " Pray do not look at these clothes ; I have some with 
four fingers' width of gold lace on them." But this was not likely, as, 
contrary to our customs, the people of the East always travel in their 
finest and newest apparel. 

When Sulaiman Pasha first arrived at Mursina from Constantinople, 
he was also met on the sea- shore by the director of the quarantine, who 
caused a sheep to be slaughtered in honour of his disembarkation, lodged 
his excellency with all his suite for the night, giving up to him his own 
apartment, and standing before him all the while to serve him, &c. The 
next day he accompanied him to Tarsus, to swell the number of his 
cortege. After remaining twenty-four hours in attendance, as the pasha 
was to proceed to Adana, he came forward to take his leave ; and kneel- 
ing down, kissed the hem of his garment, requesting permission to 
return. Will it be believed, that the pasha actually asked him who 
lie was ? 


The power of the Porte was much shaken in Kara-Tash about this 
time. Yusuf, son of the man whom we have seen defending the castle 
of Bayas under Dada Bey, had killed his brother and usurped his post. 
This man was a peasant of the Ansairi tribe, but he had no particular 
religious belief. His domestic establishment was composed of seven 
women, among whom were the sister and mother of his wife ! He col- 
lected all the rogues he could, by screening them from the pursuit of 
justice ; and Kara-Tash was fast passing from under the jurisdiction of 
the pasha, when Jin Yusuf was enticed to Adana and put into prison. 
But as the government thought he might one day be required for the 
purpose of setting him against his other brother Mustafa, his life was 
spared. Tired of such restraint, Jin Yusuf sent one of his followers to 
shoot Mustafa, knowing that he would then be necessary to govern- 
ment at Kara-Tash. It turned out as he expected: Mustafa died of the 
wound he received from a bullet, and the pasha being about to quit 
Adana in disgrace, was glad to take 10,000 piastres (equal to about 
90Z.), which Jin Yusuf paid him for his release, and which sum he soon 
after recovered, levying it by contributions on the villagers in his district 
of Kara-Tash ; and Jin Yusuf is at this moment the right-hand man of 
one of the ayans of Adana, and the pasha, in a letter to me, styles him 
Jciz-agasi, a title equivalent to lord-lieutenant of a county. 

Old Sulaiman Pasha having been a sufficient time at his post to 
make up more than the sum he had defrayed to obtain it, he was re- 
called a.d. 1844, and Arif Pasha was named to succeed him ; but the 
pride of this man soon led to his downfall. 

Kuzan Uglu, chief of the Turkman tribes that dwell near Sis, and 
a friend of Mustuk Bey, had been summoned to Adana ; but he refused 
to appear, suspecting Abdullah al Rushdi, the muhassil, of treachery. 
On the guarantee of the Armenian patriarch, he ultimately consented to 
answer the summons ; but on his arrival he was treacherously put under 
arrest. The mountaineers hearing of this breach of faith, prepared to 
attack the city, and would certainly have pillaged it, had not the pasha 
invested Kuzan Uglu with a pelisse of honour, and sent him back to 
quell the insurrection. The Turkman tribe of Kuzan Uglu has al- 
ways been, to a certain extent, independent alike of Ibrahim Pasha and 
of the Porte. 

Shortly after this, a pasha of Mar'ash (a young man whose name I 
have forgotten) was killed by some of the Aushir tribes, neighbours of 
Kuzan Uglu; for having gone among them to levy tribute, and with a 
dozen of his followers he fell a victim to his imprudence. Arif Pasha, 
in consequence, made some demonstration of his intention to invade 


the Kuzan Tagh, which constitutes a portion of the Taurus mountains ; 
but the demonstration came to nothing. 

The unsettled state of the country was indeed at its height during 
Arif s government. He actually refused to convict a thief without com- 
petent witnesses, although some of the stolen property was found upon 
him, because this individual had powerful friends, and bribed the cadi 
with 500 piastres. 

Abdulla Rushdi at last fell into disgrace ; but he contrived to leave 
Adana with upwards of a hundred horses and forty-two panther-skins, 
together with several thousand purses (of 51. each) wherewith to in- 
trigue for new honours. He was succeeded by another intriguer, who 
had united with the chiefs of the country to get Arif Pasha dismissed. 

In 1846 the Porte, having been repeatedly petitioned by these peo- 
ple, and worn out by their importunities, as well as tired of their com- 
plaints, determined to make a complete change in the officers of the 
pashalik of Adana; and Hassan Pasha was deputed, with a suite of fresh- 
imported employes, to fill up the various vacancies. 

This fat illiterate man was one of the Janissaries of old, who had, 
in the time of the reformation of Sultan Mahmud, willingly submitted 
to the new discipline called Nizam, and was consequently spared the fate 
of his companions in arms. His stupid, coarse manners corresponded 
with his appearance.* 

Mustuk Bey, who had been to Constantinople with his patron "Waji 
Pasha, availed himself of the change of ministry at Adana to return, 
and he accompanied Hassan Pasha in the Turkish steamer. On their 
arrival I took occasion to recommend Mustuk Bey to him, on the ground 
of his being the only man who could keep the Turkmans in order ; for 
the roads had been infested with robbers during his absence, which was 
never the case when he was at the head of his tribe. 

Hassan Pasha contemptuously answered, " that neither Mustuk Bey 
nor any one else, not even himself, could presume to consider that he 
was indispensable to the Daulat il Aliyah (Sublime Porte), whose breath 

* An Arabic story is told of a governor, who surpassed his father and grandfather 
in tyranny, going ovit in disguise one day to hear what people said of him. He was 
surprised to find that an old woman alone, out of all his subjects, prayed God to 
prolong his life, — " Alia yitawall amru." He accosted her, and entering into familiar 
conversation, desired to be told why she prayed for the prosperity of a tyrant hated 
by every body. She informed him that "the grandfather of Efiendina was tyrannical 
his father still more so, and Efiendina was worse than both ; should God Almighty, 
therefore, in his vengeance deprive us of him, he could at this rate send us none other 
than Eblis (Satan) himself 'Azlani,' more just than Efiendina (our lord), whom God 
preserve : and that is why I pray for the long life of Efiendina, as we can only change 
for the worse." 


alone supports or exterminates all men I" I could not help smiling at 
this assumption of grandeur, having been witness of the little power 
of the government he so much lauded only a few days previously, 
when the Turkmans had carried off with impunity between two and 
three hundred head of cattle within half an hour's ride of Adana. Arif 
Pasha, with a spy-glass in his hand, had actually seen from his window 
some travellers stripped on the other side of the river, and dared not 
afford them assistance ; nor could the post ever pass without an escort 
of Dali Bashis (" mad heads," irregular cavalry). 

But the weakness of the Cilician governors is in some degree ex- 
cusable when we consider that they are thrown in a strange land with- 
out sufficient means to enforce their authority, being scarcely allowed 
the pay of fifty saimans (irregular troops). They are thus placed at the 
mercy of the chiefs of the country, who offer them the option, viz. on 
one side the opportunity of becoming rich, and on the other, opposition 
in every thing, which would completely cripple their power; and they 
are induced, by want of principle, to choose that which is most con- 
ducive to their private advantage. 

It sometimes happens that, in consequence of the mutual jealousies 
of the members of the council, they submit to receive a Mutsalliin, or 
governor, among them: but this man, as well as his master the pasha, 
with whom he shares his profits, becomes a tool in their hands ; and as 
soon as one of the members contrives to get the ascendant of the rest, 
the Mutsallim is set aside without any scruple or ceremony. This is 
perhaps the case in this province more than in any other, the members 
of the council being chiefs of Turkman tribes supported by 2000 or 
more followers, who are encamped within call at a few hours' ride from 
the towns.* Thus we see that this pashalik is governed only nominally 
by the envoyes from the Sublime Porte, and that the real authority is 
in the hands of the ayans, who retain the power of levying the Saliyan, 
an arbitrary tax originally paid by the people for the purpose of de- 
fraying the travelling expenses of Pashas, Kapitchi Bashis, and other 
officers of the Porte, while resident in the towns, and which has con- 
tinued in force, although since the financial reforms of the sultan it has 
been fixed on more regular principles, and the reasons for its exaction 
have long ago been cancelled. This tax is levied twice a year, and 
from the uncertain nature of the sum, holds out a wide field for pecu- 
lation. It is divided into so many portions, generally double the sum 
required by the Porte, and it is exacted from the chiefs of the several 

* Some of the tribes are much more powerful. Malamanji Uglu could unite from 
800 to 1200 guns. 


districts, villages, or departments, who in their turn also speculate on its 
advantages to their own profit; so that the poor villagers have to pay 
three times what the Porte receives, and they are also the greatest 
sufferers, as the ayans contrive to exempt their own people ; and this 
tyranny falls so heavily on the villagers, that they often find no other 
chance of escaping the exactions of the ayans than emigration, which 
takes place to a great extent,* although a husbandman is not allowed 
by law to quit his district ; so that when unable to pay the dues fixed 
upon them at the capricious option of the chiefs, they wander about from 
place to place, and leave their children to the mercy of strangers.^ 

This system is also put in practice in its several ramifications by 
the sheiks of the villages, who mimic their superiors in the council; 
and they enjoy the same immunity from punishment. Nothing can 
be more detrimental to the public weal than this combination of six or 
ten persons who act in concert. The more individuals in power, the 
more channels of extortion, and the more subjects exempt from taxation 
to the prejudice of the rest of the community. 

This council, presided over by die Pasha and Muhassil, is composed 
of the Mufti, Cadi, Nakib, and some of the chiefs of the Turkman tribes, 
who, by the venal means above alluded to, have contrived to establish 
an influence indispensable (without regular troops) to the collecting of 
the taxes. These keep up a good understanding among themselves as 
to what regards their individual interests, and cede by turns to each 
other every advantage they can avail themselves of to monopolise and 

* Karadughar (Anchiale) and Kaisanli, formerly two flourishing villages, were in 
1847 nearly deserted, in consequence of the heavy exactions of the government-people, 
who, seeing a populous village, fixed a sum to be paid in Saliyan far beyond the 
means of the poor inhabitants, who, having been reduced to sell every thing 
they had to satisfy the extortions of their petty tyrants, and their lands proving bar- 
ren in consequence of the want of rain, were all dispersed, each seeking refuge in somo 
distant place, — some going to Cyprus, and others to Syria, while those who had any 
relations in the country were too happy to become their servants in the culture of tho 
ground, to obtain food for themselves and their distressed families. Happy it is that 
such a state of things is rapidly going by ! 

Out of some forty families in Karadughar, only six families remained ; and theso 
being required to pay 18,200 piastres of the Saliyan of the village when it was populous, 
tried to run away to Syria by embarking in a small boat at night. The number of 
the families at Kaisanli was seventy, and they- were reduced by desertion to a dozen, 
in the same state as those of Karadughar ; and many other villages, such as Kara- 
jillas, Nisani, &c, were reduced to the same condition. All these villages were peopled 
with Ansairi peasants, a quiet and laborious race of men. 

f This is certainly a remains of the feudal system ; and I have repeatedly heard of 
two neighbouring chiefs quarrelling, and reclaiming from each other the taxes due by 
their several serfs, who had taken refuge and been received by another chief from his 
neighbour's territory : and often these individuals are compelled to return to their for- 
mer place, and submit to the still greater exactions of their exasperated chief. 


extort, allowing to the Pasha and Muhassil a fair portion of the booty 
for their co-operation. 

The introduction of Christians into the councils, as ordained by the 
Porte, has not in Cilicia as yet gone beyond the summoning of some 
illiterate follower of the Messiah, who sits on his knees near the 
door, and never opens his mouth but with low obeisances to confirm 
their nefarious decrees. He is generally a servant of the Mufti, and 
officiates as SarrafF or banker of the government, a lucrative employ- 
ment, which throws much floating capital into his hands. He is sup- 
posed to be the most respectable of his co-religionists ; but the Turks 
pay little regard to the rank he holds as representative of the Christians 
and member of the council, for he often gets the bastinado to quicken his 

In this council all the " appaltos" (monopolies) of the government, 
which have not been abolished, are sold yearly, although in the treaty 
with England a heavy duty of twelve per cent is established by 
the last tariff on condition of their being set aside ; and here I may 
notice, that from time immemorial it has been observed that in Turkey 
a new tax very seldom cancels old ones, but is added to them, in spite 
of all arrangements to the contrary. The Pasha and Muhassil buy in 
the name of their servants the most profitable monopolies, without any 
one outbidding them, as they distribute to each of the members a suffi- 
cient number of such " appaltos" as regards their various districts. 
Last year a present or bribe of 25,000 piastres (250?.) was offered to 
the Muhassil to allow the monopoly of tobacco to be sold freely, but he 
preferred keeping it to himself. This dignitary, by this one fraud alone, 
collected yearly several thousand pounds sterling. I perfectly recollect 
the first arrival of Abdalla Rushdi Effendi in Mursina, where he had 
occasion to accept of my hospitality. The first question he asked was, 
whether there were any dresses to be had ready-made at Adana ! He 
had actually arrived at his post without a change of clothes ; and yet 
on dismounting from his horse at Adana he found a house furnished 
for him with such magnificence, that he was enabled to treat those who 
called upon him with pipes and coffee in cups set with diamonds, and 

* A remarkable instance of this took place on the arrival of Arif Pasha, who, on 
inspecting the public records, found a deficit of about 30CW. to 400Z., and required its 
immediate payment. The money was not owed by the sarraff of Tarsus, but by the 
effendis of the council, who had each taken what they required ; and yet the sarraff 
was afraid to explain this knotty point, and at first received 500 bastinados, and was 
afterwards obliged to disburse the money out of his own purse. He had even to pre- 
tend that the money was due by different Christians, friends of his, who acknowledged 
the debt, which was paid by the sarraff, in order to conceal the tricks of the ayans, who 
are always trifling with the public revenue. 


which had been prepared for him by the officious ayans. We have 
seen how he left Adana after three years' residence there. The Cadi 
of 1844, on his arrival to take possession of his post in Adana, had not 
wherewith to pay his horse-hire from Mursina to Tarsus ! 

Very large salaries have of late been paid to all the employes by the 
Porte, in the hope that this may induce them to give up their habits of 
venality ; but unfortunately the instability of their appointments, at least 
in Cilicia, renders them anxious to profit by the opportunities afforded 
them, in order to be enabled by their ill-gotten wealth to bribe in their 
turn their superiors at Constantinople when they are recalled, — an event 
which takes place every few months, in consequence of the many com- 
plaints that reach Constantinople of their venal practices, and which is 
generally brought about by one intriguing against the other. By this 
constant change of oppressors, the people are always falling into fresh 
hungry hands, which must be satisfied, lodged, and maintained ; and 
although very strict commands are issued from time to time by the Porte 
to prevent these irregularities, in distant provinces like Cilicia little or no 
attention is paid to the wishes and good intentions of the government.* 

But the great source of local mal-administration is the influence 
of the members of the council, whose whole energy is directed to the 
support of its members and dependents at the expense of the Porte 
and people. An useless, unprincipled, and in most cases an igno- 
rant oligarchy, ruinoixs to the country and to the treasury of the 
Sultan; and until some very effective measures are taken to crush the 
power it has usurped, no hope can be entertained of any amelioration in 
the legislature. Individual despotism is always to be deplored; but an 
oppressive oligarchy is the perfection of tyranny. 

It had been agreed upon between the Porte and the European powers, 
that there shovdd be no more monopolies; still these exist in full force: 
and the Bage or toll levied at Kulak Bughaz is not one of the least 

* At Antioch the tax-gatherers used to exact the tithes in money ; and as they 
fixed a larger sum than even the produce of the land, the villagers found it so ruinous, 
that they preferred leaving a great portion of their grounds uncultivated, and actually 
cut down their trees. This came to the cognisance of the Porte, and a finnan was 
issued to forbid such abuses; and it was therein clearly specified that the tithes should 
be always collected in kind: and each of the Ayans of Antioch, who are not, like 
those of Cilicia, supported by Turkman tribes (not belonging to any), was himself com- 
pelled to read in his district this firman before the assembled people, for the purpose 
of giving due publicity to the intentions of the Porte. That year some attention was 
paid to this order : but they soon returned to their original mal-practices ; and the 
tithes are now actually paid in cash at a price double the value of what the produce 
could be sold for in Antioch. But great changes are taking place for the better every 
year even in these remote districts ; none more important than the abolition of tho 
Saliyan in 1846, which has not been renewed since that period. 


onerous. Three piastres per load, and one oke* in kind, is exacted in 
soap, coffee, tumbac, &c, which makes the road-tax amount to more than 
12 per cent. The Muhassil, who has the chief interest in this oppres- 
sive toll, gives it his energetic support, and has not allowed it to be sup- 
pressed, in spite of many orders from the Porte obtained by the French 
and English ambassadors for that purpose. 

Although the Porte had declared that personal taxation should be 
abolished, and a tax on property be established in lieu thereof, this 
has not taken place, at least in Cilicia, where the members of the council 
being almost the sole landed proprietors, they would have been the chief 
sufferers; and as the executive power is in their hands, they have not 
allowed such an innovation to come into force. 

Nor have many advantages accrued to this province as yet by the 
Tanzimat Khairiyah, or Hatti Sheriff of Gulhana, so deservedly applauded 
as a charter granted by the Sultan to his subjects. The people, at least in 
Cilicia, are under the same tyrannical subjection, and are exposed to the 
same rapacity of their governors as ever they were ; the latter never fail 
to avail themselves of the slightest excuse that can be found to put them 
in prison, whence they are never freed, however innocent, before they have 
paid a sum in proportion to their means, which imposition they call ex- 
penses of the prison, and which is fixed at the arbitrary caprice of the 
Tufankji Bashi. The Cadi also takes advantage of his position to carry 
on measures of intrigue very foreign to his station and profession. The 
great license allowed by the Turkish law, the facility of procuring false 
witnesses, and the difficulty of appealing to Constantinople for redress, 
enable him to carry through, by the connivance of the council, any mea- 
sure, however detrimental to the public weal. Indeed, the whole ad- 
ministration of justice, if such it can be called, may be summed up in 
the great facility of procuring false witnesses, and the extraordinary 
article in the Turkish code of condemning individuals sued against, how- 
ever false the accusation, to pay the costs. Innumerable instances may 
be brought forward of innocent persons prosecuted solely from motives of 
ill-will on the slightest pretences, to oblige them to pay the costs ; and the 
officers of law, to whose profit this system accrues, give naturally en- 
couragement to such mal-practices. These abuses, and many more, are 
adopted by the pasha and officers of police, in order to make up for the 
loss of the privilege they formerly enjoyed, of imprisoning a man known 
to be rich, for the avowed purpose of making him pay an arbitrary tax 
for the private use of the pasha's kitchen. In order to render the pre- 
sent plan as lucrative as the old one, it is in too many instances made 
* Two pounds and three-quarters English. 



as general as possible, by encouraging the population to complain one 
against the other; and although a person is falsely accused, the accuser 
is not punished, nor do the costs of the suit, as I have already observed, 
fall upon him, as they should do. If any sum is recovered, the creditor 
pays seven to ten per cent, besides what is given to the constable for his 
trouble by the latter, and what is secretly paid by the creditor to the 
judge, generally about a third of the sum. 

I trusted to be able to conclude the present chapter with more con- 
solatory words of hope to the friends of Turkey, of which, notwithstand- 
ing its faults, and the difficulties the Porte has to fight against, I may 
truly say that I rank as one, and indeed as a most zealous well-wisher. 
It has been my endeavour throughout these pages to lay before my 
readers only simple facts which speak for themselves, to enable them 
to judge of the actual state of a province so remote and so peculiarly 
circumstanced as Cilicia. Nearer to Constantinople, the Turkish go- 
vernment is enabled to carry into more effective operation the many 
excellent regulations that are daily issued at the Porte for the benefit of 
the people. 


(From a Sketch by C. F. Barker, Esq.) 



(From a Sketch by Edward B. B. Barker, Esq.) 








Having traced the history of Cilicia down to the present day, I pro- 
pose now to say a few words on its geographical position, statistics, com- 
mercial resources, natural productions, and antiquities. The so-called 
pashalik of Adana, which corresponds pretty nearly to ancient Cilicia 
Campestris, is comprehended in a plain that extends from Sulufska 
(Seleucia,) to Ma'rash, in a north-easterly direction, about 120 miles 
between the Taurus and Jawur or Giaour Tagh, which last, running 
north and south, forms with the sea a triangle in which the province 
is composed, and which is called by the Turks Chukur Uvah, and 


corresponds to the Aleian plain of old. Tarsus is situated on this plain, 
at the foot of Mount Taurus, about twelve miles from the sea, and a 
branch of the river Cydnus passes through the city, taking its rise in the 
adjoining chain of mountains, and emptying itself into the sea about 
twelve miles from Tarsus. Adana, fabled by Stephanus to have been 
founded by Adam (vide AinswortJi 1 s Retreat of the 10,000 Greeks), stands 
to the north-east, and is also on the plain at the foot of the Taurus range, 
and about thirty miles from the sea. It has another and larger river, 
Saihun, ancient Saras, passing by it, which, running parallel to the 
Cydnus, empties itself near the mouth of the latter. 

Missis, anciently called Mopsuestia, is said to have been founded by 
Mopsus, a celebrated prophet, son of Manto and Apollo, during the 
Trojan war; he Lad three daughters, Rhoda, Meliade, and Paraphilia. 
It is now a ruined village about twenty-five miles north-east of Adana, 
and through it Hows the Jaihun (Pyramus), a river still larger than the 
two last mentioned. The Pyramus springs from the other side of 
Ma'rash, whence it passes winding along the plain to Sis and Missis, and 
finishes its course in the Bay of Ayass (^Egaj), which is opposite Alex- 

Sis (Pindenissus) is to the north of Missis, about sixty miles dis- 
tance, at the foot of Taurus, which the people of the country call at that 
point Kusan Tagh, after the name of the tribe of Turkmans who inhabit 
the district. At this place is a monastery of great antiquity, the 
residence of an Armenian patriarch, who has some influence in the 
country, but who, notwithstanding his high rank, when he comes to 
Adana to visit the pasha, is as obsequious to the Turks as the rest of 
the oppressed Christian subjects of the Porte. A view of Sis, with the 
Armenian patriarch in the foreground surrounded by his bishops, is 
given in the frontispiece. 

Bayas (Issus) is on the gulf of that name, sixty miles to the south- 
east of Missis. Alexandretta is sixteen miles more to the south-east, at 
the foot of the Jawur Tagh, which rises almost perpendicularly behind 
it, constituting the farthest limits of the pashalik at Bailan (Pylae Syria?), 
where the confines of Syria begin in a very tortuous and difficult pass. 

Arsus (Ehossus) is to the south of this town; it has the sea on one 

* This place, that is, Ayass, is remarkable for its extraordinary number of sea- 
turtle, which are very easily caught as they come out on the sea-shore in the night to 
lay their eggs in the sand. Fish is also very abundant ; but when taking it with a 
seine or draw- net the turtle fill up the sack; so that before it can reach the shore the 
fishermen have to go into the sea, which is not deep near the beach, to take them out, 
two or three times successively. On one occasion (May 1842) the crew of H.M.'s steamer 
Hecate, Captain Ward, took more than 150 turtles in less than twenty-four hours. 


side and Mount Rhossus towering above it on the other.* The latter 
projects into the sea, and forms Cape Khanzir, or Wild-boar Cape, 
(Scopulus Rhossicus), so formidable to sailors in leaving the Bay of 
Alexandretta. Karatash is a village opposite Arsus, on the extreme side 
of the gulf, and has a little harbour affording a precarious shelter to small 
boats of the country, and is about sixty miles east by south of Tarsus. 

At Kulak Bvtghaz (Pyla? Cilicias) is the pass into this province to the 
north-west from Anatolia, which is the most convenient road for beasts 
of burden, and was that principally used in all the military expeditions 
of the ancients. It was repaired by the Romans so as to admit of their 
chariots passing, but being neglected, has fallen to ruin, and in the narrow 
part you have now to pass through a stream two or three feet deep for 
more than a hundred yards. But I must, for a more minute description 
of this celebrated pass, refer to Mr. Ainsworth's work entitled Travels 
and Researches in Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, Chaldea, and Armenia. It 
was here that Ibrahim Pasha caused to be conveyed to the crest of the 
pass some very fine pieces of artillery of such a size that the present 
government have not been able to bring them down, and have been 
obliged to content themselves with twenty- eight small pieces of brass 
artillery, which they sent to Constantinople to be melted down into 
bishlics (five-piastre pieces of the country), worth something less than 
a shilling. At the same time six vessels of 250 tons were laden for 
Constantinople with powder and military stores, which had remained and 
been overlooked by the Egyptian army at the moment of departure, 
although by order of Ahmed Minikli Pasha some of the magazines were 
blown up. This shipment was made, not only to turn to account the 
leavings of the Egyptian army, which woiild have, been useless in Adana, 
but also to keep such dangerous articles out of the people's reach. 
Ibrahim Pasha had had constructed at Kulak Bughaz by a clever Polish 

* Arsus is now a small village built on the site of ancient Rhosus ; and in the vicinity 
are many fragments of walls, arches, and some remains of a temple with Corinthian 
columns. The most remarkable ruin in the neighbourhood is, however, an extensive 
aqueduct carried on arches, and which formerly brought water direct from the moun- 
tains to the town, although a rivulet of clear water flows through it. 

Nothing indicates that this town, whither, according to Plutarch, Demetrius re- 
paired from Seleucia Pieria, was ever an extensive site. It is, however, a spot still 
much frequented by Syrian Christians, with whom its church is in great sanctity ; thus 
preserving, to a certain extent, the ecclesiastical importance which belonged to it in 
the middle ages, and which enabled it to send its mitred representatives to the Chris- 
tian Synods of the East. Eusebius, it is true, only notices Rhosus as a parish ; but 
Socrates (hi. 25) mentions Antipatrum as Bishop of Rhosus ; and it is also noticed as 
an episcopacy in the Acts of the Synod. The name is variously rendered Rhosus, or 
Rossus, by the Greeks and Latins ; the Acts of the Synod have it Rhosopolis, and the 
Theodosian Talles Rhosus. W. F. A. 


engineer, Colonel Shutz, fortifications which were intended to repel an 
invader, and at the same time serve as a model to instruct officers 
in every branch of fortification. These works were executed by the 
Colonel, but they were in great part destroyed by the Egyptians on their 
retreat, before they were completely finished, after having cost immense 
sums of money and eight years' constant labour of 10,000 men. 

The population of this pashalik amounts to about 300,000 souls ; but it 
is not easy to make' an exact calculation, as the reports of the Turkmans 
are either false or exaggerated. Adana contains 18,000 inhabitants ; 
Tarsus, 6000: of this one-third are Mussulmans, more than a third An- 
sayrii or Ansarians, generally Deists, and the rest Armenians and Greeks. 
There are more than 300 villages on the plain, which average 200 souls 
each, and the inhabitants of which are for the most part Ansayrii, and a 
few Muhammadans. At Sis the population is almost entirely Armenian, 
and numbers about 2000. Missis and Bayas contain 200 to 300 in- 
habitants altogether, and Alexandretta and Arsus as many. 

The Turkman tribes, who dispersed in the plains, valleys, and moun- 
tains of this province, feed their flocks in the pasturages of the Jaihun, 
Saihun, and their tributaries, in winter, and repair to the uplands of 
Taurus in summer, make up the sum of the rest of the population, 
as above stated. There are at Tarsus a few families from Cyprus, 
who lead the same monotonous existence to which they are accustomed 
in their native town of Larnika. The few Europeans who inhabit Tarsus 
live a life of great privation, devoid of all intellectual society; they ap- 
pear to exist only in the hope that some day or another the relative 
commercial advantages of the place will at length be fully appreciated 
and settled ; they will then be the first to profit thereby. 

There are English, French, Russian, Dutch, and Neapolitan consul- 
ates established in Tarsus. The English system of allowing a consul to 
trade is very disadvantageous to commercial interests, and frustrates the 
very intention for which he is appointed — that of encouraging British 
commerce. It brings him into constant personal collision with the local 
government, and detracts from his respectability and authority. Besides, 
his position gives him such an advantage over other merchants, that few 
Englishmen can settle in any place where such is the case ; and therefore, as 
I have just observed, the desire and interest of England to extend her 
commerce is thus counteracted for the saving of a few hundred pounds a 
year of salary. This is particularly the case in Tarsus ; and indeed we 
may observe, that in few places in the Levant where a British consul 
is allowed to trade have we any commercial houses, and this fact speaks 
for itself: although consuls have been appointed in those places for 



many years, and although a good deal of real business might be carried 
on by the means of English houses of commerce, were their interests 
properly supported by disinterested individuals. 

The climate of Cilicia is not more unhealthy than the rest of Asia 
Minor, but the air of Tarsus is very much so, particularly during the 
months of July and August, when the town and its environs are subject 
to exhalations productive of putrid and intermittent fevers. The prin- 
cipal cause of this evil is a stagnant lake about thirty miles in circum- 
ference, now a few miles from Tarsus, which formerly communicated 
with the sea, but which is now separated from it by a sand-bank. This 
is the harbour mentioned by Strabo, which he says was the port of 
Tarsus (and that there were in his time the remains of the arsenal). 
Indeed, its position leads us to infer that the sea once came up to 
Tarsus ; but as the alluvium of the river has raised the ground con- 
siderably, it would be easy to dry this lake by drains, which would not 
cost more than 2001., and the deleterious state of the atmosphere would 
be permanently obviated; and not only would many diseases be pre- 
vented, but the ground would become well adapted to the cultivation of 
sesam, cotton, and wheat, and its incomparable fertility the first year 
would no doubt repay a thousand-fold all expenses.* This lake lies 
between Tarsus and the sea, and thus its putrid exhalations are con- 
veyed to the town by the sea-breezes. It is the opinion of medical men, 
that the pores of the skin being opened by the great heats of the day, 
are much influenced by the damp and cold wind of the mountain at 
night; and this combined with the malaria above mentioned occasions 
congestions of the brain, and hence bilious and gastric fevers, which, if 
not properly treated by bleeding and other active remedies, will carry 
off the patient in three or four days, as the fever soon ceases to be inter- 
mittent and assumes a malignant type. 

Ibrahim Pasha caused the small lake of Alexandretta to be drained 
at the suggestion of M. Martinelli, as also subsequently of Mr. Hays, 
her Majesty's consuls there, and for two or three years afterwards no 
deaths took place, whereas previously there were accidents occurring 
every few months. The canal for carrying off the water has, however, 
since unfortunately been allowed to fill up, and Alexandretta is now the 
tomb of all who inhabit it for any length of time without change of 

* A few years ago, in consequence of a great dearth, part of this lake having dried 
up, the people of the adjoining village sowed and reaped melons twice in one season, 
the seed of the second crop being from that of the first, and the quality produced was 
most excellent. 


The inhabitants of Tarsus and Adana go to the mountains to pass 
the summer, at a place called Nimrud, sixty miles distant, where there 
is a castle which they attribute to Nimrod and call it after his name. 
There are evident traces of its having been built at three different 
periods, and it was at one time in the possession of the Crusaders. It is 
built on the summit of a hill, which I should calculate to be certainly 
3000 feet above the level of the sea, and it is not commanded by any 
of the adjoining heights. It was probably here that Syennesis first re- 
tired on the approach of Cyrus to Tarsus, B.C. 401 (vide Ains worth's 
Travels in the Track of the Ten Thousand Greeks). The country around 
Nimrud is arid, with scarcely any running water ; but the water of the 
wells is not bad and is abundant, and the air is fine. Each habitation 
stands in a little vineyard, and this extends the cultivation of the moun- 
tain for many miles ; and the luxuriance with which the vine, cherry, and 
walnut-trees grow is very remarkable. All who come up here lead a 
life of perfect indolence, and the poor man will sell any thing he may 
possess rather than fail to take his family to the mountain during the 
summer months. This constant shifting of residence prevents the in- 
habitants from building good houses either in Tarsus or in the Yaila, as 
they call their summer quarters. The merchants of Tarsus and Adana 
are chiefly strangers, and during the hot season they visit their families 
in Kaisariyah, and in the other towns in the interior of Asia Minor, 
whence they return in the" months of September and October. 

Kaisanli is a village containing about a hundred families, established 
in the point of the bay nearest to Tarsus (about twelve miles distant). 
It is in this place that Arab lombards come from Syria to load and un- 
load; but on the slightest appearance of bad weather they are obliged 
to take shelter at Mursina (Zephyrium), more to the westward of the 
bay, about eight miles further, where the roadstead is excellent, and, 
according to some captains, is preferable as a safe anchorage to that of 
Alexandretta or any other on the coast of Syria.* Two French vessels 
and some Arabs have been driven on shore ; but in every case the 
fault has been from their chains or cables breaking, and not from bad 
bottom in the anchorage, English vessels, at the same time and in the 
same storm, sustaining no damage whatever. The only inconvenience 
they experienced was that their crew were prevented from communi- 
cating with the sea-shore for three days till the storm had subsided ; 
but this is of very rare occurrence, and generally speaking, morning 
and evening the business of embarking and disembarking is not inter- 

* The sea-breeze is stronger here than any where else on the coast ; hence its an- 
cient name perhaps. I had a beautiful brass medal struck here, which I have mislaid. 



rupted. About midday there is a little swell, and the want of a small 
pier alone prevents the working of merchant-ships' boats all the year 
round. This could be easily made for the trifling sum of bOl. ; but the 
governors of the country, although in landing to take possession of their 
posts they have often got wet, always talk of having one made ; as soon 
as they reach Adana, their head-quarters, they forget entirely that such 
a place as Mursina exists. Mursina is a name compiled from the Greek, 
fivpaivri, myrtle, because formerly immense bushes of that plant were 
the only characteristics of the place. 

When I first went to Tarsus, in 1838, there was only a small 
magazine and a few miserable huts at this place, and the bales of 
cotton were left out under the rain until French vessels came to ship 
them for Marseilles. In the hope of drawing the commerce of the inte- 
rior and rendering this a place of transit for such produce as is usually 
conveyed overland to Smyrna, I built large magazines capable of hold- 
ing the cargoes of fifteen vessels at one time. As I had anticipated, 
this convenience, so much wanted previously, induced people to avail 
themselves of them, and deposit therein goods which were shipped to 
Europe and Smyrna. Commerce taking a new course, three other 
magazines were built, and other persons settled there. 

alexandretta and cape KHANZIE.— (From a Sketch by C, F. Barker, Esq.) 












Tarsus being the nearest port to the several large towns of Asia Minor, 
— Adana, Maraash, Nighdah, Kaisariyah, and others, — it would seem to 
be the best adapted to embark goods from ; but the inhabitants of the 
interior have long been accustomed to go to Smyrna and Constantinople 
by land (five times further off"), where they have the advantage of find- 
ing more buyers who are ready to compete with each other in the 
purchase of their merchandise, whereas in Tarsus the competition is 
trifling, as there are few if any merchants; and these only acting as 
factors, they cannot make large purchases without consulting their 
principals, who are too far off to allow of any activity in their opera- 
tions. For these reasons Tarsus will remain for many years in the 
background: but attention to the causes of malaria would soon eradi- 
cate the greatest evil, and then many respectable merchants with their 
families would be induced to reside in Tarsus, otherwise not a disa- 
greeable residence, and one of the most fertile spots in the world; and 
they would profit by the advantage of its vicinity to the interior of Asia 
Minor, inasmuch as goods can be shipped twenty per cent cheaper here 
than by taking them overland to Smyrna, where the produce of the 
country now chiefly goes for want of a nearer mart, and to reach which 
place on camels' backs, wool and madder-roots are deteriorated in qua- 
lity by being exposed to rain on the road ; but the merchants of Anatolia 
do not mind that, as the weight is tfiereby increased! 

Albertus Aquensis, according to Cellarius, talks of 3000 ships sail- 


ing from the port of Tarsus at one time (vide Ainsworth's Asia Minor, 
p. 88). At present its commerce, although increasing within the last 
eight years, is confined to twenty or thirty Arab vessels, that come suc- 
cessively to load here for Syria, bringing a little soap, coffee, and English 
manufactures for the consumption of the pashalik. About twelve 
French vessels also load sesam and wool for Marseilles yearly : one or 
two Austrian and Sardinian. An English vessel may visit this road- 
stead in the course of the year to take up a part of her cargo for Leg- 
horn or Smyrna, which they get in Alexandretta. A few Greeks also 
from Cyprus keep up a traffic in the products of their country, taking 
wheat in exchange. Steamers have been put on this route from Smyrna 
two or three times ; but in consequence of the irregularity of their ar- 
rivals and departures no dependence could be placed on them, and 
nothing was done satisfactorily. (See the accompanying Table on the 
Trade and Navigation of Tarsus, No. 1.) Tarsus might, at least for the 
present, serve as a convenient dep6t for the produce of the interior, 
Avere the agents there more to be depended on; but what man would 
live there who could gain his bread elsewhere, particularly as the 
means of business are less than any where else, and the disadvantages 
of ill-health and difficulties of getting and executing orders greater than 
any where else ? But in order to give some idea of the impulse that 
might be given to the trade of Asia Minor through Tarsus were the 
difficulties alluded to removed, I shall accompany this notice with a 
report or table of the trade of Anatolia as regards Kaisariyah and the 
towns of Asia Minor, which I drew up from researches on the spot and 
upon the best authority. (Vide Table in the Appendix.) 

The principal exports, a table of which I also adjoin in the Appendix, 
consist in cotton, wool, wheat, barley, wax, sesam-seed, and linseed from 
the interior, from whence might be brought Caraman madder-roots in 
great quantities, Persian yellow-berries from Kaisariyah, buffalo-hides 
and cow-hides, and all the minor produce of the country. 

All kinds of imports, such as English manufactures, sugar, coffee, 
indigo, cochineal, soap, and Persian tobacco, are brought from Syria ; 
but the want of cash in the country renders the sale precarious. The 
seller is compelled to wait months for payment, and frequently money 
is lost by the failure of the buyers, who are as insolent as they are 
needy. The import trade is very discouraging; but in exports some- 
times a good profit is to be obtained, particularly in wheat, which is 
remarkably cheap : often it may be had at a price that enables the 
buyer to deposit it in the London Docks at 20s. the English qiiarter. 

During Ibrahim Pasha's administration, the government was put to the 


deplorable necessity of pressing the population into military service, by 
seizing the strong and able-bodied, in order to recruit his troops in 
Syria. As he could not well do this in the border territories, from an 
apprehension of their deserting, he made the latter labour at public 
works, and this interrupted the course of agriculture. Grain was in 
consequence dear, but since the departure of the Egyptians the people 
do not suffer from this grievance, and being more at leisure, have ap- 
plied themselves to the culture of the land, which is extremely fertile; 
and were it not for the fatality which seems to be attached to this ill- 
fated province, brought on from mal-administration, this might be the 
happiest instead of the most miserable district of the Ottoman dominions. 

Its chief produce is cotton, of which 20,000 cantars, of 180 okes, 
are annually produced, and sent chiefly to Tarabuzun (Trebizond) and 
Erzerum by caravans. It is inferior to Egyptian cotton, and not well 
cleaned. The cotton costs about three piastres, or l\d. the oke (of 2f 
lbs.). In 1845 the crop failed entirely for want of rain. 

More than 400,000 quarters of wheat are produced annually, half 
of which is exported to Syria; the current price is sixty to eighty piastres 
per quarter, which the people call kilu or kaily, equal to eight measures 
of Constantinople. A soft kind of wheat comes from Karamania, the 
flour of which is whiter, and is sold at 100 piastres the kilo, same mea- 
sure as barley. 

More than 150,000 quarters of barley are grown yearly, which 
barely suffice for the consumption of the country, many making bread 
of it when the price of wheat rises, which it invariably does toward 
the end of the season. The current price is from 40 to 60 piastres, 
same measure, weighing 130 okes. 

Of sesam are annually produced 15 to 20 m. kilos, of 130 okes 
weight, of which the current price is 200 piastres. The quantity pro- 
duced is yearly increasing, as people find it gives better returns than 
any other agricultural product, and it obtains the readiest sale, as 
merchants make advances for several months to obtain it. 

Of linseed, about 40 m. okes are produced. I was the first person 
who introduced this seed on trial; but as it was sown by the farmers 
too late in the season, the plant was burnt up by the heat of the sun, 
two years successively, before it all came to maturity, and the farmers 
were discouraged from attending to it : price current, 40 paras or I 
piastre the oke. 

Of wax, scarcely more than 8 to 10 m. okes are produced; but the 
quality is good and the price moderate: 18 piastres the oke. 

I also introduced the best kind of Muscatel grapes, peaches, and 


apricots with a sweet kernel, and the finest cherries ; as also the tomato 
©r love-apple, the French bean, and the artichoke, which were pre- 
viously unknown to the inhabitants. Generally speaking, I found the 
gardeners prefer not having any superior kind of produce to distinguish 
their gardens, because it attracts the attention of the ayans (nobles'), 
who are then induced to visit them daily, and with their horses and 
servants commit depredations, for which they never think of making 
any remuneration to the proprietor. There are a great many magnificent 
mulberry-trees, which serve as trellises to support a kind of grape which 
does not ripen till Christmas ; but very few silk-worms are brought up, 
because the heats come on too .soon, and kill the worm before it begins 
to spin. The people of the country wind it off with their hands, using 
small pebbles to prevent it entangling, and it comes out very coarse, 
which they like, as they work it out in pieces for silk shirts. 

The sloping sides of most of the hills in the province are planted with 
olive-trees, which no doubt were universally cultivated by the ancients, 
especially between Tarsus and Sulufka, along the shore, for a distance 
of 120 miles in length and several miles in breadth. All these trees 
were in full bearing in the time that the Genoese were masters of the 
country; but having since been neglected, they are overgrown with 
brush- wood, and in many instances lost in a forest of pines. Many old 
trees were also cut down, but new branches have sprung up from their 
roots, which now bear a small wild olive used by the Turkmans. In 
some places there are as many as several thousand trees upon each acre 
of land, and it woiild be extremely easy and profitable to restore them 
to their pristine state ; but the want of hands is one of the many draw- 
backs in the East to improvement. A labourer in the harvest-time is 
paid 2s. a day, besides his food; and people often come from Cyprus and 
Syria to avail themselves of such high wages for a season, returning 
to their homes to restore their health, which is invariably impaired by 
hard labour in the great heats. 

The Turkmans who gather the cotton take one -tenth for their 
trouble ; the man who separates the cotton from the seed takes another 
tenth ; the government takes also a tenth ; added to which is a very 
heavy duty of 27 piastres on its value, which goes under the head of 
customs ! 

The occupation which attracts more particularly the attention of 
Turkmans is the pasture of their cattle, inasmuch as it is the easiest 
kind of work. The produce of their dairy is excellent and abundant, 
although their animals are remarkably small, except their sheep, which 
are magnificent, and have extraordinary large tails, all fat, and which, 


when melted down, is used instead of butter in cooking. The wool 
produced yearly in this province amounts to from 600 to 1000 cantars, 
of 180 okes each cantar, of which one-third is white and two-thirds 
black or grey. The texture is fine, but it is generally very dirty, and 
if washed would lose forty per cent in weight. 

Europeans find no difficulty in buying land, as they can legally 
purchase it in the name of females, either really appearing or repre- 
sented by proxy, all women born in the country being regarded as 
Rayas in the eye of the law ; or rather I should say, that the property 
of the harim is considered so sacred, that any European stating that 
such property belonged to his wife, no questions would be asked 
of what nation she were, or if she even existed at all. Title-deeds 
thus obtained in the name of any female of the country are then made 
over to the purchaser, in token of a bond for a supposed debt, and 
this effectually secures to the European purchaser every right to the 

The land may be cultivated by taking into service farmers of the 
country, whom it is usual to interest by granting a quarter, or a third 
share, or a half, according as the case or agreement may be. On my 
arrival in this country, I had purchased some land advantageously 
situated near the sea ; and I caused it to be cultivated by the villagers 
whom I established on the estate; and I induced them to turn their 
attention principally to the produce of vegetables and fruits for the use 
of the shipping. I also erected in the magazine a machine for pressing 
wool and cotton, and I omitted nothing that could assist in facilitating 
commercial operations ; but the extreme apathy of the people renders it 
very difficult to change the course of things, or to introduce any innova- 
tions in the habits they have had handed down to them from their fore- 
fathers. In this province remarkably fine timber for building pur- 
poses is produced, chiefly fir. The oak is also very common near Arsus. 
Timber is cut of all sizes, and exported from Alexandretta, Bayas, and 
Arsus to Egypt. Ibrahim Pasha used to have more than 10,000 mag- 
nificent trees cut every year, which he sent to Alexandria for the use of 
the arsenal. To the north-west of Mursina a smaller kind is cut, which 
serves for the building of Arab bombards in Tripoli, on the coast of 
Syria. The people also trade in boards, which the Turkmans bring 
from the mountains, and which are sawn by their women. These are 
sent to Syria, and cost on the average one piastre and a half per boai'd, 
and are of all sizes and thickness. The smell of turpentine contained 
in the pine-wood is supposed to be an antidote to bugs ; in Tarsus 
they are seldom seen, except when imported from Cyprus, and even then 


they speedily disappear, being destroyed by the obnoxious smell of the 

Mount Taurus presents a rich field for the researches of the mineralo- 
gist. Three hundred specimens of stones and minerals were collected by 
the mineralogists appointed to work the lead-mines by Ibrahim Pasha, 
some of which were very beautiful, and some very interesting. I have 
by me some specimens of metals which I procured at Kulak Maaden. 
Here I cannot do better than quote from Mr. Ainsworth's work before 

" Plain of Tarsus. — From within three miles of Adana to beyond 
Tarsus, in a westerly direction, the plain is composed of humus and 
alluvia, which have an average depth of from twenty to thirty feet, and 
repose upon rubbly limestone. These plains are mostly cultivated, and 
villages are numerous. 

"Falls of the Cydnus. — The country to the north of Tarsus rises 
gradually up towards the Alpine region of Cilician Taurus, remarkable 
at this point for its bold precipices and rugged grandeur of scenery. 
The falls of the Cydnus and the grotto of the Seven Sleepers are in an 
out- lying range of supra-cretaceous limestone and limestone conglomerate. 

" The river issues through deep ravines, with perpendicular walls of 
limestone, and on entering the plain falls over a ledge of rocks of lime- 
stone breccia, about forty feet in width and eighteen in height. 

* The forests of the Cilician mountains consist chiefly of pines (Pinus maritimus and 
Halepensis) and Balanea or Valonia oaks (Quercus hallota, cegilopis, and infectorin). 
The mountain-peaks are clad with the gloomy foliage of the cedar-juniper (Juniperus 
excelsior). In the yailaks, or mountain-pastures, we find thickets of dwarf holly-oak 
(Quercus coccifera), berberry, and yellow jasmine. The low hills are covered with 
myrtle, arbutus, Daphne, Phlomis, Styrax, Cistus, and Lentisk. The Eleagnus, the 
oleander, the chaste-tree, and colutea, are the most conspicuous shrubs on the borders 
of the plains. Christ -thorn (Pali.urus) abounds in sterile places, especially in the 
rock of Anazarba. The waste ground is studded with bushes of juniper (Juniperus 
Phcenicea), spiny burnet (Poterium spinosum), spiny cichory (Cichorium spinosum), and 
Lithospermum hispidulum. On the sands of the sea-shore, the Tamarisk attains almost 
the port and bearing of a tree, and great bushes of tree-spurge (Euphorbia dendroides) 
are mingled with more humble, but more gaily -flowering, phsenoganious plants. 

In the highlands of Cilicia there are plantations of walnut-trees, apples, apricots, 
cherry-trees, Lombardy-poplars, and pollard-willows. The Oriental planes are not so 
common or so large in Cilicia as in other parts of Asia Minor ; but the number of carob- 
trees in the plain of Adana is remarkable. The dark cypress not only adorns the 
cemeteries of the Mussulman, but also grows wild in the ravines. The almond and 
manna-ash also grow wild among the rocks, and the bay and Judas-tree in the ravines. 
Mr. Barker has alluded to the fine groves of oranges, lemons, and pomegranates. 
The palm-tree also adorns the gardens of A dana ; and a few specimens of this tree, 
probably the refuse of gardens, are also met with on the shore near the Cilician and 
Syrian gates. W. F. A. 

t Researches in Assyria, Babylonia, and Chaldea, p. 327. 


11 First lowest range of hills. — Proceeding to the north-east, the out- 
lying and lowest range of hills is composed of marles and gypsum in the 
lower beds ; and superimposed upon these are beds of brecciated rocks. 
The gypsum is snow-white, granular, or lamellar. This range is divided 
from the second by level, low, and often marshy plains. 

"Second range of kills. — The upper beds are composed of coralline 
limestone — grey, friable, fracture uneven — almost entirely composed 
of stony polypiferous masses with stelliform lamella?, or waved laminar 

" The lower beds consist of green marles and greenish-white calcareous 
marles ; the first are argillo-calcareous, earthy, friable, greenish, brownish- 
green, and yellow; the second are compact, even, non-fossiliferous. 

" This second range consists of low hills, rounded or of a conical form, 
frequently cultivated, with little wood, but often villages on the summits. 

" Third range of hills. — The upper beds consist of ostracite sandstones, 
compact, earthy, friable, frequently divided on the surface into polygonal 
and rhombic masses, like a tessellated pavement. Ostracere (ostiea? and 
aviculse) are very abundant. An ostrea, probably not different from 
ostrea gigantea, attains sometimes from a foot to eighteen inches in length. 

" The lower beds are composed of ferruginous sands, yellow and 
red, and sometimes of pink-coloured sandstones. 

" Beneath these are argillaceous limestones, alternating with marles 
(valley of Yani Kushlak) and with slaty beds (hill of village of Yuruks). 

" Fourth range of hills. — The upper beds consist of blue anthracitous 
limestones, compact, fine granular, glistening fracture, blue and dark- 
blue colour. The lower beds are white limestones, compact, fine granu- 
lar, or more cretaceous, with chalk fossils. Both beds appear to belong 
to the chalk formation. 

" Mica schist with limestone (Cipolin of Alex. Brongniart). — On the 
summit of this range, not far from an ancient Roman arch, and by 
an antique causeway, a formation is met with of mica and argillo-cal- 
careous schist, sometimes forming a solid schistous rock. 

" The limestones after this begin to form a truly Alpine country, some- 
times towering up in lofty and perpendicular precipices upwards of 1000 
feet in height ; at others forming lower and rounded hills, covered, when 
not lofty, with shrubbery and forest-trees, but when lofty, with oak and 
pine alone. Sometimes the cliffs are tomb-excavated, as at Mizar-lik ; 
at other times, isolated knolls of limestone bear castellated ruins. 

" Kulak Bughaz. — The formation downwards, from Kulak Bughaz 
to the plain of Adana, presents pretty nearly a similar succession of 
deposits as above Tarsus. 


" Tertiary deposits. — At Khan Katlah Uglu, a travertine formation 
covers a marley and limestone deposit. 

" At the village of Durak, granular gypsum occurs in ferruginous 
sand and common clay. The sand and clay alternate beyond the sand- 
stones, slaty, ferruginous, coarse-grained, in thin strata, and very deter- 
minate rhombic cleavage. 

" Polypiferous or coralline limestone succeeds to the rhombic or 
ostracite sandstone, the litture polypi occurring in groups, or at other 
times forming the whole mass of rock. The formation also contains 
botryoidal haematites. 

" The coralline limestone, or coral rag, alternates in its lower part 
with dark-coloured clays, which are replete with bivalve shells belong- 
ing to the genera tillina and lucina. 

" At Khan Kusan Uglu, ferruginous sandstones and sandstone con- 
glomerate underlie the clays and polypiferous limestones. Below Khan 
Sarashi, cirithia and conide limestone succeeds to the central chalk for- 
mation, and between the two formations is a deposit of limestone, breccia, 
and argillaceous shale. 

" In the valley of Khan Kusan Uglu, the conide limestone descends 
in precipitous cliffs to the south-east, which cliffs are deeply fissured, 
and wrought into fantastic forms. 

" To the north, the limestone is capped by ferruginous sandstones, 
above which again are coralline limestones; while to the south, beneath 
the coral rag and sandstones, are sandstone conglomerates. The friable 
nature of the last three formations has given rise to many curious 
effects of denudation ; tall columns and masses, in various fantastic forms, 
rising up in picturesque confusion. 

" The chalk formation of the central chain is almost every where 
the same, a hard and compact limestone containing few organic remains, 
and rising up in bold precipitous rocks, with castles on their summits ; 
or sweeping circularly, as if to block up the road with their gigantic 
gates, called those of Taurus or Cilicia."* 

Mines. — Above Adana, in that part of the Taurus which is occupied 
by the tribe named Karasanti-Uglu, there are iron mines, which are 

* The formations here described evidently correspond to our Eocene formations : 
chalk or new Alpine limestones ; plastic clay, sandstones, with lignite ; London clay 
and calcaire grossier ; siliceous limestones, gypsums (in large beds at foot of Mount 
Casius), and marles. These are the beds in which large and thick oysters occur in 
wondrous abundance ; some weigh at least twenty pounds. Sandstones and sands 
above the gypsum, fresh-water deposits, coralline rag, &c. These beds are full of 
organic remains, and would furnish a rich harvest to a geologist who had time and 
opportunity to explore the country, especially between Tarsus and Kulak Bughaz, 
leisurely and carefully. W. F. A. 



worked by the people of the country on their own account, and with 
very little difficulty. The quality is more esteemed than Russian iron, 
being softer and more malleable ; it is sold at two piastres the oke. 

Near Kulak Bughaz there are lead mines, which are worked for 
account of government. The samples I possess of this mineral in its 
pristine state are extremely rich. It has lately been discovered by an 
Italian mineralogist, M. Boriani, that together with this lead there is a 
good deal of silver, and he extracted a small quantity in proof thereof. 
The local government is not aware of this, and very possibly regular veins 
might be easily discovered. Towards Sis there are also many mines 
of great value ; but the Turkmans there used to hide them, in order not 
to be interfered with by the local authorities.* 

The revenue of this pashalik exceeds 10,000,000 piastres, and is 
collected in the following manner : 

Saliyan 3,500,000 

Kharaj (personal tax on Christians only) .... 5,000,000 

Spinji (ditto ditto, 3 piastres per head) 4,000 

Miri of the Fallahs ( Ansayriis) 5,000 

Customs (lately increased to l£ millions of piastres) . . 1,200,000 

Monopoly of tobacco 68,000 

snuff 30,000 

spirits of wine 30,000 

the manufacture of candles .... 2,000 

the burning of coffee 3,000 

auctions 17,000 

salt 15,000 

dues exacted at Kulak Bughaz, 5 piastres per 

head (worth much more than) . . . 70,000 
tax levied on the Turkmans that come down to 

the plains in the winter .... 5,000 


The expenses of the Government 

are for the Pasha alone 


>> >) 

for the Muhassil 


» » 

for the Governor of 

Tarsus . 


>> >> 

for the fourteen mem- 

bers of Council 


>> >> 

for the chiefs of the 



>> >> 

for the subalterns 


* At the time that the Euphrates Expedition was at Suwaidiyah, an Englishman 
arrived, who had been invited to the country by Ibrahim Pasha to work the mines of 
argentiferous galena, near Sis. The unfortunate man, however, soon fell a victim to 
the climate. W. F. A, 


Besides, no doubt, a large sura which the pasha contrives to pass in his 
account for the maintenance of troops that never existed. 

The rate of twelve per cent duty to be paid to custom-houses 
was calculated in Constantinople on merchandise of first-rate qua- 
lity ; but although the produce of the provinces often only costs half 
the price of that quality in the capital, still the same fixed duty is 
exacted ; so that the merchant of the interior, paying a duty calculated 
by the same tariff, actually pays often as high as twenty-five per cent 
instead of twelve per cent as intended. This has considerably retarded 
the activity of commercial interests and relations, as no article can pro- 
perly bear such a high duty. The better to illustrate this subject, I shall 
add a table, wherein the value of each article, and the per-centage duty 
to be paid is noted; and from which it will be seen how much the com- 
merce of these countries lies under a disadvantage by being obliged to 
pay so much per cent duty more than what merchants in Constantinople 
pay. This was a mistake of such as had the establishing of the rates of 
the tariff, and who fixed each quota according to what the article was 
worth in their market, and not by an average value of the whole, which 
would have facilitated commercial operations. 

It is impossible to impress the people of the East with a conviction 
of the salutary effects of a quarantine establishment : they cannot divest 
themselves of the idea that it is only a pretext of the government to 
enable it to pry into private relations and interfere with the personal 
liberty of the subject, at the same time that it is another excuse for 
raising money. They are the more readily led to this conclusion by 
the shameless conduct of the employes, who exact all manner of presents 
to exempt the donors from various kinds of restraint, such as being con- 
fined in the most filthy holes, and to be eaten up by vermin of all sorts. 
When a man desires to perform the spoglio (which is done by passing 
through water and putting on uncontaminated clothes), he gives secretly 
a suit of clothes to the chief " guardian." The next morning this man 
brings the bundle, and cries out, " Mr. A. or B., your friend sends you 
this packet of clothes : come and perform the spOglio." Generally speak- 
ing, an oke or two of every article that enters the quarantine maga- 
zine is abstracted, and the merchants in vain call for redress. I have 
seen notes made out by the merchants wherein their sacks of soap, 
coffee, &c, had been specified as found wanting ten per cent in the 
weight by going through the hands of the quarantine ; and when bales 
of goods are opened, generally a piece or two of stuffs disappear. 

One of the magazines built at Mursina serves for a quarantine es- 
tablishment, although in the centre of the place. But the pilgrims com- 


ing overland are obliged to perform quarantine in tents at Adana, 
exposed to all the inconveniences of the weather; but to that they are 

If two persons present themselves at the gate of Adana, the one with 
a teskere or passport from Aleppo, and the other from Alexandretta or 
Bayas, as an inhabitant of the latter places, the former is put in quar- 
antine for fifteen days, while the latter is admitted to free " pratique," 
although they have been journeying on together for the last three or 
four days, and been in constant communication. What are the people 
of the country to think of such a quarantine ? 

-^±J&^£i£Skdr^ - 







Antiquities. — As this province was on the high road between the great 
contending powers of ancient times, the Greek, Koman, and Persian 
empires, it has passed and repassed into many hands ; and this may- 
account for the very few perfect remains of art which are to be met 
with, the country having suffered greatly by the inroads of troops with 
almost every successive generation. 

There are several castles built on eminences by the Persians, Sara- 
cens, Crusaders, and Genoese; but although the Turkmans continued 
for some time to make use of them, they have gradually fallen into 
ruin, as doubtless the jealousy of the Porte does not care to allow such 
facilities of defence to exist among people always disposed to rebel. 

Il Lamas. — At II Lamas there is an aqueduct of some extent, which 
conveyed water from a distance of eight or ten miles through hills and 
across valleys to Kurkass Castle, which is on the coast between Selef- 
keh and Mursina. This castle is built on a rock in the sea, and is of a 
very ordinary style of architecture, as are all the ruins that are to be 
seen on the coast. The aqueduct is now dry, and in some places im- 
passable, as the damp of the mountain above oozes, and forms, drop by 
drop, as it were, icicles of petrified water (travertino). The waters that 
formerly ran through it are now lost in a little stream which runs into 
the sea at a short distance from their source, where Admiral Sir Francis 
Beaufort's boat took in water. Near the entrance of the aqueduct are 
still to be seen the remains of a Saracenic tower, which no doubt was 
built to defend it from invasions of pirates. 

Above the aqueduct at II Lamas, and at a distance of three miles 
inland, a rocky mountain rises perpendicularly to the height of about 
3000 feet. In the centre of this precipice, half-way up, may be observed, 
out of the reach of man, two cannons in bronze, that sparkle in the 


morning sun, deriding for centuries past the vain efforts of the Turks to 
bring them down ; and the marks of many bullets may be seen, fired at 
them by Arnaut troops as they have passed the spot. They are in a 
port-hole, as it were, the one almost erect, but in an oblique position, and 
the other protruding horizontally. They appear to be about sixteen 
feet long; the bore, perhaps, a foot in diameter. They were probably 
placed there to defend the aqueduct; and it is very likely that there is 
behind them an excavation in the mountain that served for military 
stores. A part of the mountain having fallen down, the ancient road 
to them is thus cut off, and they have remained isolated and inacces- 
sible to any one using ordinary means-. 

A road might be cut to them with very little expense, or a- person 
might be let down from above ; but the latter would be a dangerous 
experiment, as the rock projects above, and it would be requisite to 
swing the rope backwards and forwards till the person hanging at the 
end could catch at the port hole and enter. This place unfortunately 
was not visited by Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort, otherwise the jolly tars 
of old England would certainly have brought them down. 

Strabo says of Coracesiuin (present Kalaht Kurkass), that it is 
situated on a rock close to a small bay, which forms a small harbour 
for boats of the country,, having an entrance on each side of the castle ; 
and he adds, that Diodorus, surnamed Tryphon, made use of it as a 
place of defence, and a depository for arms, when he detached Syria 
from the power of the Seleucians. He was so formidable as to pretend 
to the throne of Syria, and maintained himself with various success, 
drawing his resources from Apamea and its surrounding towns, such as 
Larissa Cassiana (his native place), Megorus and Apollonia, until Antio- 
chus, son of Demetrius, compelled him to take refuge in a fort, where 
he killed himself* It was this same Tryphon who first gave the Cili- 
cians the idea of organising a company of pirates, in order to take ad- 
vantage of the weakness of the different princes who reigned in succession 
at this epoch over Syria and Cilicia ; being the first to rebel, and with 
so much success, that others followed his example. As to the ruling 
princes, says Strabo, " we may remark, that discord having broken up 
the union in which brothers ought to have lived, placed the country at 
the mercy of any one who chose to attack it." But what principally 
encouraged crime and plunder, were the great profits that accrued in the 
sale of persons reduced to slavery. Independently of the facility of 
making slaves, the robbers had the advantage of being near a place of 

* Vide Appian dc rebus Syria;, cap. 67, 68, and Justin, lib xxxvi. cap. 1. 



commerce of some importance, viz. the island of Delos, which was rich 
enough to receive and send off to various places several thousand slaves 
per day ; and this had suggested the proverb, " Merchants anchor and 
discharge, for all is already sold," referring to the facility of meeting 
with a good market in this island. The Romans also contributed to 
these lawless deeds by the encouragement they gave in the purchase of 
slaves, who had become a matter of necessity to them ; the destruc- 
tion of Carthage and Corinth having rendered them so rich, that they 
accustomed themselves to be served by a great number of slaves ; and 
the pirates profiting by this opportunity of administering to their luxury, 
wandered boldly forth to pillage and seize all whom they met. 

The kings of Cyprus and Egypt also contributed to the encourage- 
ment of these pirates, by reason of the hatred they had of the Syrian 
princes; and the inhabitants of Rhodes, a maritime power that could 
have suppressed these lawless brigands, being jealous of the Syrians, did 
not choose to come to their assistance. Add to this, that the Romans at 
this time did not care much for the countries on the other side of the 
Taurus. It is true that Scipio iEmilius, and after him other officers 
were sent to visit these countries ; and they soon discovered that the 
cause of these robberies proceeded from the cowardice of the successors 
of Seleucus Nicator ; but they did not choose to interfere with them, or 
deprive them of a government which they had themselves guaranteed to 
the family of this prince. The weakness of these kings, says Strabo, 
was the cause that Syria fell under the domination of the Parthians, who 
became masters of the country beyond the Euphrates, and after them 
the Armenians pushed their conquest beyond the Taurus as far as Phoe- 
nicia, exterminated the kings and their race, and left the sea open to 
the depredations of the Cilicians. 

The Romans, who had not at first taken energetic measures to stop 
the progress of the Cilicians in their lawless conduct, were obliged to 
have recourse to armies of considerable force, in order to destroy the 
power of the pirates. But Strabo excuses the Romans by saying, that 
they had at home so many things of greater interest to look to, that it is 
not to be wondered at if they neglected what was passing at a distance 
from the metropolis. 

Pompeiopolis* (Soli). — On the coast, five miles to the westward of 
Mursina, are the ruins of Pompeiopolis. They are in a delightful situa- 

* See Dr. Holt Yates's description and plan of the ancient ruins, from Captain 
Frissick's report, which will illustrate my remarks ; Modern History and Condition of 
Egypt, tbc. (Smith and Elder). We have already quoted Admiral Sir Francis Beau- 
fort's admirable account of these ruins from his Karamania, pp. 2^9, 259 et seq. 


tion, but at present deserted. Here and there a little plot of ground is 
cultivated; the rest is overgrown with pines and brushwood. The only 
public buildings that can be distinguished out of such a heap of ruins 
are, 1st, the place of the amphitheatre, which was built of white 
marble, and had at the top all round a cornice with wreaths in alto 
relievo, between each of which was sculptured a tragic mask. In this 
place was found the centre part of a Venus of full size, in white marble. 
2dly, Some hundred columns, forty-two of which are still standing: 
they are composed of several pieces, and are about thirty feet high. 
Their capital above is ornamented with sculptured heads of Venus, 
Hercules, &c. There are six fluted columns, which stand out beyond 
the others. The whole are of very inferior work and taste. It is sup- 
posed that these columns served for an aqueduct, because it is difficult 
to explain exactly for what other object they were erected. Sir Francis 
Beaufort states that possibly the whole colonnade was once a covered 
street. The people of the country call Pompeiopolis Aski Shahir, "the 
old town:" Mazatli is a village higher up inland. There is a tradition 
that Soli was built by " Hahnun" a Jew, who erected for his daughter 
" Hind' 1 '' a castle two miles above the town, which is still standing 
on the banks of the river, but in ruins, and appears to be of Saracenic 
origin. 3dly, and that which attracts the attention of the antiquary 
above all other remains, are some tombs which have certainly a very 
ancient origin. One that is out of the town to the eastward, near 
the river, in a field, has been opened. It contained two large sarcophagi, 
more than twelve feet long; one is overturned, aud the other still in its 
place. They are of marble, without any ornament, not having been 


intended to be seen, but to be completely buried in the masonry. They 
have been originally covered all over by a composition formed of 
pebbles, sand, quick-lime, and pieces of brick, which has become petri- 
fied. Some inquisitive persons have succeeded in detaching this com- 


position from the sarcophagi when opening the tomb, and they are now 
quite empty.* 

Another tomb, which has not been opened, lies in the town to the 
west of the amphitheatre towards the sea, and is overgrown with brush- 
wood. It appears to be eight times the size of the last described. The 
French consul some years back tried to force it open; but although he 
cut the monument nearly half through at the centre, as he did not hap- 
pen to light upon either of the sarcophagi, they have remained enveloped 
in their pristine mass of mortar. 

Judging from what we see here, I conclude that the great monument 
at Tarsus, which so highly deserves the antiquary's attention, and which 
has frustrated every historical inquiry as to its origin, contains similar 
sarcophagi. It is of the same epoch and composition as the last men- 
tioned in Pompeiopolis, but at least one hundred times larger. It has 
two parallelograms that may be about 80 feet square each ; they are at 
a distance from one another of about 200 paces, surrounded by a wall 
of the same composition, which is 30 feet high and 22 broad. To the 
north are two similar Avails parallel to the monuments ; and a third 
that was begun and remained unfinished, because (I suppose) it was not 
required to contain any more sarcophagi. 

1. Here a large hole has been made, but nothing found. 

2. Vain attempts at an opening. 

3. Here a tunnel was made sideways in the monument at the base 
till it reached the centre, and then the French consul dug down perpen- 
dicularly till he came to water, without finding any thing in this conglo- 
merated mass of lime and pebbles, except the first and second fingers of 
a man in marble, of gigantic size, joined together, but not as if they 
had belonged to the hand of a statue, but a finished work in itself. 

4. Here are holes in the wall made to support beams, which must 

* Here I may mention having opened two similar sarcophagi of very massive stone 
at the ancient Stleucia Pieria near Suwaidiyah, or Suedia, a few years back. There 
was this difference, that these sarcophagi were of a yellow stone, and had a bas-relief 
ornament in the shape of a garland of ordinary work on their side and on the lids, for 
they were at first intended to be exposed to view, and not buried in any mortar what- 
ever. The cover or lid was so large, that although it had been broken in several pieces, 
it required some trouble to move the fragments. Both these sarcophagi were found 
empty for about a foot, beyond which there was a layer of clay three inches deep ; 
then below this were several large stones regularly built in, like the building of a wall ; 
and where the right ear should be, we found a small jar of very ordinary terra-cotta 
work in each. The only difference between these two sarcophagi was, that in one the 
ashes of the dead were collected in the little jar ; but in the other the jar was empty, 
and the ashes were strewn between each layer of the stone masonry built in the 
sarcophagus. On one were the remains of a Greek inscription quite illegible. See the 
sarcophagus in the preceding page, as well as the one in page 35. 



have been placed against it to form shelter for some Turkish cavalry in 
modern times. The whole of what is now standing is, as it were, only 
the interior of a wail, the facing, composed of large fine marble stones 


| WALL 30 F T H1CH 22 BROAD 


has all been taken away and used elsewhere. I imagine that these walls 
also contain sarcophagi of some branch of the family of an ancient king, 
and that they were laid in the walls and filled up and covered with the 
mortar as the persons died ; for the last wall to the north lias remained 


unfinished for want of tenants. In the centre there was space reserved, 
as it is said, for Sardanapalus himself, who, however, could not have 
required this mausoleum, having destroyed himself by fire in his palace 
at Ninus. Some assert that he was buried in a similar monument at 
Anchiale on the coast, and that, in conformity to his desire, an inscrip- 
tion was erected over it commemorating his having built Tarsus and 
Anchiale in one day, as a trophy of his greatness and power. Where 
Anchiale stood, there are now the remains of such a monument ; but it 
is insignificant compared with this one. Many vain attempts have been 
made to open this monument ; and it remains a question worthy the 
attention of antiquaries, inasmuch as it has hitherto frustrated the in- 
vestigation of the learned ; and all hypotheses formed upon its pristine 
object and the date of its construction are as vague as any proposed 
concerning the pyramids.* 

Strabo, remarking upon this portion of the coast, says, that Cape 
Anamour (Anemurium) is the nearest point of the land to Cyprus, 
being 350 stadia ; and he calls the distance from the frontiers of 
Paraphilia to this cape 820 stadia along the coast of Cilicia. " The 
rest of the coast, of about 500 stadia, terminates at Soli." Strabo 
further observes, that some persons considered Cilicia to begin at 
Celenderis (Kilindriya), and not at Coracesium (Kurkass); but this is 
no doubt in reference to those who divide Cilicia into two, Campestris 
and Trachea; Celenderis belonging to the latter, and Kurkass to the 

Strabo mentions two philosophers among the illustrious men born 
in Seleucia, Athenseus and Xenarchus. The former, he says, was friend 
of Murcia, who had revolted against Augustus, and fell into disgrace, 
having been taken prisoner with his friend; but having proved his 
innocence, was set at liberty by order of this prince. On his return 
to Rome, being cross-questioned by some persons who met him, he 
replied, desirous of avoiding any political discussions, " I have just 

* The people of the country call it Dunec Dash — Pierre renversee— and foolishly 
imagine that it is a temple turned upside down, with its foundations upwards ! W.B.B. 

We have seen in a note upon Selinus, afterwards Trajanopolis, that Admiral Sir 
Francis Beaufort identified a low massy edifice of seventy feet by fifty, composed of 
large well-cut blocks of stone, and containing a single vault, with the tomb or mauso- 
leum of Trajan. Mr. Barker describes similar remains at Soli or Pompeiopolis. These 
appear to be the massive mausolea in which the sarcophagi of the great were imbedded 
before and at the early part of the Christian era. May not the great mausoleum at 
Tarsus be the tomb of Julian, with which others have been afterwards connected ? 
A mausoleum of similar characters, but of later date, has been joined to that of Trajan, 
on one side of which is a sepulchral inscription to Chrestion, the son of Rhsestus. The 
existence of more than one mausoleum within the precincts of Julian's tomb would not 
thus_militate against the validity of the identification. W. F. A. 


left the residence of the dead, and been freed from the gates of the 
lower regions." He was killed by the fall, during the night, of a house 
which he inhabited. Xenarchus passed his life chiefly in Alexandria 
and Athens, and the latter part in Rome. He enjoyed the friendship 
of Areus,* and afterwards the good will of Augustus ; and was much 
respected to the last, dying in an advanced age, after having lost the 
use of his sight. Strabo does not omit to say that he had been one of 
his disciples, " amd followed his lessons." 

Strabo says that at the extremity of the Taurus ridge, high up, 
was Mount Olympus, called, no doubt, after the Olympus of classical 
celebrity, whereon was a castle of the same name, and from whence 
you might see Lycia, Paraphilia, and Pisidia, and which served as the 
stronghold of the pirate Zenicetus. This must be a way of speaking 
allegorically to express the great height of the Taurus near the sea at 
this place ; for Strabo could not, had he ever been there, make this 
assertion, as the mountains to the north of Sulufska, and which run 
along the coast, intervene between the eye and Lycia. The ridge is 
here sufficientlj^ high to see therefrom the island of Cyprus, or some 
sixty miles off; but it cannot overtop the mountains that intervene 
between it and Lycia. 

This country was much fortified, as may be seen by the many 
remains of old castles all along the coast, many of which have been 
repaired by the Genoese, and adapted to lvsist the attacks of modern 
warfare. Strabo says, that the Romans considered it too unsettled and 
too much exposed to be attacked both by sea and land, to undertake 
to govern it themselves by means of officers or proconsuls, and that 
they preferred it should be governed by kings, who might be always 
present to suppress any insurrection or incursion of pirates ; and they 
" gave Cilicia Trachea to Archelaus, who already possessed Cappadocia." 

The pirate Zenicetus, Strabo tells us, burnt himself and his whole 
family in his castle, when Publius Servilius, surnamed Isaun'cus, became 
master of the mountain. He was at the time also " master of the Cape 
Corycus, and of the town of Phaselis and other places in Pamphilia, 
which were all taken by the general previous to Pompey's occupation 
of the country" (year of Rome 674, c. 670).f 

Next to Lamus (the present lllamus) comes Soli, whence begins 
Cilicia Proper (Campestris). It was founded by the Acheans and 
the people of Rhodes, from the town of Lindus; and when Pompey 
subdued the pirates, as the number of inhabitants was much reduced, 
he established therein such of those whom he had conquered as he 
* See Plutarch in Anton. § 81. t Vide Eutrop. lib. vi. cap. 3. 


deemed worthy of pardon, and changed the name of the town, calling 
it Pompeiopolis, after himself. 

The illustrious men of Soli enumerated by Strabo are, Chrysippus, 
a Stoic philosopher, son of an inhabitant of Tarsus who had settled in 
Soli; Philemon, a comic poet, and Aratus, author of a poem entitled 
The Phenomena. 

There were two capes that bore the name of Zephyrium, one near 
the Calycadnus river of Sulufska, and the other in sight of Anchiale. 
Near this latter is the present village of Mursina ; at its extremity are 
the ruins of an ancient building, which the people of the country have 
dubbed with the title of Church of St. ' George ; and the Christians 
repair thither once a-year and pay their devotions under a large tree, 
which they have consecrated in their minds. The whole of the hill at 
this cape was covered with the foundations of ancient buildings, most 
of which I caused to be excavated, to build therewith a large maga- 
zine and house, which commands the finest prospect on the coast, and 
are both a kind of landmark to vessels approaching the roadstead of 
Mursina. The people of the country not being allowed the use of bells, 
which only Europeans may have or ring, there being a Mahomedan 
prejudice against them, arising from a notion that the idol worship of 
Baal is attached to them, I recollect one day being specially requested 
to allow my dinner-bell (which was a large ship's bell) to be sounded 
in order to inspire extra devotional feelings in those who had assembled 
near my house to pay their devotions to St. George on the day set apart 
for that saint according to the Armenian calculation. 

At Anchiale (the present Karadujar), says Strabo, citing Aristo- 
bulus, was the tomb of Sardanapalus, and a statue of stone representing 
him snapping his fingers, with this inscription below it: " Sardanapalus, 
the son of Anacyndaraxes, caused the town of Anchiale to be built in 
one day, and also that of Tarsus. Passer-by, eat, drink, and divert 
thyself; for every thing else is not worth that'" (meaning a snap of the 
fingers). The poet Chajribus mentions also this inscription, which is no 
longer in existence. But there is an old ruin, the mortar of which is 
petrified, and which may stand for the supposed tomb above mentioned. 

To the north of Anchiale was a fort, called by Strabo Cymda, where 
he says that " the kings of Macedonia deposited their treasure,* and 
which Eumenes carried off when he rebelled against Antigonus." 

Forming a triangle with this fort and Soli, at the foot of the Taurus 

* Strabo, it appears, looked upon the generals of Alexander of Macedon as Mace- 
donians, and therefore gives to Antigonus this title, although he was master chiefly of 
Asia Minor as far as Syria. 


was Olbus. This town had a temple to Jupiter, founded by Ajax, son 
ofTeuca; and the priests of this temple, says Strabo, were formerly 
masters of Cilicia Trachea, which is very expressive of the influence 
of the priests in those times, considering the difficulties of the road, and 
the distance from their temple into another province so much separated 
by nature as Cilicia Trachea and Campestris. Later, continues Strabo, 
the country was taken possession of by marauders, and converted into 
a stronghold for brigands. When they were destroyed, " which took 
place in our time," this province took the title of Principality of Teucer, 
and even " Priesthood of Teucer ;" and the greater part of the priests 
of the temple bore the name of Teucer or Ajax. " Alba, daughter of 
Zenophanus, having married one of the Teucer family, took possession 
of this province, which had been under the regency of her father. She 
was confirmed in her rule by Antony and Cleopatra ; but afterwards, 
at a later period, she was dethroned, and the government restored to 
the family." 

" Next to Anchiale," says Strabo, " is the mouth of the Cydnus, at 
the place called Rhegma, which is a lake, and where you may stilt see 
the remains of stocks for building of ships. Into this lake the Cydnus 
falls." The river at present circumvents the lake, which is a marsh 
of about thirty miles in circumference. The modern Tarsus is watered 
by a canal from the Cydnus, and th s, after passing through the town, 
used to fall into the marshes; but the Mufti, at my suggestion, caused 
a road to be cut for it to return into the river, in hopes that the waters 
of the marsh would diminish, and, in case there was no spring in the 
lake, that it might eventually be dried up, which would make the resi- 
dence much more salubrious. At present, the exhalations from the 
marsh, which are blown over the town by the sea-breeze, render the 
place most unhealthy; and the fevers that are engendered thereby are 
of the most pernicious kind, often carrying off the persons attacked by 
them in three days. 

As I have observed in another part of this work, the lake had been 
at one time drained, and the remains of a canal to carry off the waters 
and turn them into the Cydnus may l>e seen close along the shore at 
the mouth of the river. 1 also believe that this lake was once a port, 
and communicated with the sea through a passage which is now but 
slightly blocked up by the sand. Strabo confirms this idea by adding: 
" This river has its source in that part of the Taurus which is above 
Tarsus, and it traverses this town (the ancient Tarsus, on part of which 
only the present town stands) before reaching the lake ; so that this 
latter serves as a port to the town." 


Strabo tells us that " Tarsus was founded by Triptolemus (a priest 
of Argos) in his search after Io ;" and there were at Tarsus and An- 
tioch monuments to prove that Io had been in their neighbourhood, and 
that they were colonies of Argos.* 

Strabo further says, that as the sources of the Cydnus are not far 
from the town which it traverses, directly after leaving a deep valley, 
its waters are cold, and the current strong. " These," he adds, " are 
considered good for persons or animals suffering from sprains or in- 
flamed limbs ;" as if the good effects of the cold water, which we fancy 
to be a discovery of modern times, were known and had recourse to in 
his time. 

Strabo proceeds to say, that the inhabitants of Tarsus had distin- 
guished themselves so much by their application to philosophy and 
literature, that this city in that point surpassed Athens, Alexandria, 
or even any other town where schools and colleges were to be met 
with directed by philosophers and learned men. " The only difference 
is, that at Tarsus those who apply themselves to literature are all 
Tarsiots, and that it is visited by few strangers ; even those who are 
born there do not remain in this town, but leave it to go and perfect 
themselves elsewhere ; and they remain away from home willingly, 
except a small number, who return to their country. This is quite 
the contrary in the other towns that I have referred to above (except 
Alexandria): many strangers go there to study, and fix themselves in 
them, whilst few of their inhabitants leave their town out of love of 
science, or seek to instruct themselves at home — two things that take 
place in Alexandria, whose inhabitants receive many strangers in their 
schools, and send a great many of their young men to the schools of 
other towns." — " Tarsus possesses schools for every kind of instruction. 
It is furthermore populous and powerful, and must be regarded as a 

Of the illustrious men whom this city has produced, Strabo men- 
tions Antipater, Archimedes, and Nestor, Stoic philosophers, and the 
two Athenodori. Antipater was disciple and successor of Diogenes, the 
Babylonian (not the cynic of Sinopi, but the disciple of Chrysippus), 
/about 80 B.C. according to Lempiiere; but Smith places him 144 B.C. 
Feeling his deficiency in the powers of disputing verbally with his 
opponent and contemporary, Carneades, he confined himself to writing, 
whence he was called Kalamoboas. Cicero praises his acuteness, and 
Plutarch speaks of him with Zeno, Cleanthes, and Chrysippus, as one 
of the principal Stoic philosophers. 

* Vide Smith's Die. of Greek and Rom. Biog. and Myth. 


I find no particular mention of Archimedes and Nestor in Smith's 
Biography; but of the Athenodori we find that the first was called 
Cananites, from a town in Cilicia, although he Avas a native of Tarsus ; 
and Cicero calls him Athenodorus Calvus. He was in great favour 
with Augustus, whose government became milder in consequence of 
his attending to his advice, and the young Claudius was instructed by 
him. He retired to Tarsus, where he died at the age of 82, much 
beloved and respected in his own native city, of which he has written 
an account, as well as other works.* 

The other Athenodorus, surnamed Cordylia, was also a native of 
Tarsus, and a Stoic philosopher. He was keeper of the library at 
Pergamus ; and in his anxiety to preserve the doctrines of his sect in 
their original purity, used to cut out from the works of the Stoic writers 
such parts as appeared to him erroneous or inconsistent. He removed 
from Pergamus to Rome, and lived with M. Cato, at whose house he 
died.f Strabo enters into a long account of the first-mentioned Atheno- 
dorus, how, on his return to Tarsus, finding Boethus and his faction 
intractable, he availed himself of the power confided to him by Augustus, 
and banished them. This same Boethus, Strabo tells us, was as bad 
a citizen as a poet, and maintained himself in power over his fellow 
townsmen by flattering Antony, whom he compared to Achilles, Aga- 
memnon, and Ulysses, in his verses, which he had the impudence to 
insinuate were like those of Homer. 

" These philosophers," says Strabo, " whom I have mentioned, were 
Stoics ; but the sect of the Academicians has furnished us in our days 
with one other distinguished man, Nestor, who was preceptor to Mar- 
cellus, son of Octavia, sister of Augustus. This philosopher was at the 
head of affairs in Cilicia, after Athenodorus, whom he succeeded, and 
he enjoyed to the end of his days the esteem of the governors (sent 
from Rorne) and that of his fellow-countrymen." 

As to the other philosophers " iclwm 1 know and specify by their 
names" says Strabo, quoting this line of Homer, " there are two, Plu- 
tiades and Diogenes, both among those who pass from city to city, to 
shine in society by making their talents appreciated. Diogenes pos- 
sessed, moreover, the power of improvising, like a man inspired, on all 
kinds of subjects — poems, for the greater part, of a tragic turn."J 

This Diogenes mentioned here is not, I should suppose, the Diogenes 
Laertius, the historian of philosophers, although it is remarkable that 

* Vide Hoflxnan Dissert, de A then. Tarsensi, Lips. 1732 ; Sevin, in the Memoires de 
l'Acad. des Inscr. xix. 14. 

t Vide Smith's Myth. t Vide Laertius, lib. iv. sigm. 58. 


he is also one of the celebrated men of whom Cilicia can boast, a9 he 
received his surname from being a native of the town of Laerte in 

Of Plutiades I found no mention elsewhere, except that Smith seems 
to think him to be the same as Plution, who was a celebrated teacher of 
rhetoric ; and Westerman places him in the period between Augustus 
and Hadrian. 

" The grammarians that came frdm Tarsus," says Strabo, " are 
Artemidorus and Diodorus. This town also produced Dionysides, an 
excellent tragic poet, and one of the seven who composed what is called 
the Pleiad." This Artemidorus is supposed to be the same as the gram- 
marian of that name surnamed Aristophanius, from his being a disciple 
of the celebrated grammarian Aristophanes of Byzantium, at Alex- 
andria, who had also another disciple named Diodorus, and who may 
be, perhaps, the person above referred to by Strabo. 

There was in the time of the Emperor Valens a person of this name, 
who was appointed Bishop of Tarsus (a.d. 378) by Melitus, the Bishop 
of Antioch. Diodorus attended the Council of Constantinople (a.d. 381), 
at which the general superintendence of the Eastern churches was en- 
trusted to him and Pelagius of L. odiceia. 

Of Dionysides nothing further is known than what Strabo says 
above, that he was one of the best of the composers of the Tragic Pleiad 
of the Alexandrian grammarians, and regarding whom historians are 
not so well agreed as regarding their number. Hepha^stion the scholiast 
makes them contemporary with Ptolemy Philadelphus, and calls them 
Homer (not the author of the Iliad), Sositheus, Lycophron, Alexander 
(cited by Strabo in more places than one), GCantides, Sosiphanes, and 
Philiscus. Others place Aratus, Apollonius, Nicander, and Theocritus at 
the head of the list, although none of these poets wrote any tragedies. 

" Jt is particularly in Rome," continues Strabo, " that we may 
procure information regarding the great number of men of letters pro- 
duced by Tarsus ; for it is lull of learned men from that city, as well 
as from Alexandria. But,''' he concludes, " this is enough regarding 

From this Strabo passes on to the Pyramus, which, he says, comes 
from Cataonia, and he refers to his account of this river, where he de- 
scribes the country whence it takes its rise, alluding at the same time 
to the deposits of mud which this stream makes, and which, he says, 
gave rise to an oracle, which declared " that the time would come when 
posterity would see the Pyramus reach the island of Cyprus, by means 
of its deposits on the continent ;" and, indeed, the sea is rather shallow 



at the mouth of the Pyramus: when the drag-nets are thrown, the men 
have to wade in the water fur a quarter of a mile, as ropes of a general 
length are too short to reach the shore ; and what is remarkable is, 
that such is the abundance of turtle on this coast, that they fill the 
sack of the net, and have to be extracted therefrom three times before 
the net can reach the shore, by which time, however, it is generally 
found abundantly provided with fish. 

The mention of the mouth of the Pyramus naturally leads Strabo 
to notice Mallos, now a little ruin, and which, he tells us, was founded 
by Amphilochus and Mopsus. The latter, however, remaining master of 
the place on Amphilocus's voyage to Argos, refused to admit him to 
share in his authority on his return; on which a mortal combat ensued, 
wherein both perished; and they were buried at a distance from each 
other, so that the tomb of the one could not be discerned from that 
of the other, " in order that their enmity should cease after death." 

Strabo also mentions two fables regarding the death of Calchas, the 
greatest of the Grecian soothsayers at Troy. "Hesiod," says he, "ar- 
ranges this fable in the following manner. Calchas proposed to Mopsus 
this enigma: '1 am astonished at the quantity of figs on this wild fig- 
tree; could you guess the number of them?' Mopsus replied, 'There 
are ten thousand of them, which make a medim measure, and there 
remains one over; and this you are not capable of understanding.' Thus 
spoke Mopsus ; and the measure having been found complete (or cor- 
rect), the sleep of death closed the eyes of Calchas. 

" But," continues Strabo "according to Pherecydes, the subject of 
the enigma was a sow with young. Calchas asked Mopsus how many 
pigs it bore. Mopsus replied three, and one of which a female. Cal- 
chas, finding Mopsus right, die I of grief. Others say that he proposed 
the enigma of the sow. and that Mopsus in his turn proposed that of 
the fig-tree; and that Calchas, not having been able to guess rightly, 
died of vexation, as it had been predicted to him by an oracle. So- 
phocles, in his ' Vindication of Helen,' says that the oracle had de- 
clared to Calchas that he was destined to die as soon as he met with 
a soothsayer cleverer than him. This same poet places this dispute 
and death of Calchas in Cilicia. But this is enough," says Strabo, " of 
these ancient fables." 

" Mallos" (or Mallus), says Strabo, " was the birth-place of the 
grammarian Crates, of whom Panoetius tells us he was a disciple." This 
Crates was son of Simocrates, and lived in the reign of Ptolemy Philo- 
meter, and was contemporary with Aristarchus. This would give us 
some clue to the epoch iu which his disciple lived, and regarding whom 


there is some uncertainty as to the year of his birth or death.* Crates 
was brought up at Tarsus, and afterwards removed to Pergamus, where 
he founded a school about the year 157 B.C. He was sent by Attalus 
ambassador to Rome, where, having by accident broken his leg, he was 
compelled to lead a sedentary life, and this enabled him to find time to 
hold frequent grammatical lectures. This, says our historian, is all that 
is known of the life of Crates. 

We are told by Strabo that, whilst Philotas conducted the cavalry 
of Alexander through the Aleian plains — taking, no doubt, the route 
which is the high road of the present day through Adana and Missis — 
the latter conducted the infantry from Soli along the coast to Issus. He 
must, of course, have passed by Mallos ; and Strabo says that it was 
reported that Alexander offered libations on the tomb of Amphilochus, 
in consideration of their common origin from the city of Argos.-j- 

After mentioning different places on the coast, such as iEgeus (Ayas), 
the Pyke Amanida?, Issus, Rhosus (Arsus), and the Pylse Syria?, he says 
that the first Syrian town on leaving the latter is Seleucia Pieria, the 
Suedia described in this work, " near which the Orontes river dis- 
charges its waters. From this town to Soli the navigation in a straight 
line is about 1000 stadia. "J He then concludes with the following 
passage regarding the origin of the Cilicians : 

" As the Cilicians of Troy whom Homer mentions § are very far 
from the Cilicians of Mount Taurus, some people pretend that the latter 
issued from the first; and they shew places bearing the same name as 
those of Trojan Cilicia, such as Thebes and Lernassus in Paniphilia. 
Others, on the contrary, consider the Cilicians of Troy to be descended 
from those beyond the Taurus, and equally point out among them a 
plain which is called Aleium (after that in which is Tarsus)." 

* Vide Smith's Myth. *r Vide Arrian de Exped. Alexand. lib. ii. cap. 5. 

J I have crossed it by a sixteen hours' sail in an open boat. 
§ Iliad, lib. vi. vers. 395-397. 






Lares and Penates were the names of the household gods of the an- 
cients. Many derivations have been found for both : the Lares from 
their descent from Lara; but the most likely is that given by Apuleius 
(De Deo Socratis), from lar, familiaris. The Penates appear to be essen- 
tially of Eastern origin, and the etymology of the word, it has been 
said, must be sought in the Phrygian ; although Cicero and others have 
given it a Latin origin, quod penitus insident, or again, quia coluntur in 
penetralibus, " because they are worshipped in the innermost recesses of 
the house." 

A mythology or pantheism of this kind dates from the most remote 
antiquity ; it is probably one of the first soothing fictions by which the 
great Deity was brought into immediate contact with persons and 
actions. The Egyptians had their four gods, for example, who presided 
over the birth of children — Genius, Fortune, Love, and Necessity. 
These were subsequently called Pr.&stites, 

.|" Quod prsestant oculis omnia tuta suis" — Ovn>. Fast; 
and were supposed to take care of particular houses and families. We 
trace the same faith lingering in poetic rather than admitted notions of 
angelic and saintly interference in our own times. 

The Penates were divinities, or household gods, who were believed 
to be the creators or dispensers of all the well-being and gifts of for- 
tune enjoyed by a family, as well as an entire community. It is not 
clear whether all or which of the gods were venerated as Penates ; for 



many are mentioned of both sexes, Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, Vesta, Nep- 
tune, Apollo, &c. ; but every family worshipped one or more of these, 
whose images were kept in the inner part of the house, the tablinum, 
situated beyond the atrium. They are represented in various ways 
on coins and medals. Mr. Eich gives an example in his Illustrated 
Companion to the Latin Dictionary and Greek Lexicon, from the Vatican 
Virgil, in which they appear as old men, with their heads veiled like 
priests officiating at a sacrifice. The occurrence of such an illustra- 
tion would tend to throw some light on the bearded and hooded figures 
met with in the Tarsus collection, and the origin of which will be after- 
wards discussed under various points of view. 

The Lares, as tutelary spirits, were also sometimes confounded with 
the souls of deceased persons. Thus Apuleius tells us that the private 
or domestic Lares were no more than the souls of departed persons who 
had lived well and discharged the duties of their station ; whereas 
those who had done otherwise were vagabond, wandering about and 
frightening people under the name of Larvae and Lemur es. The Lares 
were supposed to exercise a protecting influence over the interior of 
every man's household, himself, his family, and property ; and yet they 
were not regarded as divinities like the Penates, but simply as guardian 
spirits, whose place was the chimney-piece, and whose altar was the 
domestic hearth (focus) in the atrium, and where each individual made 
offerings of incense to them in his own home. Many illustrations of 
these descriptions of private or domestic Lares occur in the Tarsus col- 

According to Ovid there were but two Lares ; and these, like the 
Penates, were worshipped in the form of little figures or images of wax, 
earthenware, or terra cotta, and of metal, more especially silver. They 
were dressed in short habits, to shew their readiness to serve, and they 
held a sort of cornucopias in their hands, as the emblem of hospitality and 
good house-keeping. Eich says they are constantly represented in 
works of art as young men crowned with a chaplet of laurel leaves, in 
a short tunic,* and holding up a drinking-horn (cornu, not the cornu- 
copia?,) above their heads ; and he gives an example from a bas-relief 
in the Vatican, under which is the inscription, " Laribus Augustis."'j- 
Examples are met with in the Tarsus collection. 

* Succinctis Laribus. Pers. v. 31. 

■f- The Lares were also represented as young boys, with -dog-skins about their 
shoulders, and with their heads covered, which was a sign of that freedom and liberty 
which men ought to enjoy in their own houses ; their symbol was a dog, to denote 
their fidelity, and tlie service that animal does to man in preserving and watching over 


The accessory of the drinking-horn has induced many antiquaries 
to take these figures for cup-bearers (pociilatores) ; but the inscription 
just mentioned is sufficient evidence of their real character, and they 
are repeatedly seen on the walls of the Pompeian houses, in kitchens, 
bakehouses, and over street-doors, standing in pairs, one on each side 
of an altar, in the same attitude and drapery. Great houses and per- 
sons of wealth had their Lararia, a sort of shrine, small chapel, or apart- 
ment, where the statues of the Lares, as well as of other sanctified or 
deified personages, were placed and worshipped.* Tatius, king of the 
Sabines, is said to have built a temple to the Lares. 

Plutarch distinguishes the Lares, like the Genii, into good and evil ; 
and there were also public and private Lares. The public Lares were 
sometimes called Compitalis, from compitum, a cross- way ; and Viales, from 
via, a way, or public road, as being placed at the intersection of roads 
and in the highways, and esteemed the patrons and protectors of tra- 
vellers. The Romans also gave the name Urbani, that is, Lares of the 
cities, to those who had cities under their care ; and Hostilii, to those 
who were to keep off their enemies. There were also Lares of the 
country, called Rur'ales, as appears from several ancient inscriptions ; 
and also Lares called Permarini, who, it is probable, were the Lares of 
ships ; nor is it unreasonable to suppose that these floating houses should 
have their tutelar deities as well as others. They had even their grunt- 
ing Lares ; the Lares called Grundiles having, according to tradition, 
been instituted by Romulus, in honour of a sow that brought forth at 
one time thirty pigs. The name Grundiles was given to them a yrun- 
nitu, from grunting. 

When the Roman youths laid aside the bull (a golden ornament 
shaped like a heart, but hollow, which they constantly wore till four- 
teen years of age), they consecrated or hung it up to the Lares. Slaves 
likewise, when they obtained their freedom, hung up their chains to 
these deities. 

The Romans at first offered young people in sacrifice both to the 

the places allotted to their charge, on which account the dog was particularly conse- 
crated to them. The number of heads, and other portions of " deified boys," in the 
Tarsus collection, is quite remarkable, and would tend to shew that the intention 
of these figures was the same in Cicilia as it was at Rome. Figures of dogs are not 
so common, but several instances occur, sufficient indeed to lead us to believe that 
the same tradition with regard to these faithful domestic animals as obtained among 
the Romans was also accepted by the Cicilians. They appear to have been the 
hoarders up of the mythological traditions of almost all the countries by which they 
were surrounded, or by which they were successively conquered. 
* Lamprid. Alex. Seo. 29, 31. 


Lares and Penates; but those barbarous rites were ultimately super- 
seded by more harmless offerings, — hogs in public, and wine, incense, 
heads of poppies, bandages of wool, and images of straw in private ; 
they also crowned them with flowers, particularly with the violet, 
myrtle, and rosemary. 

The term Lares, according to Mr. Bryant's mythological theory, was 
formed from laren, an ancient word by which the ark was represented ; 
and he supposes that the Lares and Manes were the same domestic 
deities under different names, and that by these terms the Hetrurians 
and Latins denote the Dii Arkitas, who were no other than their Arkite 
ancestors, or the persons preserved in the laren or ark, the genius of 
which was Isis, the reputed parent of the world. He observes further 
that they are described as daemons and genii, who once lived on earth, 
and were gifted with immortality. Arnobius styles them, Lares quosdam 
genios et functorum animas ; and he says that, according to Varro, they 
were the children of Mania. Flutius* adds, that Mania had also the 
name of Laranda, and she is styled the mother of the dsemons. By 
some she is called Lara, and was supposed to preside over families ; and 
children were offered at her altar in order to procure her favour. In 
lieu of these they in after-times offered the heads of poppies and pods 
of garlic. 

This accounts somewhat for the discrepancy of the ancients as to 
their origin. For example, Varro and Macrobius say that they were 
the children of Mania; Ovid makes them the issue of Mercury and Lara 
or Larunda; Apuleius assures us that they were the posterity of the 
Lemures; Nigridius, according to Arnobius, made them sometimes the 
guardians and protectors of houses, and sometimes the same with the 
Curetes of Samo-Thracia, which the Greeks call Jdcci dactyli. Nor was 
Varro more consistent in his own opinions, sometimes making them the 
manes of heroes, and sometimes gods of the air. In Cilicia we have a 
faint tracing of the admixture of Egyptian and Samo-Thracian mysteries 
in the national Pantheism, in the existence of a terra-cotta crocodile, 
a crocodile river, Kersus of Xenophon, Andricus of Pliny, and a " Mons 

With respect to the Penates, they were of three classes : those who 
presided over empires and states, those who had the protection of cities, 
and those who took the care or guardianship of private families ; the 
last were called the lesser Penates. According to others, there were 
four classes: the celestial, the sea-gods, the gods of hell, and all such 
heroes as had received divine honours after death. 

* Demonst. prop. iv. p. 139. 


Authors are not agreed about the origin of the Dii Penates, which 
are generally admitted to have come originally from Asia, and were 
known as the tutelary gods of the Trojans. Dionysius Halicarnassus 
tells us that ./Eneas first lodged these gods in the city of Lavinium, and 
that his son Ascanius, upon building the city of Alba, translated them 
thither, but that they returned twice miraculously to Lavinium. The 
same author adds, that in Rome there was still seen a dark temple, 
shaded by the adjacent buildings, wherein were the images of the 
Trojan gods, with the inscription " Denas," which signifies Penates. 
These images represented two young men sitting, each of which held 
a lance. I have seen, says Dionysius, several other statues of the same 
gods in ancient temples, who all appear like young men dressed in the 
habit of war. Varro brings the Penates from Samothrace to Phrygia, 
to be afterwards transported by yEneas into Italy. 

It is a popular question among the learned, who were the Penates 
of Rome ? Some say Vesta, others Neptune and Apollo ; Vives says 
Castor and Pollux, with whom agrees Vossius, who adds, that the reason 
of their choosing Castor and Pollux in the quality of Penates might be 
the important service they rendered the Romans in some of their wars. 
When Macrobius says that Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva were the Penates 
of the Romans, it does not follow from that that they were the Penates 
of Rome. It seems, indeed, to have been in the option of every master 
of a family to choose his Penates; and hence it was that Jupiter and 
some of the superior gods were often invoked as patrons of domestic 

The positive domestic and public deities selected by a country or 
province and its inhabitants were, perhaps, never before so fully illus- 
trated as in the instance of the remarkable collection now brought to 
light, discovered also in a country of great antiquity, and which per- 
haps, more than any other in the East, forms the connecting link 
between Assyrian and Greek mythology, and with Lycia between As- 
syrian and Greek art. The light they may yet be made to throw 
upon these relations will, in all probability, be found to be very 
considerable, and to present a field of investigation as yet almost un- 

The Assyrians of old recognised in the stars of heaven golden chariots 
of heavenly hosts.* Zeus or Baal, as the most perfect leader of the most 
perfect chariot, was drawn by the finest and largest horses of Asia ; while 
the god of the sun had only one single Nisaian horse, or was represented 

* Grotefend on the Mythology of tlie Assyrians, according to the Sculptures of the 
Palace at Nimrud, 


upon a winged horse, whose image Layard* found embroidered upon the 
garment of the king. - ]" 

Like the tradition of Bellerophon and Perseus, whom, according to 
Herodotus,^ the Persians declared to be an Assyrian, the designation of 
this horse by the name of Pegasus seems to be of Assyrian origin, espe- 
cially since Tarsus, whose inhabitants, according to Dio Chrysostomus,§ 
worshipped Perseus, together with Hercules or Sandon,|| and the tri- 
dented Apollo, is said to have been built by an Assyrian king.^J 

We have here, then, at once accurate legendary information as to 
the Penates of Tarsus, and tolerably satisfactory testimony as to the 
Assyrian origin of some of them. Perseus himself has been recognised 
in this collection; and it has been ingeniously suggested that Tarsus 
winged, feathered, pinioned, may have reference to the conqueror of the 
Gorgon. Reasons have been elsewhere given for a preference to an 
etymology which brings Tarsus more into connexion with the story of 
Bellerophon, and the frequent fragments of horses' feet have been sug- 
gested to have some reference to Pegasus ; while the circumstance of 
the Apollo of Tarsus being winged might be made to bear reference 
to either or both of these local traditions. We may observe that Apollo 
was the chief object of superstitious worship at Tarsus; that his image 
was no doubt in every house ; that his remains are more numerous than 
the other objects of heathen idolatry; and that he is represented in many 
various ways. 

We have also a head of a horse which, it has been suggested, may be 
one of the horses of the sun : a surmise which is further said to be sup- 

* Vol. ii. p. 461, fig. 84. 

•f* Grotefend describes, from Layard, a slab at Nimrud upon which is sculptured a 
flying horseman, who bore a helmet with curved crest. The Persians themselves, 
Layard remarks, vol. i. p. 443, may have recognised the Assyrian source of their reli- 
gion, when they declared Perseus, the founder of their race, to have been an Assyrian. 
Herodotus, i. vi. c. 54. The head of Perseus occurs on two of the Babylonian cylinders 
engraved by Mr. Cullimore for the Syro-Egyptian Society. 

Some traditions made this Perseus a great astronomer, who instructed men in the 
knowledge of the stars, nephew 6 HX<oc, Perseus is the sun, says the scholiast in 
Lycophr. v. 18. According to some, he married Astarte, the daughter of Belus. All 
these traditions point to his Assyrian origin. 

I only find in Layard, vol. i. p. 376, mention of a horseman wearing a helmet with 
a curved crest, pursued by two Assyrian warriors ; but in vol, ii. p. 461, is figured the 
winged horse, "so closely," says Layard, " resembling the Pegasus of the Greeks, 
that we can scarcely doubt the identity." 

J Herodotus, vi. 54. 

§ Oral, xxxiii. init. and p. 407, ed. Mon. 

|| Compare Raoul Rochette, Memoire sur VHercule Assyrien, p. 489 et seq. 

^[ Ammianus Marcellinus. writes of Tarsus, xiv. 8, Maud condidisse Perseus memo- 
ratur, vel certe ex Anchi(al)o profectus Sandon quidem nomine, vir opulentus et nohilis. 


ported by another fragment existing in the collection which shews the 
head of a second horse coupled to it as if attached to a chariot, and also 
by the many votive memorials of horses' limbs before alluded to. 

We have in the collection several heads of Hercules, one of which is 
radiated, and figures of Hercules with the mace. The Assyrian Hercules, 
Sandps, Sandon, or Sandok,* but more properly Dayyad the Hunter, was 
represented on a colossal winged figure holding a mace, and also as bear- 
ing a stag on one arm, and a flower with five blossoms in the right hand. 
It does not appear that this latter form of the divinity was accepted by 
the Tarsians. 

It is sufficient, hoAvever, that we certainly find traces of Assyrian 
mythology interwoven into a compound worship — the Egyptian, Syrian, 
Grecian, and Roman characters of which are elsewhere developed, — and 
which combination has been justly pointed out to have arisen from the 
local position of Tarsus and its commercial connexions. " I believe," 
remarks Mr. Abington, " that there has never before been presented to 
this world so striking a proof of the easy plastic character of the old 
mythology as we find in this precious collection of antiquities." A 
further development even to this view of the matter is given Avhen we 
add an Assyrian origin to the most characteristic of the Tarsus divini- 
ties, and to the before-mentioned Egyptian, Syrian, Grecian, and Roman 

It need only be added, that some further curious and remarkable 
illustrations of the same affinity — that is, of Cilician and Assyrian 
mythology — will be found in the chapter devoted to the description of 
certain gods, demi-gods, and heroes represented in the Tarsus terra- 
cottas, and which arrived in this country, and were described, at a 
period subsequent to the examination of the first portions of the col- 

* Tacitus, An. xii. 13. 

t^c^or^jj^x^V^ 3 ^> 










" The incarnations., which form the principal subjects of sculpture in the temples of 
idolatry, are above all others calculated to call forth the ideal perfections of the art, 
by expanding and exalting the imagination of the artist, and inciting his ambition 
to surpass the simple imitation of ordinary forms, in order to produce a model of 
excellence worthy to be the corporeal habitation of the Deity ; but this no nation 
of the earth, except the Greeks, and those who copied them, ever attempted. Let 
the £>recious wrecks and fragments, therefore, of the art and genius of that wonder- 
ful people be collected with care, and preserved with reverence, as examples of 
what man is capable of under peculiar circumstances, which, as they have never 
occurred but once, may never occur again." — R. P. Knight on the Symbolical 
Language of Mythology. 

It has been my good fortune to discover such remains as are above 
alluded to in the extract from Mr. R. P. Knight's learned and interesting 
work. During a residence of eight years in Cilicia, I was, in the year 
1845, at different intervals, presented with one or two of these terra- 
cotta heads by an Armenian, who passed a great part of the day rum- 
maging among old ruins, which is frequently the case with lazy fellows, 
who pass for moral men or " saints" of the modern Eastern population, 
and who have an ulterior object besides that of seclusion : the desire of 
discovering hidden treasures, or of imposing on the credulity of their 
countrymen, by pretending to supernatural knowledge in the secret of 
finding the same. I had in vain questioned him regarding the place 


where he had found these objects. He had naturally an interest in 
avoiding to satisfy my curiosity, as I paid him handsomely for every thing 
he brought me ; and he pretended that he used to write magical words 
on pieces of paper, which he would throw up in the air, and then 
he would dig in those places whereon they fell ! Such is the kind of 
nonsense which he no doubt endeavoured to impose on his credulous 

One day a friend observed the Armenian scratching the earth on the 
slope of a hill at no great distance from my residence. He suspected 
what the man was looking for, and on informing me of the circumstance, 
I proceeded to the spot, where I discovered the rich mine from which 
I have drawn the whole of my collection. Having set workmen to 
clear away the rubbish, I collected all I could get, and these are the 
objects of which I now offer sketches to the public These drawings I 
have taken care should be done as correctly as possible ; yet such is the 
artistic merit of the originals, that no one can do them sufficient jus- 
tice. Still I have endeavoured to give such an accurate delineation of 
these objects as shall bear the closest critical inspection. 

On the ancient wall of Tarsus a hill leaned (if I may be allowed the 
expression), which must have been many centuries there, inasmuch as 
on its summit, and towards its base, there exists a fabric, the founda- 
tions of which are of Roman cement, which was used for the interior of 
walls, and which, petrifying, becomes a conglomeration of mortar, sand, 
and pebbles, of different sizes, and harder to break up than the rock 
itself. The inhabitants of the present town do not trouble themselves 
to go to the mountains to cut thence the stones they may require for 
their buildings ; they prefer using such as those who lived in the same 
spot before have left them ; and they carry away, wherever they find 
them, all the large square stones they require. After using up all that 
they could find on the surface of the ground, they dug up the founda- 
tion of the old city of Tarsus. This foundation is now as low down 
as forty feet under ground, such being the speed with which alluvial 
deposits accumulate in a country so near to the high ridges of the 
Taurus, and in a city on which several towns have been built in suc- 
cession. In the course of time the wall on which the hill leaned was 
thus carried away stone by stone, and a secant of the hill left exposed to 
view. In the centre of this secant it was that I first discovered these 
precious objects; and by beating the earth down the hill, I had it well 
examined, and carried off, as I imagined, every thing worthy of notice, 
until no more objects were exposed to view by working in the hill. 
The curiosity excited by this discovery was naturally great, and it was 


impossible to prevent the inhabitants from crowding to the spot. They 
were all much pleased with the lamps found among the rubbish, all of 
which were more or less perfect, and in a state ready for use ; these 
I could not prevent them carrying off: but as they took no interest in 
any thing else (heads being perfectly useless to them), and as they 
were aware that I would have purchased all that were presented to 
me, I have every reason to believe that nothing of any consequence 
escaped me except these lamps, of which, however, I secured a great 
many, rejecting such as were of common workmanship, or devoid of 
interest, from their having no basso relievo or inscription to recommend 
them to notice. 

It was thus that I obtained this unique collection of ancient Cera- 
mic art. 

At first I imagined that I had lighted upon the site of a Ceramicus, 
and that the mound might have been formed of the waste of a manufac- 
tory, or what is technically called "■ sherdwreck," many of which are 
now accumulating, and will disclose their secrets to some future genera- 
tion. But on further inspection of the articles themselves, I have no 
doubt that Mr. Abington's* suggestion will be found correct, that these 
precious vestiges are the Penates of the ancient Cilicians, and conse- 
quently of a much more interesting character, inasmuch as they bear 
witness and testify to the triumphs of Christianity over the superstitions 
of the Gentiles. The following are some of the reasons that lead to this 

1st. None of the articles appear to have been rejected by the maker 
on account of defective workmanship ; though the work of some of them 
is very slight, yet even these have evidently been in use ; they had been 
sent out by the manufacturer as finished ; had been applied to the pur- 
poses intended, and subsequently broken, either by design or accident ; 
" and if they had been used," Mr. Birch observed, before he had seen 

* Here I am happy in an opportunity of expressing publicly my great obligation 
to Mr. Leonard J. Abington, of Hanley Potteries, Staffordshire, for the valuable infor- 
mation he has furnished me with ; indeed, without him, I question if I should have been 
able to bring these valuable remains of antiquity into notice. He not only moimted 
each piece on a pedestal adapted to it, and thereby presented the object in the most 
advantageous position to be viewed, but he addressed to me a series of remarks doubty 
interesting : first, as coming from a person who seems at home on every subject, ancient 
and modern ; and second, as emanating from one who could speak artistically as 
well as scientifically, he being connected with one of the largest establishments of 
China pottery in England. These observations are incorporated in the following re- 
marks, and form the basis of what I would turn the attention of the reader to, leaving 
(as I have already observed) to others to work upon the subject, which is of great in- 
terest, and affords matter for many volumes by more able pens. 



WO. 1. — HEAD OF PAN. 

the objects, " they would have been covered with lime, and painted 
in fresco, traces of which must be sought upon them." Now they have 
all been painted ; indeed, some of them 
have been painted more than once : see 
the head of Pan, No. 1, which had been 
painted blue, and afterwards with a 
thick coat of red ; many were painted 
in party-colour — the flesh and the gar- 
ments different. In a mounted headless 
bust of Apollo Belvidere there are two 
or three spots of the colour remaining ; 
the body was red, and the garments 
green ; and a careful examination of 
many of the pieces, after breathing 
upon them, will discover traces of co- 
lour which would not be suspected on a cursory view. The rays upon 
deified figures are generally painted blue, and sometimes the eyes are of 
the same colour. The head of Pan, No. 1, was not thrown aside because 
of any defect making it unsaleable ; except a little damage to the edge of 
the garland with which it is crowned, it is as perfect as when the maker 
sold it. The mortar, which still remains, by which it was fixed upon 
the stile which supported it, proves that 
it had been put up in the place which 
superstition had assigned to it, and from 
which it was afterwards deposed and 
cast out. This remaining mortar or 
cement proves further, that it had been 
applied to the purpose for which the 
heads of Pan and Bacchus usually were, 
in woods, pastures, and vineyards : it 
escaped the destruction which came upon 
its fellows by reason of its solid and al- 
most spherical form. 

2dly. The Incense-Burner, No. 2, 
has not been rejected by the maker on 
account of any failure in the workmanship. It had left the manufac- 
tory, and been in use in the worship of some household idol ; this 
is certain, by the carbonaceous stain still remaining in the bottom of 
the crater. This piece, therefore, after having been consecrated to 
religious use, was afterwards broken and thrown out, either by accident 
or design. 




3dly. The same argument may be drawn from the Lamp, No. 3, 
which had been long in use. The stag upon it suggests the thought 

NO. 3. — LAMP. 


that it has been used to burn before an image of Diana, whose head 
we have, No. 4, and who was honoured in Lesser Asia. 

Another Lamp is entire, and fit for service; and it was not likely to 
have been thrown away as rubbish. The symbols upon it indicate that 
it has been used for religious purposes. Such articles woidd certainly 
be rejected, as contaminated by the use for idol- worship, on the owners 
embracing the " glorious Gospel of the blessed God." The circular 
arched form of the lamps would enable them to bear considerable vio- 
lence without breaking, and would account for such a number having 
been found whole and perfect, although subjected to the same inten- 
tional destruction which the rest of the pieces of the collection have ex- 



4thly. Some of the fragments are votive 
offerings, consecrated to the honour of the gods, 
and attesting their condescension to suffer- 
ing humanity, and their power to help. To 
damage or remove such would have been con- 
sidered the highest act of desecration. The 
most Avicked man would have been shocked at 
such a crime. What, then, could have caused 
such a sweeping act of sacrilege ? Here he the 
prized memorials of relief obtained from the 
gods in time of trouble, and the very gods 
themselves lying in the same indiscriminate 
ruin. There lies the Olympic Thunderer with 
his jaw broken, No. 5, and the head of his 
saucy wife for a companion, in the dirt, 
No. 6. His wings could not save the patron, No. 7, a winged Apollo, 


NO. 6. — JUNO. 


the honoured of Tarsus, from the general break-up ; nor even the 
honesty of little Mercury, No. 8, exempt him from the common lot. 



There is no fact in history to account for this sacrilegious devastation, 
but the resistless progress of the Gospel in apostolic times. 

NO. 8. — MERCURY. 


5thly. The age to which we must attribute the production of these 
works of art coincides with this supposition. Additional confirmation 
of this is afforded by some coins found with them, and which are known 
to date no further back than a century and a half to two centuries B.C. 
The fashion of the hair in the head No. 9 will admit of our fixing the 
date of the destruction of these objects in the first century. I am not 
aware that we have any account of the introduction of the Gospel, 
or of its triumphs at Tarsus; but it is not unlikely that this rejec- 
tion of the objects of superstitious reverence might have taken place 
before the close of the first century : and doubtless St. Paul would have 
been anxious for the conversion of his immediate friends and re'ations; 
and if he could not have superintended it in person, he would have 
early sent his most able and efficient disciples to carry on this work of 

This question now meets us, Was this casting away of idols the act 
of private individuals, clearing their habitations of these abominations, 
at the risk of persecution from the authorities, and burying them outside 


the gates ? or was it a general cleansing of the city by the force of public 
opinion, such as is described in Acts xix. 18-20 ? In either case we find 
here accumulated every variety of idol, including the compound worship 
(which had been carried on for years) of Assyrian, Egyptian, Syrian, Gre- 
cian, and Roman mythology, — this combination no doubt arising from 
the local position of Tarsus and its commercial connexions ; and if some 
person competent to the study would take up the subject, I feel per- 
suaded that much might be elucidated of further interest to the archaeo- 
logist and to the divine, which would bring us to the firm persuasion, 
that their being purposely mutilated and thrown away was to be attri- 
buted to the influence of apostolic missionaries of the Christian faith in 
the first century of our Lord. 

A proof of the promiscuous worship of the people of Tarsus, and a 
picture of their religious superstition, before the establishment of Chris- 
tianity, is afforded by the accompanying list of some of the figures found, 
which will shew how comprehensive their religious faith must have 
been : here we have 









Sera) lis. 





Anubis (the Egyptian 









Fortune — V 


Phre — (the Hawk, the Egyptian 



and a multitude of deified men, women, and children, to whom it is 
impossible even to assign names. 

The religious system, therefore, prevailing at Tarsus must have 
been a compound of all the creeds existing at that epoch. Such a 
combination was perhaps common to the cities of Asia Minor ; but 
was more likely to be found at Tarsus, it being a place of resort 
from all the surrounding countries, on account of its schools, as well 
as of its commerce. It has been before remarked, that there has 
never been presented to the world so striking a proof of the easy, 
plastic character of the old mythology as we find in this precious col- 
lection of antiquities. Unlike Christianity, which treads alone in all 
the rigid inflexibility of eternal truth, and will not amalgamate with 
any thing earthly or of man's device, we find ready adoption of any 


thing or every thing likely to fascinate the people, and to bring traffic 
to the temples. 

In order to read these vestiges intelligibly, it will not be uninterest- 
ing that we should review the peculiarities of the place of their disco- 
very. Tarsus was " no mean city;" its foundation was in the earliest 
antiquity; and when it came under the power of the Romans it was 
made a metropolis, as appears on its coins ; its schools rivalled those 
of Athens and Alexandria, to which it often furnished professors in 
eloquence and philosophy. One of the supposed derivations of its 
name may have been from the Greek. The most fanciful derivations 
were certainly sometimes represented in works of art. Have the wings 
any thing to do with Perseus, who has a great place in Tarsian my- 
thology ? Tarsus, says Mr. Birch, is an old name, certainly as old 
as the twentieth Egyptian dynasty, or fourteen centuries B.C. " Tar- 
sus" signifies winged — feathered — pinioned, which the following obser- 
vation on one of these relics, a sketch of which is given under No. 7, 
elucidates, and affords a solution to a great mystery.* 

* Tap<ror is used by the writers of old not only to express a wing, but also the palm 
of the foot and hand. In anatomy tarsus is distinguished as belonging to the foot, 
carpus to the hand. Dionysius, stirnamed Periegetes, from his poem of Periegesis, or 
" Survey of the World," refers the name of the city of Tarsus to Pegasus having 
landed Bellerophon there, leaving the mark of Ins hoof, or foot, in the ground. The 
passage runs as follows : 

Ki'dvov T6 <tx°^'°'0 litar\v bia Ta(.aov iovTOt, 
Taptrov tvn-intvtiv, 0O1 dt] 7TOT6 Y\t]ya<ro? i7T7ror 
Tapcoi' a^eic, x w Py ^'^^v ot'i'Ojua, TJj/ioy a(p* ittttov 
Es A169 le'jiKivof 7re<rei> fjpws' BtAXepo^ovrr]?. 

There are here three Tarsuses, a play upon words, which may be freely rendered : 

" Tortuous Cydnus, through Tarsus' centre flowing, 
Well-built Tarsus ; where once most truly Pegasus 
Placed its foot : leaving it thus a name. There 'twas 
That Jupiter caused the fall of Bellerophon." 

Avienus, who is distinguished for his ingenuity displayed in vaiying the expression 
of the constantly recurring ideas of the Alexandrian, thus records the same myth: 
" Cydnus item mediae discernit msenia Tarsi. 
Pegasus hoc olini suspendit cespite sese, 
Impressaeque solo liquit vestigia calcis : 
Esset ut insignis revoluta in saecula semper 
Nomen humo. Clari post ultima Bellerophontis 
Hie cespes late producit Aleius arva." 

The fall of Bellerophon here alluded to is not contained in Apollodorus, nor in all 
the versions of the legend ; but it is in Pindar, with the variation of Pegasus being 
stung by a gad-fly, and hinted at by Horace : 

' ' Et exemplum grave prsebet ales 
Pegasus, terrenum equitem gravatus 


APOLLO. 161 

The figure is rayed, and probably crowned with the symbol of fecun- 
dity, which would give it an Egyptian character ; but what gives this 
piece its singular interest is the fact of its being " ivinged." Apollo 
was the tutelar god of the place ; here, then, we have him in character 
as the Apollo of Tarsus, " the winged." A coin of Tarsus has Apollo 
standing on the back of a lion; he holds a lamp in his hand (the lamp 
of science ?), and has wings to his shoulders. 
These attributes had never been sufficiently 
explained ; but the accompanying figure now 
renders their signification evident. There 
is also another symbol confirmatory of this 
view. There hangs upon the wing a cluster 
of grapes ; grapes were used in the decoration 
of the great temple of Baalbec, and on the 
images of Baal (the Sun) grapes are hung 
round the neck. The grapes, therefore, shew 
the Syrian cast of the mythology of Tarsus, 
and identify its Apollo with Baal, as No. 22 K0 22.— a 
connects him with the Osiris of Egypt. The < With the Nelumbium.) 
fluted chalice in which this head terminates was probably intended 

Horner also represents Bellerophon as wandering over the Aleian plain on which 
Tarsus stands : — 

" Forsook by heaven, forsaking human kind, 
Wide o'er the Aleian field he chose to stray, 
A long, forlorn, uncomfortable way!" 

Stephanus, speaking of Tarsus, also says that it was so called 1W0 -rile tdv BeWepo- 
(povrov 7TTujc7eM?, from the fall of Bellerophon ; adding, T rir hx.eivovxa>\eia<! vironviiiiairowvn£vu» 
tZv iipxataiv, in reference to the lameness produced by the fall, and which is alluded to 
in Pindar's version of the fable. Cellarius also says, " A Pegasi, ungula quam ibi ami- 
serit, nomen xu-bis fingunt, quia Tuper^ etkim plunta pedis est." 

Scenes of the story of Bellerophon, it has been justly remarked by Dr. Leonard 
Schmitz, were frequently represented in ancient works of art. His contest with the 
Chima;ra was seen in the throne of Amyclse, and in the vestibule of the Delphic 
temple. On coins, gems, and vases, he is often seen fighting against the Chimera, 
taking leave of Proetus, taming Pegasus, or giving him to drink, or falling from him. 
But until the recent discoveries in Lycia by Sir Charles Fellows, no representation of 
Bellerophon in any important work of art was known; in Lycian sculptures, however, 
he is seen riding on Pegasus and conquering the Chimera. The several pieces of 
Cilician art in this important collection made by Mr. W. Burckhardt Barker, will 
suggest a reference to this same story with many ; and it is not a little singular that 
among these works of art a great number of single horses' feet were found, which 
upon this fabulous origin of the name of Tarsus, as here given, being communicated by 
me to Mr. W. Burckhardt Barker, that gentleman ingeniously suggested might not 
impossibly have reference to the very point in question. The more ancient fable of 
Bellerophon's fall from Pegasus at that spot may just as well have been represented in 
Cilician works of art as that which refers to Perseus. W. F. A. 




to contain incense or lustral water. Mr. Birch calls this the head 
of Isis ; but whether it be Isis or Apollo, it still proves the existence 
of Egyptian worship in Cilicia. 

Here I must refer to another head, No. 23, which Mr. Birch has 

( This is mentioned by Mr. Birch as 
Apollo represented on the Colos- 
sus at Rhodes.) 


recognised as the same as that upon the gold and silver coins of Ehodes. 
He says it is the Apollo (Helios), or the Sun, and is a copy of the Colos- 
sus at Rhodes. It is radiated. This radiation was not usual with the 
Romans and Greeks ; but in the present case it admits of an easy expla- 
nation. Tarsus, bordering upon Phoenicia, and having ready access to 
Egypt, would have its mythology tinctured with that of its neighbours. 
Baal of the Phoenicians, Osiris of Egypt, and Apollo of the Greeks, all 
embody the myths originating in the worship of the sun. This pecu- 
liarity in the figure before us quite accords with the locality where it 
was found. There is a coin of Tarsus on which Apollo is seated upon 
a mount, with a lyre in his hand, indicating the presiding influence of 
that deity at the schools. It is believed that Apollo had an oracle in 
that place. Of this god the collection offers many specimens, all more 
or less diversified by some peculiarity or other. 

A large portion of these terra-cottas are of a sacred character, but 
they are not of a magnitude or material to make us suppose that they 
could have had a place in the public temples. They must have been 
for use in domestic lararia or chapels, or rather oratories* It is likely 

* Lares, the presiders over housekeeping affairs, occupied a place in the house by 
the fire-places and chimney-corners. Penates were the protectors of masters of families, 
wives, and children. Lares had short habits and cornucopias in their hands, symbols 
of servitude and hospitality. Ovid says, " two Lares with a dog at their feet." Plu- 
tarch, " good and evil Lares, or Genii, also public and private lares." Apuleius says 


that the owners did not restrict the honour of a place there to one or 
two deities, but that people of opulence had a collection of such as had 
been duly consecrated by the priest, which were all honoured in turn> 
or as their special help was required. 

Alexander Severus is said to have preserved the images of all the 
great men who had been raised to the rank of the gods, and rendered 
divine honours to them in the same manner as to the most holy souls. 
Among these he had Apollonius Tyaneus, Jesus Christ, Abraham, Or- 
pheus, Virgil, Cicero, &c. &c. 

The lararia of private persons could not have been so well furnished, 
and the common people must have been content with still less. 

Before these idols it was the custom to light lamps, to burn incense, 
to offer flowers, fruits, meat, and wine ; also votive memorials of benefits 
received were consecrated to them : many such small ex votos we have in 
this collection. See No. 32, p. 175, which is selected out of a great many, 
and which I imagine to be of this description, and devoted to Apollo. 

The custom of canonising or deifying men seems to have arisen from 
the idea that all which made them eminent for their talents or actions 
proceeded by emanation from the Divine Essence. Hence the simple 
rites which express veneration for the dead grew into direct and explicit 
acts of worship to the shades of renowned men : these splendid qualities, 
dazzling the minds of inferior men, soon obtained for them divine 
honours, as having exhibited and exercised the attributes of the gods 
upon earth. These deifications multiplied greatly under the Macedo- 
nian and Iionian empires ; and many worthless tyrants were by their 
own preposterous pride, or the abject servility of their subjects, exalted 
into gods, Nero himself not forming an exception. 

The most usual mode of expressing this deification was by repre- 
senting the figure naked, or with the simple chlamys, or cloak, as often 
given to the gods. The head, too, was generally kadiated, and the bust 
placed upon a square inverted obelisk. The cornucopia was often given 
as a symbol to the statue. 

The loose and indeterminate system of ancient mythology presented 

the Lares represented the souls of departed persons who had lived well and done good . 
Lares are also called Penates, images of silver, wax, and earthenware. Public Lares 
were called Compitales, from convpitum, a cross-way; and also Viales, from via, a way 
or road. These public Lares were placed at meetings of roads, as protectors and patrons 
of travellers. There were also Urbani, i.e. Lares of cities, as well as the country. The 
Lares were also genial gods, having the care of children from their birth. Bryant holds 
the Lares of Egypt and Rome to have been the same. Titus Tatius, king of the Sabines, 
built a temple to the Lares. The custom was observed of burial in the highways ; a hog 
was offered in sacrifice. Lara was the mother of the demons ; children were offered in 
sacrifice to her. 



very feeble barriers to the innovations and mutations which were con- 
stantly taking place, through intercourse with nations following different 
practices and other fables.* This collection affords ample proof of this 
plastic character of the mythology of Tarsus, and of the medley of 
Grecian, Syrian, and Egyptian worship which went to form it. Every 
man felt himself at liberty to honour those whom he loved with his 
adorations and offerings, without waiting for a public decree of canoni- 
sation. The object of his admiration, gratitude, or esteem might receive 
any religious rites, provided they did not disturb others, or do any thing 
in violation of the established forms of religious worship. This conse- 
cration, however, was not properly a deification, but what the Romish 
Church still practises under the title of canonisation, the object of it 
being considered rather a saint than a god ; wherefore a deified Roman 
emperor was not called deus^ but divus. 

These facts will explain many of those difficulties which present 
themselves on a view of this collection; such as heads which have no 
trace of the orthodox form or ideal beauty of the deities whose attri- 
butes and symbols they bear; but which, on the contrary, are unques- 
tionably portraits of mortal men and women, .and give us illustrations of 
the practice of conferring divine honours upon magistrates, philosophers, 
priests, and relatives, as the feelings of respect or affection might suggest. 
To exemplify this remark we have nineteen heads bearing the same 

expression of face, but with different 
attributes. Most of these heads have 
striking resemblance; they all have 
the hair knotted in the orthodox 
fashion distinguishing the figures 
of Apollo. But this deity is almost 
always characterised by unearthly 
ideal beauty of form : these are re- 
markable for gross sensuality. Such 
overfed, bloated faces, with an ex- 
pression of .merriment and cunning., 
would, with tonsure and cowl, have 
made excellent monks. 

It seems that it was no unusual 

no. 24.— pbiest with attributes of AroLLo. thin S to make the gods in the like- 
ness of mortals. The emperors, la- 
dies of high rank, and priests of the chief order, were thus complimented 
Is not No. 24 a ehief priest, thus in divine character ? and it has the 

* See quotation from E. E. Knight, prefixed to .this chapter. 


attributes of Apollo more fully preserved. Here is the wing, the torch, 
the painting, &c. ; but the leering of the eyes and the elevation of the 
corners of the cunning and merry mouth are any thing but divine, 
and as far removed from that calm repose by which the ancients always 
sought to characterise their gods as it is possible to conceive. "Whether 
this was done during the life of the priest, or whether it was only a 
compliment paid to him after his death, we have not at present the 
means of knowing. 

In Josephus* we find a story which shews the depravity of the 
priests of Isis at Rome, and which caused Tiberius to destroy both them 
and their temple. May we not imagine that we see. these rogues in 
some of these heads? — a, family likeness, no doubt. 

Several other heads are of this family, and are worthy of careful 
study; they all represent the same individual, though they have been 
wrought by different hands-. Some are a piratical eopy of the others. 
Such a piracy indicates that the demand for the figure must have been 
great. The hair is knotted on the top of the head, in the mode peculiar 
to Apollo, and shews that the person had been deified; yet there is no- 
thing mythological in. the face, which is that of a bloated sensualist. As 
such, it would do well for Vitellius; but I do not think that he had the 
honour of apotheosis, though he was rather popular in Asia Minor. The 
men of Tarsus were very prone to flatter the Roman emperors, and 
often changed the name of their city in compliment to their imperial 
masters. After the great earthquake, a.d. 17, Tiberius gave relief to 
the unfortunate cities of the province of Lesser Asia, for which, their 
gratitude would be due. When Tiberius died, he was raised to the 
rank of the gods; and that these heads represent a deified emperor there 
is no doubt. If it is Tiberius, it must be his likeness after his mode of 
life and debauchery in the island of Capri, and not as he appears upon 
the medals struck of him. As such medals of him in his deified cha- 
racter would not be made until after his death, such a difference in the 
likeness might be expected. 

Or we may take another view of the question. It was not unusual 
to pay divine honours to the images of the emperors which were erected 
in the cities of the empire during their lifetime. The city of Tarsus 
may have honoured one of its masters by an image in which he was 
flattered by being invested with the attributes of Apollo, their tutelar 
deity, before he was dead; and in that case we may imagine these to 
be cheap copies for the use of the million. Every way they are of much 
interest; and it would be desirable to have the opinion of more compe- 
* Antiquities of the Jews, book xviii. chap. 3. 


tent judges in the investigation, which, by publishing drawings of some 
of these, and others in this collection, I hope to afford persons the 
opportunity of making, who may not be able to see the objects them- 

It was usual at the birth of a child to name it after some divine 
personage, who was supposed to receive it under his care ; but this 
name was not retained beyond infancy, when the bulla was given up; 
after which a name was given expressive of some quality or peculiarity 
of body or mind, or after its kindred. If the child died in infancy, 
parental affection would indulge itself in the worship of the idol of the 
heart, under the character of that god to whom it had been consecrated : 
the image would be formed with rays, &c, the sign of its exalted state, 
and honoured accordingly; nor is it unlikely that parental fondness 
might in some cases be carried as far, even before death. With this 
view I lay before the reader Nos. 25 and 26. Here we have a beauti- 


ful head of a boy (Eros), with the arm turned over it. Does not this 
indicate heavenly repose? And the fact of similar other figures being 
rayed, would go to prove the supposition of deification having been 
added to the endearing epithets of the departed spirit. People very 
commonly worshipped the manes of their ancestors, supposing them to 
have influence in heaven, and cognisance of human affairs. 

The devices which were stamped upon the coins of ancient nations 
were of a religious character, and held so strictly sacred, that the most 
proud and powerful monarchs never ventured to put their own portraits 
upon them, until the practice of deifying them, and giving them the title 
of divine, was begun. Till after the time of Alexander the Great, nei- 
ther the Kings of Persia, Macedonia, nor Epirus, nor even the tyrants 
of Sicily, ever took this liberty ; the first portraits which we find upon 
money being those of the princes of the Macedonian dynasties, whom the 
flattery of their followers (in imitation of Eastern pomp) raised to divine 


honours. The artists had, indeed, before this, found a way of gratify- 
ing the vanity of their patrons without offending their piety; which 
was by blending their features with those of the deity whose image was 
to be impressed on the coin. This artifice was practised on the coins 
previous to the custom of putting portraits upon them. The coins of 
Arch elans, Amyntas, Alexander, Philip, and Seleucus I., &c, all have 
different heads of Hercules, which seem to represent those of the respec- 
tive princes. The earliest instances of this practice are found in Egypt, 
in sculptured representations of the divine Triad, Amun, Maut, and 
Chons, or Osiris, Isis, and Horus, found in the temples; which were 
sometimes made so as to immortalise the Pharaoh by whom the temple 
was built. The countenance and figure of the king were given to the 
supreme god, that of the queen to the divine female, and the likeness of 
their son and heir to the third of the Triad. This practice Avas carried 
by the Romans to the greatest lengths ; so that private families indulged 
in this feeling of personal ambition, by employing modellers to form 
their visages in the character of the gods ; and these facts -will doubtless 
go far to explain the very evident mixture of human and divine expres- 
sion in many of these heads, especially those which are of a Roman 
character, both male and female. 

We find, in the first place, the head of one of the Roman emperors, 
No. 27 (perhaps Commodus), represented as Hercules, crowned with a 



wreath of laurel. It bears, by the way, a remarkable resemblance to 
the head of Napoleon Bonaparte. 

In the second case, we have No. 28, the head of a lady, with all the 


attributes of Juno ; and I possess more, all of equal interest, and charac- 
teristic of the above peculiarity, which would prove that the ancients 
represented the goddesses by the features of the empress, or of some 
favourite lady of the day, out of compliment to them, just as we might 
represent the goddess of song by the personification of a Jenny Lind 
or a Grisi. Although they have different features, they are all adorned 
with the veil and the symbols of Juno, either in the diadem or other- 

No. 29 is decidedly of a Eoman character, and probably represents 
some lady high in station — perhaps the wife of an 
emperor who had bestowed favours upon the city of 
Tarsus, or was popular in the empire. Some person 
acquainted with Eoman antiquities may probably 
supply the name. This head is well modelled. 

Referring back to No. 6, we have another beau- 
tiful representation of the goddess Juno, with the 
diadem and veil, but with different features. This is 
one of the fine pieces of the collection, and would 
appear, from its perfect state, to be more modern, 
were it not for the great beauty of its execution. 
no. 29.— head (re- When persons of high rank were invested with 

duced) of a lady, divine honours, the cornucopia was placed in the 


hand, as in No. 28. 

" Reviewing the whole collection," says Mr. Abington, " there is a 
strange incongruity of high artistic excellence and bad workmanship, 
such as we find in the plaster images of the Italians, which are moulded 
from good originals, but made by men of very inferior skill. The trade 
of figure-making was chiefly in the hands of the Greeks, and the magis- 
trates permitted them to take casts of statues of the gods, which were 
public property, in order to promote domestic religion, by giving a 
plentiful supply of copies. There was a figure of Mercury in the 
Ceramicus at Athens, which had been so often moulded, that it was 
saturated, and shone with the oil used in the operation. The practice 
was so general, that the Greek figure-makers pirated the works of all the 
great artists wherever they could get access to them, and got wealthy 
by their impositions upon the rich Romans, who wished to make a dis- 
play of taste in their mansions, but were unable to discriminate between 
an original and a base copy. 

" The greater part of the moidds, however, were of clay. The frag- 
ments of lamps in some instances were made by casting, i. e. by pouring 
clay in a thin fluid state ; the plaster-mould absorbs the water, and gives 



a more regular thickness of clay than is seen in those articles which 
were made by pressing clay into the mould with the fingers. I might 
add other remarks upon this subject, but they would be of no interest 
to any but a potter. 

" On comparing these remains with modern figures, we see what 
benefit the arts derived from the use of plaster, of which moulds are 
now made, which being run in a fluid state, sets hard like a stone, 
giving an accurate counterpart of the model, with joints or seams which 
fit perfectly close. The ancients generally made their models of clay, 
which would be difficult to press up to the recesses of the mould, and 
coidd never give close joinings, and woidd certainly be distorted in pull- 
ing off. Clay moulds woidd also shrink greatly in burning ; this would 
occasion a rapid reduction in the size of images which were copied from 
one another, and bring down a life-size to a miniature very soon. 

"Apply these remarks to No. 15. This Hercules is a copy of a 
well-known but much larger figure. The beauty of the original is seen 

NO. 15. — HERCULES. 

NO. 12. — PALLAS. 

even through the disguise which bad workmanship has thrown around 
it: the same may be said of No. 12, and many others. 

" But when the modeller at Tarsus had to produce an Apollo in 
character, as the tutelar deity of that city, he was thrown upon his 
own resources ; and the result is, that No. 7 is far inferior to No. 23, 
which was a piracy from the work of a superior artist, but to which 
rays were added to adapt it to the traditional form worshipped in Asia 


" The defectiveness of the mould caused very thick and ugly seams 
where the two sides of the moiild are brought together.* These have 
not been taken off, as they would be by an artist, and indicates that they 
were sold at a low price. 

" These specimens also shew that the ancient potters were unac- 
quainted with the use of sponge in their operations. You may per- 
ceive, on the back sides, the impress of the workmen's fingers in forc- 
ing the clay into the moulds ; if they had beaten the clay in with a 
ball of sponge, the noses, lips, and eyelids would have been perfect. We 
receive this indispensable article (sponge) from the Levant, where-it grew 
almost at the doors of these terra-cotta image-makers, without their 
being aware of its value." 

That the ancients were well acquainted, however, with the art of 
making fluid plaster, and images of the same material, there is no doubt. 
This is confirmed by what Pliny says,f whereby it would appear that 
in his time the art was of great antiquity, more so than brass-founding. 
He says: 

" Hominis autem imaginem gypso e facie ipsa primus omnium ex- 
pressit ceraque in earn formam gypsi infusa emendare instituit Lysis- 
tratus Sicyonius, frater Lysippi, de quo diximus. Hie et similitudinem 
reddere instituit; cum antequam pulcherrimas facere studebant. Idem 
et de signis effigiem exprimere invenit, crevitque res in tantum, ut nulla 
signa statua?ve sine argilla fierunt. Quo apparet antiquiorem hanc 
fuisse scientiam quam fundendi seris." But plaster is so prone to absorb 
moisture and to return to powder, that it is not to be wondered at if we 
had no practical demonstration of the knowledge of this art, until the 
four specimens in this collection were first dis- 
covered. Of these I give one drawing (No. 30), 
Avhich doubtless represents the head of Venus. Mr. 
Abington says : " I am persuaded of the value of 
these heads, and look Upon them as objects not to 
be matched by any collection. The heads are hol- 
low, proving that they were cast in a mould, in the 
same manner as practised by the Italians. 

u The ancients used gypsum or alabaster, the 

no. 30. — plaster stone from which plaster is prepared for purposes 

of venus °f sculpture and ornament ; but I have never before 

met with any evidence of their having prepared it 

by calcination for the casting of figures. These specimens, however, 

* Which may best be seen on examination of the objects themselves, 
f Natural History, lib. xxsv, 153. 


render the fact indubitable." However numerous their works in plas- 
ter may have been, it is not surprising that such poor remains as these 
should be unique, for no material is so destructible. Water dissolves 
it rapidly ; frost also destroys it. In a European climate such remains 
must have perished utterly ; and their preservation can only be accounted 
for by the dryness of the place in which they were entombed, and 
which I have described as above the present level of the ground, and 
about sixty feet above that of the ancient city of Tarsus, on the sides of 
a hill that covered these monuments for some thirty more feet with 
dry sandy rubbish. 

" They do not seem to have been very skilful," continues Mr. Abing- 
ton, " in the management of this plaster: the moulds, which the potter 
made of plaster, were such as I would not tolerate in a manufactory. 
The plaster was run upon the model to make the mould in such an 
unskilful way that the air was shut in the deep parts of the work, form- 
ing bubbles in the mould. This, when the clay is pressed in the mould, 
occasions those bead-like protuberances which disfigure the work, and 
prove that the mould was plaster, and not burnt clay. 

" These specimens may now be considered of much interest, inas- 
much as they appear to be the unique remains of an art evidently well 
knoAvn to the ancients, but of which only an account has come down to 
us in history. The Assyrians and others carved gypsum in its natural 
state; but the art of calcining and grinding, and then restoring it to a 
stony state, by renewing the water of crystallisation, is a very different 
thing ; and it would appear further, from a part of a wainscot ornament 
executed in calcined gypsum, that it was the habit of the plasterers of 
those days to use this ingredient as in later times — that is, to form the 
ornament in a mould, and then to fix it in the place intended." 

With regard to the date to which we should attribute these interest- 
ing remains, I must remark, that as the coins found with them were 
struck from 150 to 200 years B.C., and as we see from No. 29, where 
the female figure bears the hair dressed in the fashion of the Augustan 
age, we must conclude tbat they existed between these two epochs, and 
may therefore give a difference in date of upwards of three centuries 
between some of these various fragments. In No. 29, the very artificial 
and elaborate manner in which the hair is dressed shews that it was pro- 
bably of the Claudian period. Messalina, the fifth wife of this emperor, 
is represented with her hair in this same fashion. The great ampux or 
frontal, with which the head is crowned, is characteristic of the same 
age. It is rather the effigy of some great lady of the empire than a 
divinity — possibly an empress who might have rendered the province 


some service, or was a native of it. It is plaited in the elaborate man- 
ner practised by the Roman ladies, and which is censured by the Apostle 
Paul and by the Roman satirist, on account of the sacrifice of time which 
it occasioned. It may represent the head of Juno, and be the resem- 
blance of the favourite female of the day, as has already been remarked. 

In order to form an approximate idea of the time when these Penates 
were destroyed, I must now quote from Neander's Church History, as 
elucidative of the supposed introduction of Christianity into Cilicia, of 
which we have no positive mention in general history: " The easy means 
of communication within the vast Roman empire ; the close relation be- 
tween the Jews dispersed through all lands and those of Jerusalem ; the 
manner in which all parts of the empire were linked with the great capital 
of the world ; the connexion of the provinces with their metropolitan 
town, were all circumstances favourable to the diffusion of Christianity. 
These cities, such as Alexandria, Antioeh,Ephesus, Corinth, were centres 
of commercial, political, and literary correspondence; and hence became 
also the principal seats chosen for the propagation of the gospel, where 
the first preachers tarried longest. 

"As a general thing, Christianity at first made progress in the cities, 
for it was needful above all to gain fixed seats for the propagation of the 
gospel ; the first preachers^ passing rapidly over the country, had to pro- 
pose their message first in the cities, whence it might be afterwards more 
easily diffused by native teachers. 

" In the New Testament we find accounts of the dissemination of Chris- 
tianity in Syria, in Cilicia, probably also in the Parthian Empire, at that 
time so widely extended ; in Arabia, in the Lesser Asia, and the countries 
adjacent, &c. But we are greatly deficient in further and credible ac- 
counts on this subject; the later traditions, growing out of the eager- 
ness to trace each national church to an apostolic origin, deserve no 

It is certain that Christianity was early diffused in Cilicia, though it 
is not until a.d. 160 or 170 that we find indications that the king was a 
Christian.* He forbade the mutilation connected with the worship of 
Cybele; and it is on the coins of this prince that the usual symbols 
of Baal worship of this country are for the first time found wanting, 
and the sign of the cross appears in their place. In the year 202 the 

* Abgar-Bar-man. There is another king of the same name, said by the Arme- 
nians to have sent persons to Christ to ask for his portrait, which the Saviour granted 
him by placing a handkerchief on his face that bore miraculously the impress of his 
features ; and this is why the Armenians admit of paintings in their churches, while 
sculpture is excluded, as in the Greek Church. 


Christians had already a church built, as it seems, after the model of 
the Temple of Jerusalem. 

The theory of these fragments of household gods having been thrown 
out of the city in consequence of the introduction of Christianity, we 
may regard as admitted and settled. But the problem now is, when this 
took place. The last extract from Neander would seem to suggest an 
examination of the coins of Tarsus, and to see when they ceased to bear 
the symbols, &c. of heathen worship. But this examination of the 
eoins of that city would not decide the question, as it might have done 
if Tarsus had been an independent kingdom ; but being a provincial 
city, its imperial masters would continue the fashion of the coinage long 
alter the acceptance of the gospel by the inhabitants of this distant city. 
"We know that, in many cases, the inhabitants of cities renounced the 
worship of idols, and suffered persecution for it, long before their gover- 
nors followed their example. The learned author of the life of St. Paul 
has not been able to (find any thing decisive upon this question. "We may 
therefore conclude that there is nothing remarkable in the records of 
history relating to it His conjectures are very reasonable and well- 
founded, no doubt ; still they are but conjectures. 

The question, therefore, must be left open. Were these remains — 
these mutilated, dishonoured images — once the objects of religious regard, 
thrown out of the city in consequence of a movement produced by the 
missionary visit of Paid and Silas ? 

The authors of the life of St. Paid seem inclined to this solution of 
the query. The act appears to have been sudden. The clearance of 
the lararia of a few families of respectability would furnish all that 
have been found. Such a movement would be analogous to the sacri- 
fice of valuable books made in consequence of the preaching of the 
apostles. Such a rejection of idols was, in many instances, followed 
by persecution; and this conflict was severe in many parts of the empire 
before Christianity was finally established. It may, therefore, be ad- 
mitted as possible, that these memorials indicate the earliest triumphs of 
the religion of the cross, and the suggestion already made be confirmed, 
that they need not be considered of later date than the close of the first 
century, or beginning of the second. 

In Bulwer's Rise and Fall of Athens, in the chapter on the Eeligion 
of the Greeks, after speaking of various theorists, who refer the origin of 
the Greek mythology to Northern Thrace or Phoenicia, or the Hebrews, 
or India, or Egypt, he says, " Accept common sense as our guide, and 
the mystery is less obscure. 

" In a deity essentially Greek, a Phoenician colonist may discover 



something familiar, and claim an ancestral god. He imparts to the 
native deity some Phoenician features ; an Egyptian or an Asiatic suc- 
ceeds him, discovers similar likeness, and introduces similar innovations. 
The lively Greek receives, amalgamates, appropriates all ; but the ab- 
original deity is not the less Greek. Each speculator may be equally 
right in establishing a partial resemblance, precisely because all specu- 
lators are wrong in asserting a perfect identity. 

" It follows as a corollary from the above reasoning, that the 
religion of Greece was much less uniform than is poj)ulaidy ima- 

" 1st. Because each separate state, or canton, had its own peculiar 

" 2dly. Because in the foreign communication of new gods, each 
stranger would especially import the deity that at home he had more 
especially adored. Hence, to every state its tutelary god, the founder 
of its greatness, the guardian of its renown. Even each tribe, inde- 
pendent of the public worship, had its peculiar deities honoured by 
peculiar rites. 

" The Grecian mythology differed in many details in the different 
states ; but under the development of a general intercourse, assisted by 
a common language, the plastic and tolerant genius of the people har- 
monised all discords. I think it might be abundantly shewn that the 
Phoenician influences upon the early mythology of the Greeks were far 
greater than the Egyptian, though by degrees, and long after the heroic 
age, the latter became more eagerly adopted, and more superficially 

These observations are written as if 
the present collection of terra-cottas were 
before the learned writer. The amalga- 
mation of the Phoenician Baal with the 
Grecian Apollo, and the other mixtures 
which have already been referred to and 
brought to light, have in the above quo- 
tation a commentary prepared for them 
and written before their resurrection 
from their tomb ! 

In exemplification of this, I will 

now cite such as most conduce to the 

confirmation of this reasoning, and then 

proceed, as far as the limits of the pre- 

no. 31.- -young atys. sent work will admit, with an account 



of such of the remaining pieces of the collection as may appear to merit 
special notice. 

No. 31. These two fragments, when reunited, give us a very fine 
model of a boy. Mr. Birch thinks it was intended to represent Atys, a 
celebrated shepherd, of whom Cybele was enamoured, and who after- 
wards became her high priest: after his death, Atys received divine 
honours, and temples were raised to his memory, particularly at Dymas, 
a town of Achaia. Others have thought this represented Mercury in his 

He would thus appear in his character of a herdsman, with a 
hooded cloak and the pedum, or crooked stick, in allusion to his ex- 
ploit in stealing the flock of King Admetus, when intrusted with it by 

This is a beautiful piece of modelling; the soft folds of the drapery 
are admirable, and the reason for giving it precedence to all the others is 
— first, because I consider it one of the choice pieces of the collection ; 
and secondly, because, as it has a cap not unlike the Phrygian cap, it 
might be considered also as representing some of the deities of this 
nation, and thus form a connecting link between the Egyptian and 
Cilician mythology: as the Phoenicians must have carried into Greece, 
with their learning, the mythology imported from the Egyptians ; and 
Phrygia was colonised by the Greeks, receiving its name from the 
Bryges, a nation of Thrace and Macedonia, who came to settle there. 
In confirmation of Mr. Birch's observation, I will remark that Cybele 
was the chief deity of the country, and her festivals were observed with 
great solemnity by these people, who, residing on the same peninsula 
imparted their religious creeds to their neigh- 
bours, the Cilicians, who must have also had fre- 
quent communications with them by sea. 

No. 32. These two fragments, which, like the 
rest, appear to have been purposely broken by the 
new converts to Christianity, as having been con- 
taminated by being in juxtaposition with idol-wor- 
ship, have now been united after a separation of 
nearly eighteen centuries. They give us the leg of 
a horse; the truncated part of the thigh shews that 
it is complete in itself, and that it never formed 
part of an entire figure. Apollo, as worshipped at 
Tarsus, partaking of the attributes of the Syrian 
Baal, was the patron of horses, and horses were N0 - 32 -— LEG 0F a 

. , . „, . ... HORSE (VOTIVE 

sacrificed to him. This is most likely a votive offering). 



memorial of a cure obtained for a horse from some lameness or disease 
of the leg, and which was presented to the deity to record the gratitude 
of the owner. 

The mysteries of Cybele certainly originated among the Egyptian 
priesthood, although in later ages the Phrygians seem to have intro- 
duced the worship of this deity, Mater Dei et hominum, on the continent 
of Asia ; hence we see in this collection many pieces in commemoration 
of this goddess: one of the finest specimens is the head, No. 33. This 

beautiful head is crowned with corn, as 
Ceres is sometimes represented. The 
features are not in such high relief as 
the rest of the specimens, in conse- 
quence of the workman not having 
pressed the clay close into the mould; 
but even with this defect, it is an in- 
teresting head. Cybele was generally 
represented as a robust woman, far 
advanced in pregnancy, to intimate 
the fecundity of the earth. Here at 
Tarsus she is identified with Ceres, who 
is the same as the Isis of the Egyptians, 
whose worship was first brought into 
Greece by JErechtheus. The Eleusinian 
mysteries, which descended from the 
Egyptian secrets of initiation, have left 
their traces in Asia Minor; and to this 
day we have several tribes who live 
quite distinct from the others, in separate villages chiefly, and to whom 
are falsely attributed all the vile practices of which their forefathers 
were accused, in consequence of their persisting in keeping secret their 
religious rites. Among these stand pre-eminent the Fellahins of Syria, 
the Yezidi of Asia Minor, and the Ali lllahi of Persia, — all three 
sects closely connected, and who still keep up a kind of freemasonry, 
which affords certain privileges to the initiated descendants of Ansar, 
their chief. I have lived much among these people, and will bear 
witness to their morality and the chastity of their women. Their 
religion, from all I could learn, was a kind of Deism, which enabled 
them to distinguish the errors of their neighbours, and kept them, by 
their horror of idolatry and superstition, from amalgamating with the 
many tribes who have vanquished them, without subduing their judg- 
ment; and on the whole, I consider their morals superior to those of their 




neighbours, even the benighted erring Christians of the East, who have, 
alas, but a faint glimpse of true Christianity. 

Mr. R. Payne Knight observes, that Isis is frequently confounded 
with the personification of Fortune and Victory, each having the crown 
or chaplet of immortality. I have many specimens in this collection 
which may bear on this subject, and represent Fortune. 

No. 34 has both the radiation and the diadem, with which Juno 
is often represented; but as there is no 
sign of any veil, I do not imagine that this 
goddess was intended to be represented 
by this beautiful fragment, although we 
may evidently trace on the top of the 
sceptre, which the figure held in its right 
hand, and leaning over its shoulder, a 
crown often forming the acme of this en- 
sign of royalty. 

The Greeks and Romans, who adopted 
the worship of Isis, varied these figures 
very much from the original Egyptian type, 

introducing different symbols to signify the various attributes of univer- 
sal nature. In this character Isis is confounded with the personification 
of Fortune or Victory, which in reality is no other than Providence. The 
modius upon the head is also found on the head of Pluto, Serapis, and 
Venus. All the heads with the modius are probably intended for Isis, in 
those modifications of figure, and also of worship, above referred to. 
The bow, which seems to form an arch over the head of No. 20, and of 
which there are only two specimens in this collection might suggest the 


NO. 20.— IMS. 

NO. 35. — COMIC MASK. 


idea that they were intended to represent Iris ; and as the figures of 
this goddess were gaudily painted, it might have been done in water- 
colours, which have disappeared through age, whereas those that were 
painted in fresco, with a layer of lime, still retain strong marks both of 
the lime and the body-colours used. See particularly No. 35, which is 
a fragment of a large comic mask that seems to have been fixed to a wall 
at a considerable height, as the eyes are looking downwards. The ear 
is bored, probably for the purpose of fixing it more firmly. It was 
perhaps part of a decoration of a theatre, and was covered with a 
thick coat of paint, and must have been rejected as an image connected 
with idolatry, by those who condemned it to take place with the rest of the 
pieces of this collection, and been cast out from the temples and private 
residences of the Cilicians on their conversion. It is natural to suppose 
that all figures would share the same fate, by reason of the zeal of the 
new converts to a faith that as yet could scarcely be expected to be 
sufficiently understood, to admit a distinction being made between a 
mask and an image of a deity. This is, doubtless, why we find it here, 
as well as No. 36, which is remarkable for being radiated, — why, it 



would be difficult to guess, unless we may trace out an idea from its 
resemblance to Silenus, who, as the preceptor of Bacchus, stands as a 
demigod, and who received after his death divine honours, and had a 
temple at Elis, the present Belvedere, which was a large and populous 
city in the time of Demosthenes, though it did not exist in the age of 

Adonis (No. 16) is also represented by the Greek artists as andro- 
gynous. He was especially honoured in Syria, the supposed scene of 
his death by the wild boar ; and being a special favourite of Apollo, 

ADONIS. 179 

who was so particularly revered at Tarsus (in which latter conclusion 
we are confirmed by the great many representations we find this god 
to possess in this collection of the Cilician Penates), it is not astonishing 
to find him here in company with the other objects of worship : we 
may observe that he has a cloak and brooch, with which his patron, 
the Apollo de Belvedere, was represented. He is the Tammuz of 
Ezekiel, viii. 14. In Egypt, the tales of the loves and misfortunes of 
Isis and Osiris are the counterpart of those of Venus and Adonis. 
Adonis or Adonai was an oriental title of the Sun, signifying Lord ; and 
the boar, which was supposed to have killed him, was the emblem of 
Winter. After his death, he passed six months with Proserpine, six 
with Venus ; signifying the increase and decrease of solar influence 
(will this connect him in identity with Apollo ?). Byblus in Syria was 
the chief scene of his rites ; there the women annually mourned his 
death, and celebrated his renovation. These mysteries were held by 
the uninitiated in the same estimation as those of Ceres and Bacchus 
at Eleusis (already referred to), and Isis and Osiris in Egypt. The 
Phrygian tales of Cybele and Atys seem to be another version of this 
same fable. One specimen has been painted with a ground- colour of 
blue, and then red, or probably flesh -colour, and has the stamp of 
Grecian art. 

Mr. Abington remarks of this piece, and several others similar in 
the collection : — " They are all of high art ; it is not too much to say 
that, as sculptures, they are of great value." No. 1 6 exhibits the hu- 
man form in the very perfection of human symmetry — no wonder that 
Venus fell in love at first sight. The artist has done his part well in 
this beautiful conception of the adored Adonis. The ivy chaplet shews 
the relation there was between the rires of Adonis and those of Bacchus; 
both embodied the same mystic signs, and out of compliment to Apollo. 
Among the animals that denote the link in the remains of Egyptian 
worship, we have the representation of a cat, symbol of the Moon, on 
account of its faculty of seeing in the dark, or rather by night. The 
Egyptians worshipped the Moon under this figure, which denotes fecun- 
dity; and their reverence for cats is peculiarly demonstrated by the 
many thousands of their mummies which are found preserved with the 
same care they bestowed on the bodies of their nearest and dearest 
relations, and on the ibis, a bird sacred to the goddess Isis. 

We have also representations of a dog, the patient expression of 
which is very characteristic : the animal seems as if he were waiting for 
his master to take him out. It is a symbol of Hermes, Mercury, and 
the Anubis of the Egyptians. When Osiris went on his expedition into 



India, Anubis accompanied him and clothed himself in a sheep's skin. 
In this collection we find him represented as a dog of the woolly 
species. Some make him the brother of Osiris, some his son by 
Nepthys. "We must not therefore wonder at seeing him in such com- 
pany. This piece had a hole below the right ear, probably to hang it 
by. For what purpose these two pieces, representing dog and cat, were 
used, it is difficult to guess, but it was most probably connected with 
some religious rite. 

There is also a head of a horse, sculptured very rudely in tufa lime- 
stone, and painted with a colour which has penetrated and given a very 
hard surface to the stone. There is a cavity in the lower jaw — a mor- 
tice, to receive a support, upon which it was elevated. The horse was 
one of the Eoman ensigns. They were carried upon poles, which 
branched in some instances like a Y or Y at the top, to support the 
horse, boar, &c. 

If this was the symbol of Eoman power, it must be very ancient, as 
quadrupeds were laid aside in the consulship of Marius (b.c. 104), and 
the eagle alone retained. 

But if admitted to be the symbol of Eoman dominion, we cannot 
suppose that it was carried with the army, but was, perhaps, erected 
over the entrance of some public place, court, or head- quarters of the 
garrison; and, being considered as an image forbidden by the Christian 
religion, shared the same fate as those Avhich had been really objects 
of worship. The same observations may be applied to No. 37, which 
demonstrates a knowledge of anatomy that would 
do credit to any epoch. 

The city of Tarsus owed a debt of gratitude to 
Alexander for having delivered it from the Per- 
sians at the moment they were going to burn it. 
A city was built by Alexander in honour of his 
favourite horse : has this fragment any relation 
to this place ? or is it not natural to conclude, from 
the many remains of horses we find in this collec- 
tion, that the inhabitants of Tarsus regarded Bu- 
cephalus with a favourable eye as the bearer of 
his master in their salvation from thraldom ? Or 
another guess may be allowed : Is this one of 
the horses of the Sun, connected with the worship 
of Baal or Apollo ? Such a surmise is supported 
by another fragment existing in this collection, which shews the head of 
a second horse coupled to it, as if attached to a chariot, and also by the 

NO. 37. — HEAD OF A 



many votive memorials of horses' limbs. The horse is a device found 
on the medals of many Greek cities. 

"We have also the snout of a hippopotamus. The Egyptians repre- 
sented Typhon by this animal ; and upon his back they put a hawk 
fighting with a serpent. This is one of the many proofs of the pre- 
valence of Egyptian superstitions at Tarsus, owing to the intercourse 
between the learned men of the schools at Tarsus and those of the 
schools at Alexandria. 

Out of many beautiful specimens, I have selected one (No. 38), 
which Mr. Birch has denominated Har- 
pocrates, who was the same as Horus 
(of the Egyptians), son of Isis. By 
the Romans he is represented as hold- 
ing one of his fingers to his mouth, in- 
timating that the mysteries of religion 
and philosophy ought never to be re- 
vealed to the people. 

As a further illustration of the 
spread of Egyptian worship, I will ob- 
serve, that I possess a small brass image 
of this god, which was found in the 
plain of Babylon, and which I bought 
on the spot from one of those who, 
after a heavy shower, scour the ruins, 
in order to pick up Avhat cylinders and 
other curiosities the rain may have ex- 
posed to view by washing off the dust. 
I was there in February, and witnessed 
the interest taken by the inhabitants 
of the villages in the environs of the 
ruins of this celebrated city, which has 
for years yielded up, and still continues 
to furnish, on such occasions, many a 
valuable remnant in confirmation of 
the wonderful accounts of its ancient 
splendour. I must here add, that some 
of these heads have been considered by 
connoisseurs to represent Isis herself, 
the face being more like that of a female, 

and bearing the Nelumbium* on the head ; whereas others have more the 
* The sacred Egyptian bean is the fruit of the Nelumbium speciosum, which grows 



features of a youth, and may be supposed to represent her son ; but on 
this I will presume to form no decision. Indeed, it would be impos- 
sible to do more than throw out such hints as may lead the learned 
to express opinions based on more scientific reasons and further re- 
search, which I am far from being prepared or competent to do. 

In further confirmation of an undoubted fact of the Egyptian my- 
thology having been cultivated at Tarsus, we have many heads of bulls 
representing either Mnevis, the celebrated bull, sacred to the sun, in the 
town of Heliopolis, and regarded as the emblem of Osiris, or else Apis, 
No. 19, and into which the soul of Osiris was 
supposed to have passed. The hole in the fore- 
head might have been for the purpose of fas- 
tening a disc of some other material, probably 
gold. The head was painted red. The mildness 
of the expression would induce us to identify it 
with the Grecian Io, which was but a modifica- 
tion of the Egyptian myth.* If we prefer the 
idea that No. 19 may be Jupiter in the form as- 
sumed for the rape of Europa, it suits the poet's 
no. 19.— apis. . . r r ' r 

description very well : 

" Large rolls of fat about his shoulders slung, 
And from his neck the double dewlap hung ; 
Small shining horns on his curled forehead stand, 
As turned and polished by the workman's hand ; 
His eyeballs rolled, not formidably bright, 
But gazed and languished, with a gentle light." 

There are several beautiful specimens, representing the ox, in basso- 
relievo, among which is one on a lamp, where may be seen portrayed 
a sacrifice to Apis, the sacred bull of Egypt. The bull has the sun 
between his horns. The priest has the lotus ornament on his head, and 
holds in his right hand a basket : a festoon is suspended over his head. 
The altar has a fire burning : the scene is a temple. 

Further, we have part of a vase, round which were represented, in 
relievo, heads of an ox, surrounded by a festoon of flowers which divided 

in the waters of the Nile. Linnaeus calls it Nymphcea Nelumbo; a common name ap- 
plied to it is Lotus, or Egyptian water-lily : it is the seed-vessel which is used in 
mythology. The fruit of the plant contains a number of seeds, which are not shed 
when ripe, but germinate in their cells, the parent fruit affording them nutriment 
until they are of a magnitude to burst then- way out, when they release themselves and 
sink to the bottom, where they take root, and become independent plants. It was 
therefore chosen as a symbol of the reproductive power of nature. The Hindoos, 
Chinese, Tartars, Japanese, &c, all use it to express the same idea. Their deities are 
seated on a lotus flower. * See Ovid. i. 


each head. This vessel was doubtless used in some of the libations 
during the ceremonies of the priests, or carried in honour of Apis. 

I will conclude these remarks, which have been suggested by the 
inspection of such pieces as I thought implied the close analogy of the 
Egyptian worship with that of the Cilicians, by referring to another 
piece, which seems to be of totally different manufacture from any of the 
others, and was not improbably brought from Egypt, and found its way 
to the outer gates of the city, from having been in company with the other 
objects of worship.* It is crowned with the lotus, and round the full 
head of hair there appears to be a chaplet of ivy. It is a young face, 
and of an Egyptian cast altogether. I have set it down as Horus, the 
son of Osiris and Isis. 

I can only discover a few specimens which woidd indicate that the 
worship of Neptune was not entirely neglected. This is remarkable, as 
I should have expected to have seen many more signs of this god ; the 
Cilicians having been decidedly a maritime nation, they would certainly 
have propitiated in their favour the god of the sea. In the first, we have 
an interesting piece of pottery. " It is," says Mr. Abington, " a frag- 
ment of a shallow bowl or dish, five and three quarter inches in dia- 
meter, made for the service of Neptune or some sea-god. If the centre 
had been left, it would have contained some symbol which would have 
decided this. The edge is worked into waves, and the cavity of the 
bowl is impressed with lines forming fish-scales. This kind of ornament 
could not be continued to the centre, as it would have converged into 
confusion ; there must have been a central panel or compartment. It 
is made of coarse clay, and, after it was turned on the wheel, it was 
dipped, into a slip of white clay, containing a large portion of lime, to 
make it still whiter. The scales were then 
impressed, and ornamented by a pencil dipped 
in a thin ochreous clay, which gives the red- 
dish-brown stains. It was then burnt." 

In another, we have the tail of a fish, pro- 
bably half-man. f 

The only sign of Morpheus, the god of sleep, 
that I have discovered, is No. 39, the head of 
a lad half asleep ; it is of beautiful workman- 
ship, and would prove that they were not a 

, . , r ,, , , , , , . NO. 39. -SOMNUS. 

sleepy nation who could model such a head I 

* On a closer examination of this collection, it will be found that many Indian gods 
bearing the features of the Budists and Bramins had accumulated in Tarsus before the 
introduction of Christianity. 

f See the tale of Ovid, " Mariners transformed to Dolphins." 






I will now proceed to note some observations regarding Apollo, who 
appears to have been the god most in favour among the Cilicians. We 
have copies of the admirable statue of the Apollo Belvedere, so called from 
having been placed in the Belvedere of the Vatican by Pope Julius II. ; 
it was found in the ruins of Antium, in Italy, in the fifteenth cen- 
tury. It is supposed to have been executed by an Ephesian artist, for 
one of the Roman emperors — some think Nero. These miniature copies, 
found in a distant province, shew how popular that beautiful figure must 
have become immediately after its production. One of these, which is 
better executed than the others, shews traces of the painting — a speck of 
red on the flesh, and the cloak has some remains of green, and much of 
the red paint remains on another. There are a great many fragments 
representing Apollo in various ways, and we must conclude this idol was 
the chief object of superstitious worship at Tarsus ; his image was no 
doubt in every house : for this reason his remains are more numerous 
than the. other objects of heathen idolatry. There is one of good Grecian 
work, which appears to have been diademed. It has very much the ex- 
pression of the Apollo Belvedere, though the hair is not knotted. The 
dignified repose, and the scornful look of the mouth, seem to identify it 
with the slayer of the Python. But one of the most certain of the identi- 
fications of Apollo is where he is represented with a crown of rays on 
his head, being often taken for the Sun, Phoebus, and Hyperion. 

As this god was so much in repute at Tarsus, we should expect that 
out of compliment to him caricatures of Midas, with lengthened ears, 


would abound ; hence we find several, among which I have singled 
out No. 40. It is remarkable for another singularity ; the head 
never belonged to any statue, but was detached, standing upon special 
pedestals, one of which was found, and although it did not actually 
belong to No. 40, I have adopted it in 
order to exemplify a singular peculiarity. 
These were not intended as Lares, but pro- 
bably, on the contrary, made to be scoffed 
at ; and we perceive that the heads of Pan, 
the rival of Apollo in the art of music, 
in this collection, are in the same shape. 
Other heads there are with only a bust, 

as, for instance, one representing a young N0 40 _ MID ^~ 

woman in a tunic, well modelled, with a 
jewelled necklace, such as we see in the British Museum. 

Hitherto I have endeavoured to bring to the reader's notice such 
pieces as I thought might best explain the nature and intention of the 
whole collection. I have also endeavoured to afford an idea of the very 
great variety of the objects ; but here I must confess that I begin to 
despair of being able to convey an adequate idea of the whole, unless 
a drawing of almost every piece should be made, which is beyond the 
limits of the present publication. I have by no means chosen the most 
beautiful pieces ; indeed, some of the choicest remain to be described : 
and I fear the artist will despair of being able to delineate their beauty 
with sufficient accuracy. Mr. Waldon tried to express the beauties of 
one piece (the head emblematical of the city of Tarsus, see vignette 
in title-page), in coloured lithography ; and although he exerted every 
possible facidty of the artist and the lithographer, he has confessed 
that he came far short of the original, the beauty and grace of which 
are inimitable, and apparent in spite of the destroying hand of time. 
Mr. Abington says of this piece : " It has suffered more from age than 
many of the others, in consequence of its having been but imperfectly 
burnt by the potter. Enough of its excellence remains to make us 
wish that more of a figure in such good drawing coidd be obtained. 
Every position in which you view this fragment calls forth our admira- 
tion." Alas, I found no duplicate of this gem ! 

But setting aside the beauty of many of the pieces Avhich deserve to 
stand forth as perfect gems, I will now proceed to note a few more, on 
which certain observations have been suggested, which, although un- 
connected, I think will afford sufficient interest to the reader to require 
no further apology for my introducing them without any other ulterior 



NO. 41. — IMAGE OF A SE- 

object. Indeed, the whole nature of the collection is such, that I question 
if any possibility of identification of each piece could be arrived at ; and 
nothing more than suggestions can be expected, at least not without a 
much deeper study than I am prepared, or even competent to give to 
the subject. 

With these remarks I proceed, first, with No. 41, which is one of 
the most precious pieces, inasmuch as it gives 
a clear solution of a question which has been 
hitherto undecided. The image is that of a 
senator or magistrate of high rank : he wears 
the toga, and over it a kind of belt or scarf, 
fringed at the ends and embroidered, which is 
unquestionably the clavus latus, — an article 
which has given rise to much difference of 
opinion among modern writers. Ferrarius sup- 
posed it to be a band thrown over the shoulders, 
the ends hanging down in front, as in fact it is. 
Others say that it was a round loop or buckle, 
resembling the head of a nail, fastened to the 
dress in front of the chest. Others, again, that 
it was an ornamented hem sewn on to, or woven 
in the dress, or that it was figuring upon the dress itself. Dr. Smith, or 
rather Anthony Rich, B.A., who supplied the article in Smith's Dictionary 
of Antiquities, 1842, says: " it is a remarkable circumstance that no 
one of the ancient statues representing persons of senatorian, consular, 
or equestrian rank, contain the slightest trace in their draperies of any 
thing like the accessories above referred to ; some indications of which 
would not have been constantly omitted if the clavus latus had been a 
thing of substance." He therefore comes to the conclusion that it was 
meiely a band of purple colour upon the garment, which the painter 
could depict, but which for want of substance could not be shewn in 
sculpture. This shews how erroneous theories may sometimes bear the 
appearance of truth, and carry conviction almost against the actual de- 
monstration. This fragment affords conclusive evidence, and supplies 
what has hitherto been sought for in vain. The clavus is a separate 
article (as the band of the Order of the Bath), worn over the toga, and 
exhibited with some satisfaction by the wearer, as seems by the hand- 
ling of it by the figure before us. The clavus was introduced at Rome 
by Tullus Hostilius ; and iti s certainly remarkable that Eome, with 
its rich stores of sculpture, should not furnish one example of such a 
valued and coveted mark of distinction ; but that the doubts concerning 


it should be cleared by a terra-cotta fragment found in a distant province 
of the empire. 

No. 42. A Lion attacking a Bull, unique in the collection. This is 

(Subject of a reverse on a Cilician silver coin.) 

one of the most interesting and valuable fragments in the collection : it 
is a work of high art, from the hands of a first-rate artist ; the rage of 
the assailant and the agony of the victim are brought out of the material 
with wonderful effect. The tale which it tells is more historical than 
mythological. A country symbolised by a bull is conquered by an- 
other power represented by the lion. The same symbols are found 
sculptured at Persepolis ; and in Conybeare and Howson's Life of St. 
Paul, now publishing, we have (p. 24) a coin of Tarsus with the head of 
the Emperor Hadrian on one side, and on the reverse is this very sym- 
bol, in the same drawing, as if it had been designed by the same artist. 
The author says, " This coin was struck under Hadrian, and is preserved 
in the British Museum : the same figures of the lion and the bull ap- 
pear on a series of silver coins assigned to the period between Xerxes 
and Alexander." The symbol therefore commemorates the conquest by 
the Persians of the country bounded by Mount Taurus, and when Persia 
was subjugated by Alexander, he adopted it, and it was used by his 
successors ; hence we find it on the coins of Macedonia, though the 
drawing is quite different. After the Romans, in their turn, had sub- 
dued Greece and Asia Minor, Hadrian having rebuilt Tarsus, issued a 
new coinage for it, with the old mythological types. " I consider this 
fragment," says Mr. Abington, " as the most choice morsel in the col- 
lection ; its artistic excellence is equal to any thing among the terra- 
cottas in the British Museum, and it affords the finest example of the 
heraldry of antiquity that can be conceived." 

Before we proceed further, it is requisite to refer back to another 


exquisite " morsel " given in this work under No. 8. Mr. Bircli calls 
it Telephus the son of Hercules and Auge the daughter of Aleus, who, 
dreading the anger of her father, exposed him at his birth on Mount 
Parthenius ; but his life was preserved by some shepherds, who caused 
a goat to suckle him, and hence his dress as a shepherd- boy. Mr. Birch 
adds, that if it be young Hermes, it is probably from a terminal figure 
wrapped up in his chlamys. Mr. Abington remarks on this piece, 
" This is a very clever miniature figure of the boy Mercury (Hermes 
being the Grecian appellation). To appreciate the merit of this choice 
morsel, we must look at the character of this divinity, whose counterpart 
we may find in every house of correction. Mercury is represented 
under several different characters ; as the boy he is wrapped in a close 
cloak, tied or held fast under the chin ; he is often represented without 
feet, as in this case, to shew that the power of speech can effect its pur- 
poses without limbs for its assistance. As soon as he was born he began 
to indulge his craft and acquisitiveness, and his cloak enabled him to 
carry off the plunder. He stole sheep the day after he was born : he 
stole Neptune's trident, the girdle of Venus, the sword of Mars, Vulcan's 
tools, and Jupiter's sceptre. The subtle innocence of the little thief is 
admirably expressed by the artist, though there is not much finish in 
the model. It should be prized as a gem. Mercury, as the god of 
speech and eloquence, was honoured in such a city, remarkable for 
learning, though I cannot refer to any evidence of the fact." 

This, like No. 43, is one of the pieces in 
the collection of which there is no duplicate. 
Mercury was the patron of travellers and shep- 
herds ; and Cilicia being on the high road between 
the eastern and western nations, it is remarkable 
that no more images of this god should have been 
met with. 

No. 43. A beautiful and simple head of a lady, 
not unlike the one representing Ceres : it was 
probably intended to represent the same person 

NO. 43. — HEAD OF A • , . , -, n i i , -, • , 

LAI)Y _ in her private capacity of a daughter or a bride. 

Mr. Abington says of this piece, " The artist has 
represented nature with the most perfect truth in the front view and in 
the profile. It was made out of a plaster mould, as may be seen by 
the bleb in the corner of the mouth; but the joining of the mould was 
very imperfect, as shewn by the thick clumsy seam." 

Looking to No. 14, which is a figure of Victory, with the palm 
and crown, and of which we have a great many representations in 



this collection, by different masters, I must note, that there was a 
great battle fought in Asia Minor between Septimus Severus and his 
rival Piscennius Niger, in which the inhabitants of that province took 
great interest. If these figures could be proved to refer to the triumph 


NO. 44. — ACTjEON . 

of Severus, it would bring the time in which these valuable remains were 
destroyed to the close of the second century, and as some of the pieces 
must have existed at least one century B.C., they must have remained 
stored up in the houses of the people who set a value on them, as Lares 
and Penates, beyond that of common sculptures. 

No. 44. From the great variety of lamps in all kinds of shapes, and 
all offering, in basso-relievo, subjects of much interest, I have singled 
out No. 44, which represents the metamorphosis of Action into a stag, 
as is seen by the horns branching off from his head. 

" The man began to disappear 

By slow degrees, and ended in a deer : 
A rising horn on either brow he wears, 
And stretches out his neck, and pricks his ears." 

Here we see him attacked by his dog, without apparently being able to 
offer any resistance, and thus he was devoured by his own hounds for 


his presumptuous curiosity in prying at Diana and her attendants while 
bathing at Gargaphia. 

I must here beg leave to insert Mr. Birch's able and succinct ac-. 
count of these monuments of antiquity, to illustrate which it has been 
deemed expedient to introduce only some woodcuts, as it would be im- 
possible to have cuts of all the pieces referred to by him. 

" An examination which I have recently made of a large collection 
of terra-cotta figures, consisting of above 1000 pieces, found on the site 
of the ancient Tarsus by Mr. Barker in 1845, is so instructive to the 
history of that city — celebrated for its connexion with the Assyrian 
Sardanapalus, the Apostle Paul, and the apostate Julian — that I think 
it important to place my observations upon record. As in the case o" 
the collection from the island of Calymna,* the mere inspection of so 
large a number of pieces leads to a correcter knowledge of the employ- 
ment of terra-cottas, of those types which prevailed on the spot, and 
of the time at which they were made. Hence the collection of Mr. 
Barker, although containing several repetitions of the same figures, and 
almost all in a mutilated condition, - ! - is a most instructive comment on 
the local history of the city. In style of art, too, many are of exquisite 
taste and feeling, — some the most charming fragments of terra-cotta 
which I have seen. These objects were found in the midst of an ancient 
mound or rubbish-heap, one of the monti testacei, as they are called 
at Rome, which leaned on the old city-walls, the stones of which, 
having been carried away by the modern inhabitants, exposed a section 
of the hill : in the centre were the terra-cottas. The whole collection 
had been anciently thrown away as rubbish, all the figures being found, 
not only broken but incomplete ; while proof existed of the former use 
of the utensils, such as the lamps and vases. The figures also had cer- 
tainly been prepared for sale, as many exhibited traces of the colours with 
which they had been painted ; consequently they could not have been 
the sherd-wreck or refuse of a potter's establishment. Mr. Barker is 
disposed to think that their destruction was caused by the progress of 
Christianity, the new converts having destroyed and mutilated their 
former penates and idols ; but it is evident that terra-cotta must have 
been constantly destroyed by accident, and conveyed to the rubbish- 
mounds. In the temples, the great accumulation of votive figures was 

* See Arch. Zeit. 1848, p. 277. 

■f* Since Mr. Birch saw these pieces they have been restored by a first-rate sculptor, 
who has done great justice to them, and renewed to life the dead and departed spirit 
of the Lares, who now stand forth in all their pristine elegance and beauty. 



perhaps cleared out, and the fragments thrown away. I shall proceed 
to describe them in the following order: — I. Figures. II. Vases. 
III. Miscellaneous objects. 

I. Figures. These objects, chiefly the irifkivoi deoi of the Greeks, 
and sigillaria of the Romans, are principally figures of deities. They 
have all been broken, especially the heads, of which a great number 
are in the collection. They are made of a remarkably fine clay, either of 
a pale straw or of a red colour, the difference of which is owing to the 
degree of heat to which they were subject. All of them were made in 
moulds, typi, and hence their name of ectypa, or sigillaria. Mr. Abing- 
ton, himself a potter, remarks, that their technical defects are owing to the 
use of moulds of clay, which shrunk in the baking, distorted the original 
figure, and reduced it in size. Owing also to their not joining accu- 
rately, large seams, which were not pared away, were left in the places 
where the moulds united. The figures also, on account of the ancient 
potters not using the sponge, which presses the clay into all the finer 
parts, are not so sharp as they should be. The marks of the potter's 
fingers are still discernible in many specimens. They were probably 
retouched, as in the JEsopian fable (cccix. Kepa/xEvg rig £7r\arre 7ro\\ac 
opviQ kv ™ epyacTTTjpia)) the potter is described as modelling birds.* The 
figures were then coloured with a fresco, having first been washed all 
over with a white ground of lime. The crowns and rays of some figures 
were blue ; the faces and bodies red, and the garments green ; the eyes 
sometimes blue. The figures, when complete, were represented standing 
upon oval or circular pedestals, sometimes with a moulding; and one 
bust was on a round moulded pedestal, very like those of marble. From 
this it is evident, that many were ruder 
copies of statues, probably of those in the 
temples. Some few heads, grotesques, or 
caricatures, have holes for plugs to fit them 
to some other material : these were probably 
toys. Few of the figures exceed the height 
of nine or ten inches; but part of the crowns, 
and the imitated j)sc/tera£ of the Greek 
figures of Harpocrates, were found, which 
shew that some of them must have reached 
between two and three feet. The first subject 
of remark, indeed, is the prevalence of thelsiac 
worship. Busts of Serapis, with the modius, 
others perhaps intended for Isis (No. 11), 

* See also Lucian, Prometheus, s. 2. 



and distinct busts of Harpocrates (No. 38), as he appears at the time of 
the Roman Empire, wearing on his head the crown called psclient and a 
laurel wreath, holding the index finger of his right hand raised to his 
mouth, and holding in his left hand a cornucopia, often occur repeated, 
although no one figure is complete. Once he was represented leaning 
against a column. Considerable respect appears to have been paid to 
this exotic cultus, which divided with that of the Ephesian Diana, the 
Samian Juno, and the Phrygian Cybele, the Pantheism of Asia Minor, 
and even Rome itself. Of these two other cultus no traces occur ; but 
several busts from figures, which either represent the turreted head of 
Cybele, or of the city of Tarsus, as it appears on the silver autonymous 



ciurency,* are among them ; and one or two of Atys wearing the 
cidaris, draped in the full garment, and holding in his left hand the 
pedmn. In connexion with these are several tutulated heads (No. 45), 
from figures which, when complete, appear to have been winged, and to 
have held a cornucopia, a wreath and palm-branches, and probably 
represent the Tyche or Fortune of the state. 

In connexion with these are also several female heads, wearing 
the stephane, or sphendone, and veiled, and part of a more perfect 
figure, holding in the left hand a cornucopia, consequently also a form 
either of Hestia or Cybele (No. 28). Some of these are fine and 
spirited, and may have composed parts of the figures of Venus, portions 

* See Coornbe, Mus. Hunt. 



of whose form are in the collection. Of the usual 
Hellenic divinities of Olynipus, and of the secondary- 
gods of Greece, several examples are found, but 
always under their later types. Thus a veiled head 
of Chronos or Saturn (No. 46) ; one or two busts of 
Zeus ; others possibly of Hero (No. 47); and several 
of Athene wearing a Corinthian helmet. Of this 
latter goddess one remarkable type occurs thrice. 
The goddess is standing armed with the usual Corin- 
thian helmet, her whole form is enwrapped in the 
peplos, her face only partially revealed. Torsos and parts of figures o f 
Mercury, wearing the chlamys, are comparatively rare. Those of Venus, 


NO. 47. — nERO. 


whose worship was universally diffused in Asia Minor, are more abundant ; 
and several types of this goddess, representing her as draped, and holding 
a pigeon in her left hand, like her figure* in the old hieratic form, or as she 
appears upon the coin of Cos, naked and at the bath (No. 48), her right 

Gerhard, ttber die Venusidole, Taf. iii. 4. 



NO. 13. — EROS. 

hand concealing her nakedness, her left hand placed upon some drapery, 
which covers an unguent vase — the sentiment 
repeated in the Capitoline Venus — probably the 
goddess bathing prior to revealing her charms 
to Paris. Another figure with the same motive 
had the left hand placed under the breasts, the 
right concealing her nakedness, and at her 
side a vase ; another wearing the stephane, 
naked, her right hand upon her breast. Pro- 
bably certain figures of a female wearing a 
stephane, and covered with a peplos, which she 
unveils, are intended for the same goddess. 
The Erotes, or Cujrids, whose multiplied forms 
became so Pantheistic at the time of the Roman 
Empire, appear to have been abundant at 
Tarsus, although few of their figures are perfect. Either he holds up 
fruit, like Priapus or one of the Seasons ; or is on horseback, or holding 
by both hands a conch-shell, as he appears at the Bath of Venus ; or hold- 
ing the dove, or throwing his hand over his head, in the same gesture 
as the Bacchante of Scopas. Almost indistinguishable from the Erotes, 
are the fragments of boyish figures, of fat proportions, which may be 
intended for the youthful Dionysos, especially those which wear an in- 

fibulated chlamys, or have 
suspended round the neck the 
Eoman bulla, or where the 
boy, like Telesphoros or the 
young Hermes, is enveloped in 
a cloak (No. 8, p. 158). Several 
heads of other figures of this 
god, either with the hair di- 
vided at the forehead, or else 
no. 49.— head of cupid or eros. wearing a wreath, as in the 

head of Cupid or Eros (No. 
49) ; and others with the lock plaited on the head, or even plain, were 

Of the Delian deities, Apollo and Diana, few, if any, specimens 
occur. Some heads crowned with laurel- wreaths, and some legs crossed, 
from figures in that attitude, may possibly represent the Apollo (No. 10), 
Citharoedus or Lycius. One head only can be assigned to Diana. The 
Apollo, Phoebus, or Helios, as he appeared on the celebrated Colossus 
at Rhodes, is, however, among the collection; his head surrounded with 



rays, which are placed upon a nimbus, or disk, in bas-relief. This 
head bears a remarkable likeness to that of the god as he is seen 
upon the coins of Ehodes, and on the handles of the Rhodian amphorae;* 
and the appearance of this god at Tarsus may be accounted for by the 
universal diffusion of Rhodian commerce, and the increasing respect paid 
to the god Helios in the days of the Ptolemies and under the Roman 
Empire. In the collection is a perfect figure of that god, of singular 
type: the head is in the radiated crown; the body is naked; the arms 
and legs have never been complete, the one terminating at the thighs, 
the other in the thick of the arm, and in them are holes, which do no 
go through the substance of the figure, for fitting on the fore-arms, and 
feet, and legs in some other material, like the neurospasts or dolls, or 
the acrolithic statues. The whole of the figure was coloured yellow, 
in allusion to the golden shower which fell in Rhodes — the great 


Ma 18. --BACCHUS. 

encomium of the city.f Few figures of the Muses,, which are of such 
frequent occurrence in terra-cotta collections, are found in this. 

* Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature, New Series, vol. iii. PI. I. 
1* See Rhetores Greed. 8vo. 


female amply draped, her head laureat, and leaning her elbow on a 
square pilaster, resembling the supposed Polyhymnia, was perhaps one 
of the Pierian quire. From the great gods, of which the cycle is so 
incomplete, it is necessary now to pass to the demigods, the first of 
whom, in rank and power, is Dionysos, whose worship in Greece was 
universal at almost all periods, and whose companions, the Sileni and 
the Nymphs, presented such a field for the plastic art — so many capricij 
for the imagination emancipated from the hieratic style. In some cases, 
the artist chose the youthful infantine form, or else the naked youthful 
god, holding the thyrsus in his raised right hand, -while his cloak is 
thrown across his left arm, in the hand of which he holds the cantharus 
by one handle (No. 18), or else his head bound with the credemnon, 
while the nebris is thrown over his form. Some heads and fragments of 
Sileni, one of remarkably fine expression (No. 1, p. 155), crowned with 
a wreath of the leaves and flowers of the ivy, are complete in them- 
selves, but with holes for plugs beneath to insert them to the figure. 
Scarcely more than traces of Bacchantes exist, and those only shewn 
by some uncertain heads and parts of one or two figiu-es, the attitudes 
of which recall the ^ifxaipo^ot'og, or goat-slayer of Scopas. A few 
figures of Hercules, whose worship did not enjoy that early local pre- 
ference which that of Bacchus had, as appears from the early coins 
of the city, were found. There are some heads, one from a group in 
which the hero as the Callinicos was crowned by victory, or else 
crowned with the poplar (No. 27, p. 167), referring to the branch of the 
silver poplar which he brought from Hades, which was afterwards the 
emblem of the Olympic victor,* or in laurel- wreaths ; besides which 
are torsos and other parts of his form, with the club, and the lion's skin 
thrown over his left' arm (No. 15, p. 1G9). One fragment of a figure 
of ^Esculapius standing upon a pedestal, with part of his drapery, and 
the serpent coiled round the staff at his feet, was found. There are 
several figures of Victory, which were probably made and sold at the 
time of the different Eoman conquests. The goddess is either advancing 
forwards, holding a crown and palm-branch (No. 14, p. 189) ; or else with 
a palm-tree behind her, alluding to the conquest of Judaea, or holding in 
each hand a palm-branch, both of which meeting, form an arch or festoon 
above her head (No. 20, p. 177). In all examples her hair is parted, 
and rises up in a double ciui at the centre of the forehead ; in one in- 
stance, like Tyche or Fortuna, she holds a cornucopia. To Somnus may 
be attributed the head of a sleeping boy, with his eyes closed, broken off 
from a figure (No. 89, p. 183); and to one of the Seasons a child holding 

* Theocrit. Idyll, ii. v. 121. SchoL ad eund. 


grapes. Of heroes there are Perseus* killing Medusa, and the head of 
the Medusa, from a group; a heroic head in a pilos (No. 50); and the 
naked torso of a female, possibly Venus. More uncertain are the head 
of a youth wearing a wreath ; a Phrygian bearded head in a cidaris 
(No. 51); and an old Phrygian, bearded, carrying a lamb; a female 


head with dripping locks, perhaps of a Nereiad or Naiad ; a hand hold- 
ing an apple, detached and perfect ; part of a figure holding an inverted 
torch ; a hand holding a lyre, placed upon a Corinthian capital ; and a 
draped figure, holding over the left hand and arm a narrow fringed 

* We have, it appeal's from Mr. Aldington's researches, several representations of 
Perseus among the Oriental cylinders published by the Syro-Egyptian Society. In 
one he is represented capturing Pegasus. He is altogether Babylonian ; his bushy 
hair and beard trimmed and dressed in a style worthy of the son of Jupiter. His wings, 
and breastplate, and falchion, all agree with the character, only differing from later 
sculptures in its quaintness and great antiquity. On another cylinder we have a four- 
winged figure dressed like persons of royal rank in the Assyrian sculptures, except the 
breastplate, which seems to be jewelled, and consists of twelve compartments, like the 
breastplate of the Jewish high-priest. He is very closely girded with a close belt 
round the loins, and altogether like the Assyrian figures, except in the want of a beard, 
which fact, together with his wings, marks him as a divine person, or a demi-god. He 
has captured two ostriches ; and Mr. Abington very ingeniously and plausibly suggests 
that this may refer to the great exploit of Perseus — the taking off Medusa's head, 
which is fabled to have occurred in the Libyan desert, which the ostrich might well 
represent. On another cylinder we have the representation of a figure seated on a 
throne, holding a symbol of authority in his hand. He is addressing a man (Perseus ?) 
who has his back turned to him, as if going on some mission, for which he has re- 
ceived his orders. A bird is following him, having a remarkably long neck, appa- 
rently an ostrich, and indicating beforehand the country to which he is repairing. 
Mr. Abington also thinks that a representation of a man with four wings contending 
with two gryphons, on another cylinder, refers to the same hero of mythology. The 
deciphering of the inscriptions on the cylinders will one day assist materially in deter- 
mining the Oriental origin of a great number of these classic stories, giving to them 
their true parentage, their real country, and their original meaning. 



sash, the supposed clavus latus ; a hand holding a tympanum ; a 
hand holding a rhy ton, terminating in a male head; the arm of a boxer, 
the hand loaded with leads; a hand holding a basket; and a large wing. 
Several heads bore distinct proof of being portraits of persons living at the 
time of the Roman Empire, from the time of the Flavii to the Antonines. 
Among them were a head resembling that ofOtho or of Titus; others 
of ladies who wore the head-attire seen on the coins 
of Julia, the sister of Titus and Domitia (Nos. 9, 
p. 158, and 29, p. 168); another laureated head 
resembling Domitian. Three other little heads of 
exquisite finish, also of the same time, represented 
personages living under the Roman Empire. Other 
subjects were taken from the circus, such as a 
horseman, and the head of another ; the same, 
holding a palm ; from the bath, as the head of a 
slave; or from the theatre, as a comic actor, the 
davus seated on a cube, with his hands folded (No. 
52) ; and another of the Satyrie cast, hike the 
figures represented in the New Comedy, which ap- 
pear from the vases of later date to have approached 
the broadest style of caricature.* Several heads 
only, Avith pointed ears, and plug-holes beneath, 
to adapt them to bodies of some other material, 
and one with a helmet apparently also comic, and 
supposed to have been a lamp, were also either taken from the stage or 
from those obscene dwarfs and moriones, which are so often found re- 
presented in bronze at the Roman period. With this list closes the torso 
of a figure wearing the paludamentnm, probably from the figure of an 
emperor. A considerable number of animals were found, and among them 
a spirited group of a lion attacking a bull, upon which he has sprung (No. 
42, p. 187), a subject found on the coins of Cilicia.f A panther, several 
fragments of horses, some caparisoned or votive.; parts of bulls, probably 
dedicated for the preservation of cattle; a dog, emblematic of Hecate; 
and a small cat, having a cord tied round its neck, from which is 
pendent an inverted crescent, shewing that the animal had been sacred 
to the moon, recalling the collar placed round the neck of the stag of 
Mount Cercynitis. Among them was also the skin of an animal tied 
up like an askos.J 

* Wieseler, Theatergebaude. Gotting. 1851, Taf. ix. 9. 

■f* Due de Luynes, Suppl. PI. iv. Gaos. 

4: It is known that the water is carried in skins. Mr. Bonomi has engraved in 

no. 52.— DAVUS. 



This closes the list of sigillaria, which forms the most important 
portion of this collection, and which throw considerable light on the 
state of the arts in Tarsus, certainly not inferior to those in Italy. 
Many of the heads, although of small size, have a wonderful power and 
expression, and the arts were generally in a high state at the period. 
This seems to have been towards the close of the Caesars, to which period 
the female head-dresses point. 

II. Utensils. Few vases were found. The most remarkable of 
these was an oenochoe, quite plain. Several pieces of red glazed Koman 
ware, not the supposed Samian, but of the class called the false Samian 
by the English and French antiquaries, distinguished by not being of an 


equal colour throughout, and not stamped with the names of potters 
inside. On the bottom outside of one cup is the letter T, in bas-relief, 
but not stamped, as the usual potters' sigillum. Two pieces of cups in 

his excellent work, Nineveh and its Palaces, p. 182, from the monuments discovered 
by M. Botta at Khursabad, the figure of a sack or rather skin, and water-bearer with 
a leather helmet on his head, and also of a clasp by which hie outer garment was fas- 
tened — a 23ecuiiarity of costume that leads to the surmise, he adds, that these people 
are from the coast of Oilicia, and may be called Milyte, who, Herodotus tells us, wore 
helmets of leather, and who had their vests confined with clasps. It is not a little 
curious, and corroborative of the fact, that the Assyrian water-bearers were strangers, 
possibly some conquered people from Cilicia or the neighbouring Taurus, that the 
water-bearers in large towns are generally a peculiar people : thus the Sakkas of Con- 
stantinople are Armenians from Armenia Proper and Kurdistan — not Armenians of 
Constantinople ,; and the water-bearers of Paris are Auvergnats, 


this collection I consider the finest of any which I have yet seen. One 
(No. 53), part of a cylindrical cup of fine ware, of a pale straw colour, 
has, in delicately raised relief, the bust of a draped female figure, 
apparently Yenus, in a talaric tunic, placed between two festoons of 
wreaths, a subject which has been repeated round the cup. The other, 
from a bowl of a remarkably fine light-red clay (No. 54), has, in a 
slight bas-relief, as if impressed from the mould of a fine gem or cameo, 
the bust of a Bacchante, her head bound with a wreath of ivy, her form 
clad in a nebris, and a thyrsus thrown over her shoulder — a subject 
already known from some gems. Of inferior workmanship are parts 
of a cup, with wreaths and bucranea. One piece alone, ornamented with 
feathered ornaments on a maroon ground, belongs to painted vases. Nei- 
ther of these pieces were of glazed or polished ware; but half of a 
patera had in the inside, in bas-relief, a female hand, placed amidst 


foliage resembling that of the ivy ; and several vases with a small handle, 
in shape of a rude antifixal or helix ornament, with scoral handles made 
separately, and ready to attach to others, were found; with them was 
part of a cantharus, or cup, of late black polished ware, the side orna- 
mented with ivy-leaves (hederata), completely resembling similar canthari 
found in France and England. The number of lamps which were found, 
according to Mr. Barker, amounted to upwards of 3000 ; and of these he 
selected for his collection only the most important, allowing the country 
people to carry away those which were not ornamented with subjects in 

LAMPS. 201 

bas-relief. This find may be compared with that mentioned by Avolio in 
his Argille, p. 117. The lamps found at Tarsus were very different from 
those from Italy or Greece. They are of a fine straw colour, of small 
size, circular, and with one nozzle, and generally without handles. One 
lamp, which is only ornamented with an egg and tongue moulding, has 
the remains of the wooden candelabrum still adhering to it below. None 
of these lamps have the names of makers, one alone being impressed 
below with a thunderbolt and cross. The nozzle of many had been 
burnt, shewing that they had been used. Many are perfect, and by no 
means worn out. Their subjects are, a goat, emblem of Dionysos and 
Priapus ; a wild boar ; Selene in a car drawn by two buffaloes, holding 
in each hand a torch; Isis, whose worship has been already traced in 
the. city, holding a situla, on her head the usual ornament, before her 
Apis as a buffalo, having on his head a star, advancing to a lighted altar 
behind a temple; Actseon attacked by one of his dogs (No. 44, p. 189); 
a Nereid traversing the sea upon a hippocampus ; a hare ; a gryphon ; 
Cnpid riding upon a lion; two Cupids, one leaping over a lion; a dol- 
phin; a bunch of grapes and vine-leaves; a crater or cantharus; an 
instrument ; a crown, altar, and Laurel-branch ; a bunch of grapes, leaf, 
and wreath of laurel on the base AO ; a river-god, probably the Cydnus, 
reclining, holding a reed in the left hand, a cornucopia in the right, at 
his elbow an urn, Victory hovering in the air, and crowning him ; head 
of Minerva, full face, with the triple crest to the helmet ;* a dolphin ; 
head of the Medusa, the mythos of whom was intimately connected 
with the city founded by Perseus ; a stag advancing to the right. A 
small lamp ; one fragment of a circular lamp of a hollow band, which 
had held four wicks, closed this list. Distinct from these, and pro- 
bably of an earlier age, are two shoe-shaped lamps with handles, of 
coarser red ware, one entirely plain, the other having the oriental sub- 
ject of a goddess holding up two lions by their tails. 

III. Miscellaneous Objects. The number of miscellaneous objects 
of terra-cotta was by no means great ; and what is the most startling 
is the total absence of all architectural fragments, which generally form 
an important portion of similar collections. The few objects of this 
nature which were found were chiefly models, such as a Corinthian 
column quite detached. Some lion's claws, with mertaises apparently 
for a throne of a small figure. Several oscilla) or masks, with 
hollow eyes, which appear from the mural paintings at Pompeii to 
have been suspended by cords between the intercolumniations of the 

* Due de Luynes, Essai sur la Numismatique des Satrapes. Suppl. Ito. Paris, 
1846. PI. xi. 


columns, were found, either scenic masks, either tragic or comic ; 
the head of a bull. Besides these are fragments of a kind of calathus 
in open work, a pecten shell, a stud, a cylindrical object excised 
at one end Z H, resembling those found at the Polledrara of Vulci, 
and apparently bobliquets, or curling-pins for the hair. Some hollow 
altars, supposed by Mr. Barker to be censers, with evident marks of 
burning ; an object in shape of a cubical seat or altar, with a slit 
above, supposed to be one of the boxes for money which the gladiators 
carried round ;* and two large disks or medals about three inches 
diameter, with a hole to suspend them, on one an A, on the other 
a B ; and last, although not least, a plain flat disk of terra-cotta 
on which is incised in cursive characters, the name AiroXXwg ; this 
is a remarkable name, being that of the Alexandrian coadjutor of 
St. Paxil, -j- The inscription is written like a memorandum on the 
disk. Few objects not of terra-cotta were found ; but among these 
were a bust placed upon a table with four legs, the head broken 
off, which had been used as a knife-handle of dark steatite, and three 
flat circular stones, which are supposed to have been used for polishing 
vessels placed on a lathe, or tools. The most interesting, however, of 
these objects are parts of some figures cast in plaster of Paris or of a 
coarse gypsum burnt,| and which reeal to mind the architectural 
mouldings of a tomb found at Kertch, and noAV in the British Mu- 
seum. Those in Mr. Barker's collection are a female head wearing a 
sphendone, having the hair gathered up at the sides ; a head of Har- 
pocrates, the face coloured red ; a head of Hercules in the lion's skin ; 
an eagle ; and two architectural mouldings. 

* See Serous d'Agincourt Recueil, and Caylus Recueil. 

f Acts xviii. 24, xix. 1 ; 1 Corinth, iii. 6, 22, iv. 6. Suidas voce. 

J Pliny, Nat. Hist. xxxv. 153. 







Mr. Abington's observations on this piece (No. 55), 
a head of most monstrous form, in a conical cap, 
are of so remarkable a nature that I must be per- 
mitted to publish them here, and I •will add what 
I have had time to collect from Humboldt and others 
in confirmation. 

Mr. Abington says: " This is the most extra- 
ordinary thing in all the collection. On the first 
view, I was struck with the identity of its strange 
profile with the figures sculptured upon the monu- 
ments and edifices of an extinct people in Central 
America.* Many of Stephens's engravings represent 
the same faces exactly. 

" But what possible connexion coidd there be between the people of 
Asia Minor and that far-distant race? This is a question for the Eth- 
nographical Society, and I hope you will lay it before them. 

" In the meantime, I will venture a thought upon the subject. Is 
it not a faithfid and correct portrait of a Hun? Humboldt, on the 
authority of Klaproth, I believe, says that the Hiongnu belonged to the 
Turkish, and the Huns to the Finnish or Uralian race. We know that 

no. 55. 1 

See Stephens's Incidents of Travel in Central America and Yucutan. 



the latter were driven by the former, who had been repulsed from the 
walls of China and roamed westward, upon their neighbours, with whom 
they are mixed in the relations of their inroads on the south of Europe.* 
By Huns I do not mean the modern Magyar race, which is of other 
blood, but the ugly race, whose inhuman faces and horse-like heads, 
terrified the inhabitants of southern countries, when that Scythian flood 
rolled in upon them. 

" One division of their tribes went eastward, sweeping all before them 
as far as China ; and the great wall was built to keep them out of that 
kingdom. It is ascertained that some bodies of the Mongol, Kalmuck, 
and other Tartar tribes crossed to America.") - 

" Hitherto the sculptures of Central America have only been won- 
dered at, but not explained. Does not this head of yours identify them 
with the Huns, and thereby let light in upon a dark mystery? It is a 
subject I should like to folloAV up, if I had the means within reach. I 
can only indicate the direction in which others may follow the matter; 
and I am very much mistaken if it does not richly reward them. Dr. 
Pritchard would have been the man to submit it to; but he is, alas, no 
more. For an account of the migration of the Huns, and their policy in 
levying a tribute of beautiful women in all the concmered countries, by 
which their own ugliness was rapidly mitigated, see Gibbon's Decline 
and Fall. 

" The folloAving sketches of the sculptures in Central America, taken 
from Stephens's plates and the Quarterly Journal, will shew that my 
notion of the matter is not a mere fancy. 

" Heads so very unusual, not to say unnatural, though found in such 
distant places, must surely have come from the same stock. 

* The OiSwoi are first noticed by Dionysius Periegetes in the time of Augustus ; 
and Ptolemy writes the word Xevvei, strongly aspirated, which may be found again 
in the geographical name of Chunigard. 

f See Quarterly Journal of Science, vol. hi. 1828 ; Dr. Banking's paper. 


" We have written descriptions of the inhuman appearance of the 
Huns who devastated the nation ; but I never met with any representa- 
tion of them either pictorial or sculptural. Perhaps you have the 
gratification of first bringing before the world a true and exact repre- 
sentation of that once terrible but now forgotten race, and that too by 
an illustration probably unique; also of removing the veil which has 
hitherto concealed the mysterious origin of the men who have left the 
memorials of their peculiar conformation upon the sculptured stones of 
America, but who have been long extinct." 

Sir Robert Schomburgk, in a letter he addressed to Humboldt, says, 
" The hieroglyphical figures are more widely extended than you had 
perhaps supposed They extend, as ascertained by actual observa- 
tions, from 7° 10' to 1° 40' north latitude, and from 57° 30' to 66° 30' 
west longitude. Thus the zone of pictured rocks extends, so far as it 
has been at present examined, over a space of 192,000 square geogra- 
phical miles ; comprising the basin of the Corentyn, the Essequibo, and 
the Orinoco; a circumstance from which we may form some inference 
respecting the former amount of population in this part of the con- 

I find confirmation of Mr. Abington's idea in Humboldt's Aspects of 
Nature, and will proceed to quote his remarks that bear the most on this 
subject in his Annotations, p. 176. He says, "I regard the existence of 
ancient connexions between the inhabitants of Western America and 
Eastern Asia as more than probable ; but by what routes, or with what 
Asiatic nations the communications took place, cannot at present be 
decided. Our knowledge of the languages of America is still too limited, 
considering their great variety, for us as yet entirely to relinquish the hope 
of some day discovering an idiom which may be spoken, with certain 
modifications, at once in the interior of South America and in that of 
Asia; or which may at least indicate an ancient affinity. Such a dis- 
covery Avould be one of the most brilliant which can be expected in re- 
ference to the history of mankind." 

I am aware that the analogy of one language to another must be 
sought in the organic structure, and the grammatical forms resulting 
from the workings of the human intellect and character. Still, when 
we have no opportunity of following up such research, as in the case of 
the Americo-Indian languages, it is interesting to trace the similarity 
of sound in the words which are handed over to us.* For instance, I 

* I have a catalogue of many words that resemble each other in different languages. 
I found, however, eo many in the German and English having evidently the same 
origin, that I forbore collecting them, as they would form a little volume in them- 


find itz-cuin-tepotzotli to signify a huinped-backed dog. Now itz I 
trace to eet, the Tartaric appellation of a dog : cuin is the Turk- 
ish for a sheep ; therefore itz-cuin would be a sheep-dog, or shepherd's 
dog: tepotzotli I take to be the same as teppeh, the Turkish for a hill; 
and the terminative particle li or lu is quite Tartaric, and always used 
to express a property or possession: thus, topal, lame; topalli herif, a 
lame man; cor, blind of one eye; cbrli avret, a one-eyed woman. I 
find, moreover, that, some miles from the Encaramada, there rises 
in the middle of the Savana the rock Tepu-Mereme, or " painted 
rock." Observe here the similarity of tepu to teppe, and the construc- 
tion so Semitic, having the substantive first ; here is still greater affinity ; 
for the "me" may be the same as the " mu" in Arabic; and be the 
form used to express the adjective. You would in Arabic, using the 
word naksh, paint, say jebel TOwnaccash, a rock painted. But what 
I find contradictory is, that the construction of this word is more Semi- 
tic than Hindo- Germanic; for we find the substantive to precede the 
adjective, and we have dog-shepherd; humped- back, and not liumped- 
backed shepherd-dog. The Arabic form would be Jcelbun rayee-un ahdab, 
precisely like the Americo-Indian. Would this lead us to trace an 
affinity between the two, and to suppose that a Semitic tribe traversing 
through Asia on its way eastward, adopted words from the people with 
whom it came in contact, and which it afterwards perpetuated in 
America, preserving, however, its original Semitic construction ? 

I find further, that some etymologists have thought they recognised 
in the American word camosi, the sun, a similarity to camosh, the name 
of the sun in one of the Phoenician dialects, and to Apollo, Chomeas, or 

Humboldt's further remarks are most interesting, and bear on this 
ethnological subject. He says: "In looking at Peruvian carvings, I have 
never remarked any figures of the large-nosed race of men so frequently 
represented in the bas-reliefs of Palinque in Guatemala, and in the 
Aztec paintings. Klaproth remembered having seen individuals with 
similar large noses among the Chalcas, a northern Mogul tribe. It is 
well known that many tribes of the North American red or copper- 
selves. The resemblance between many words of the German and Tartaric language 
was more interesting ; and I have a list which would in itself alone prove the connexion 
between the Alemagni and the tribes in the east, were such proof requisite, or were the 
fact at all doubted. But what astonishes me is to find a great many words in German 
that appear certainly to possess a Semitic origin. These words must have been 
adopted in consequence of the communion between the wandering tribes in earlier 
times, who, it will be observed, kept to their own construction, although they borrowed 
the use of words or sounds. 


coloured Indians have fine aquiline noses, and that this is an essential 
physiognomic distinction between them and the present inhabitants of 
Mexico, New Granada, Quito, and Peru. Are the large-eyed, compara- 
tively fair-complexioned people spoken of by Marchand as having been 
seen in 54° and 58° lat. on the north-west coast of America, descended 
from an Alano-Gothic race, the Usiini of the interior of Asia ?" 

It is very interesting to read the above question in connexion with 
what we now have in hand. Following up this idea, I find further, that 
" the southern Huns or Hajatelah (called by the Byzantines Euthalites 
or Nepthalites, and dwelling along the eastern shore of the Caspian), 
had a fair complexion. They cultivated the ground, and possessed 
towns. They are often called the white or fair Huns ; and D'Herbelot 
even declares them to be Indo-Scythians. For an account of Panu, the 
leader or tanju of the Huns, and of the great drought and famine which, 
about 46 a.d., caused a part of the nation to migrate northwards, see 
Deguignes' Histoire Gen. des Huns, des Turcs, §c. 1756 , t. i. pt. i. p. 217 ; 
pt. ii. pp. Ill, 125, 223, 447. All the accounts of the Huns taken from 
the above-mentioned celebrated work have been subjected to a learned 
and strict examination by Klaproth. According to the result of this 
research, the Hiongnu belong to the widely-diffused Turkish races 
of the Altai and Taugnu Mountains. The name Hiongnu, even in 
the third century before the Christian era, was a general name 
for the Ti, Tukui, or Turks, in the north and north-west of China. 
The southern Hiongnu overcame the Chinese, and in conjunction with 
them destroyed the empire of the northern Hiongnu : these latter fled 
to the west, and this flight seems to have given the first impulse to the 
migration of nations in Middle Asia." Might not some families of these 
tribes have embarked in some fishing-boats, and been cast on the western 
coast of North America, in the inhospitable climate of from 55° to 65°; 
and civilisation thus introduced, like the general movement of population 
in America, have proceeded successively from the North to the South ?* 

* Humboldt, Relation Historiqve, t. iii. pp. 155-160. At Weston-super-Mare, in 
Somersetshire, have lately been found, outside a Roman camp, the bodies of three 
men of rather a large size by persons excavating. The heads seemed to have been 
forced in between two ricks, and to have sustained some injury from violence. The 
crania were examined and compared with Mr. Lawrence's work on the species of man, 
and no similarity could be traced between them and any of the crania described in 
that work, except to the head of the Caribbean Indian. It is sujjposed that these 
must be the remains of some of the tribes of the Huns that found their way into 
Britain, as they had done into Rome, marking their progress by acts of cruelty, and 
causing, by their extreme ugliness, horror to those they vanquished. 






On a first examination of a few of the ugly, monstrous heads of the 
collection, I had imagined that they represented Midas. Apollo being a 
great favourite at Tarsus, it was natural to conclude that Midas woidd 
be there jeered at and caricatured. But, at a later period, when Mr. 
Abington had pointed out the extraordinary resemblance he had traced 
between No. 55, p. 203, and the heads sculptured on the rocks in Central 
America, I was led to look closer into the subject; and by setting apart 
all the heads of that kind, I found a family likeness to prevail through 
the whole lot, which consists of upwards of fifty heads, that justifies me 
in coming to the conclusion that they are the representatives of a nation 
or tribe, if not of a single family, such is the likeness that prevails 
among them. 

These heads have, for the most part, been radiated. The female 
heads bear the same form of head-dress as that given by the Cilicians 
to heads representing persons they deified ; as if the chiefs of the con- 
quering tribes, hearing that it was customary in the country to have 
such a compliment paid to the rulers of the land, and to include their 
ladies, insisted on their being represented by the same effigy. That this 
was done may be ascertained by an examination of the other heads in 
the collection, wherein the Junos are represented with the features of 
the favourite empress of the day ; or, to reverse the case, the features of 
the ladies of that period may be seen bearing the attributes of Juno, 
Venus, Cybele, Ceres, &c. And on many of these heads may be traced 
the head-dress of Apollo, with the hair knotted in front, — of Jupiter, 


with the radiation, &c. Now it is not at all likely that any of the 
monsters of Grecian mythology would have that compliment paid them; 
and certainly Midas, who would rather be an object of derision, could 
never be thus represented. 

Now it would seem that when the power of these tribes passed away, 
the artists, as if ashamed of their subserviency to the people who had 
ejected them, carefully cut off all the rays on the heads ; and only one 
male and two females have remained perfect enough to tell the tale 
of their fellows, who are only mutilated about the forehead. 

Let not their extreme ugliness be considered a reason why they 
should not have been deified by the Cilicians or by the people of 
America. What shall be imagined to be the standard of beauty which 
shall be acknowledged by all people ? The negro is shocked at the 
first sight of a European. The thin lips, the narrow lengthened nose, 
oval face, and long hair, are so far from all his notions of beauty as to 
be ugliness unmitigated. The ugly fellows, whose likenesses we now 
possess in this collection, would not be ashamed of their peculiarities, 
nor take offence at their true effigies, any more than the Chinese would 
be offended at being represented with their ugly cheek-bones, oblique 
pig-eyes, and Tartar noses, even a little exaggerated. One of these, 
now in London, is so monstrously ugly, that it would be difficult for a 
modeller to shew him up worse than he is. How hideous are the heads 
and faces of many of the holy fakirs of India in the present day ! And 
I have no doubt but that we might find rivals to the ugliest of these 
heads among many people both in the East and in the West. 

Further, the monuments of Central America must be looked upon 
as bearing a mythological character, and representing objects of adorar 
tion — persons who conferred benefits on their fellow- creatures by the 
introduction of civilisation ; holy men,, priests, and priestesses, whom 
the sculptor would not wantonly degrade by giving them features to 
cause them to. be treated with derision ; yet we find them character- 
ised by ugliness of the superlative degree. We must not, therefore, 
be surprised at finding such features radiated with the same glory 
which is applied to Apollo, the perfection of the Circassian type of 
beauty. If men of one tribe were eligible for divine honours, others of 
tribes less favoured in physical beauty were equally so. The deification 
was for other qualities than personal beauty, and that too judged of 
by an arbitrary standard. These priests, conquerors, or chiefs of the 
people — call them what you please — pretended no doubt to be versed in 
the doctrines of astrology, divination, mesmeric arts, and wonders ; their 
ugly countenances would serve to increase the distance between them 


and the people; there would be nothing to prevent the modeller from 
even exaggerating this difference ; and the priesthood would never take 
offence at it, if it tended to make the deluded multitude stand in awe of 
them as beings of another and higher order. 

We have a case in point to refer to, in modern times, which bears 
on this question. The Emperor Soulouque of Hayti has caused Corradi 
to take portraits of himself and all his family and government, civil and 
military. However desirous the artist might be to flatter his imperial 
highness, the latter would not be pleased or accept of his likeness, if he 
were represented with Grecian features, but would rather insist on the 
delineations being as nearly like to nature as possible. He might con- 
sider himself and family a great deal handsomer than the European; and 
an exaggeration of his ideal beauty, although a monstrosity in our sight, 
might only be complimentary to him.* 

As yet I have called the people represented by these heads Huns, 
to use an appellation known to all; but I believe that their original 
name was Khita — perhaps the Hittites of the Scriptures, — a people 
who were aborigines of Asia Minor, if not of the province of Cilicia 
itself, and whose chiefs were taken into captivity by Rameses III. 

In Rossalini's great work on Egyptian Antiquities there are repre- 
sented four bodies kneeling, with their arms tied behind them ; each 
has a line of hieroglyphics stating who he is. The first says, " This 
is the vile slave from Tarsus of the Sea ;" its features are unfortu- 
nately disfigured, but alongside there is another captive whose fea- 
tures are complete. The hieroglyphic writing of this says, " Phoor 
khasi em Khita en Sacca enk," — " The chief of the Khita as a living 
captive." Now the fact of these two figures having stood in such 
propinquity on the monuments in Egypt, erected doubtless to com- 
memorate the conquests of the Egyptian king over the nations of the 
north of Syria, and the coincidence of the heads found in Tarsus re- 
sembling so much the second as to identify them with the same race at 
least, if not the same individual, would lead to the conclusion that if the 
Khita were not the inhabitants of this city, they were some of its imme- 
diate neighbours, and that it was their chief who had been carried into 
bondage by the Egyptian conquerors of the country. 

I will leave this point to be discussed and settled by more competent 
judges ; and will only add, in support of my conclusion, that directly I 
exhibited the head, No. 55, to Mr. Birch, he exclaimed at once, and 

* These portraits have been published in a handsome lithographed album, and a 
full account of them will be found in an extract from the New York Herald, in the 
Times of Oct. 14, 1852. 



without hesitation, " I will tell you what people this head represents ;" 
and he turned immediately to the plate in Eossalini's work before- 

Indeed, if we admit similarity of features as a guide in discerning 
the difference of races, there can be little doubt on the subject. It 
might be imagined that these two heads (No. 55, p. 203), and the one 
copied out of Rossalini's work herewith introduced, not only represented 
the same race of men, but were even intended to portray the same 


individual, with some twenty years' difference in age, only such as he 
would be at forty and at sixty. 

Rameses III. was of the 18th dynasty, and must have effected his 
conquest 1200 or 1500 years b.c. : my Lares and Penates have been 
proved to have been destroyed about the year 70 of the Christian era ; 
so that if these heads represent the Khita, as I have no doubt they do,* 

* Mr. Layard discovered in the mound of Nabbi Yunus, or of the Prophet Jonah, 
near Mosul, a head carved in a yellow silex (Eisen Kiesel ?) with singularly grotesque 
features, which he considers to belong to the later Assyrian period, and an imitation 


they had been accumulating in Tarsus, together with many other gods 
and idols of all nations from the East and West, which were found with 
them, upwards of 1200 years. 

How interesting is this fact ! and what light may not these monuments 
throw on ancient history, on times of which we have now no written 
records ; on times when sculpture formed the basis of the means for 
perpetuating historical events ; and how precious will be such memorials 
— how useful in the hands of the learned archaeologist, who could find 
leisure to devote a little attention to a closer scrutiny of them ! 

The Cilicians at a later period became a mixed race, and lost their 
resemblance to these horrid faces, who, as I have already observed, were 
possibly tribes that conquered them ; but if these were the aborigines 
of Cilicia or Asia Minor, what was the effect of the Egyptian invasion 
and conquest ? Did it disperse them ? "Were they the stock from 
which the ancient Scythians descended ? Or were they all from one 
common origin ? How did these wandering tribes, who fought and 
conquered the West, find their way eastward to America ? Can we infer 
that the American monuments are of a higher antiquity than heretofore 
supposed ? These are all questions to which, at present, we are obliged 
to " pause for a reply." 

of the head of the Egyptian deity, which some believe to represent death. (Layard's 
Nineveh, vol. ii. p. 214 ; Wilkinson's Ancient Egyptians, plate 41, vol. iv.) 

This head is now in the British Museum. It has an inscription in cuneiform letters 
in the crown and back ; it might otherwise, Mr. Layard says, be mistaken for a Mexi- 
can relic ! Mr. Birch suggests that, as a similar head is frequently represented on 
Egyptian monuments, on vases brought as tribute by an Asiatic people ; and is, more- 
over, found on the Phoenician coins of Abusus, as that of the deity ; it may be the 
Semitic Baal or Typhon. 

There is a representation on one of the Babylonian cylinders, engraved by the Syro- 
Egyptian Society, of a female divinity of horrid aspect, and very slightly clothed : she 
stands upon a dragon, and holds three articles in her hands, which, if keys, Mr. Abing- 
ton remarks, would mark her as the Cybele of the Babylonians. There is something 
round her cap, which, if intended for oak-leaves, would also distinguish her as that 

-^*&£»^£^*J>^ - 






We find from the discoveries of Layard and Botta, that the god of the 
sun was represented by the Assyrians as an eagle-headed or vulture- 
headed human figure. It is one of the most prominent sacred types in 
the earlier Assyrian monuments, and was, according to Dr. Grotefend, 
the tutelar divinity of the nation. " This figure may also," says Layard 
(vol. ii. p. 459), " be identified with the god Nisroch, in whose temple 
Sennacherib was slain by his sons (2 Kings xix. 37); for the wordNisr 
signifies, in all the Semitic languages, an eagle." 

Joseph us* calls this image Arascus; Isaiah, Asarak or Nisroch 
(xxxvii. 38); Jeremiah (vii. 18), Nit; the Septuagint, Meaopax- It was 
also written Asarax, Esorac, Nasarac, and Mesarac. The distinguished 
French archaeologist, Lajard, has traced the Mithra of the Persian sys- 
tem, the same as the Nisroch of the Assyrians, through its various trans- 
formations to the AttoWuv of the Greeks, and Apollo of the Komans. 
We have the authority of Herodotus, and other of the ancient histo- 
rians, for the identity of Apollo and the Egyptian Floras ; and we have 
seen in the course of this work that Apollo was not only the favourite 
deity of the Cilicians, but, as Tarsus the winged, he was in fact the 
tutelary divinity of the city. It appears from additional terra-cottas 
obtained since Mr. Birch's descriptions were penned, and which have 
been described by Mr. Abington with his usual taste and discrimination, 
that we have representations of the same deity in other forms among 
these truly interesting relics. 

* Antiq. Jud. i. c. 1. 


One of these formed part of a basso-relievo of bold projection : the 
brooch by which his pallium is buckled in front has been made by the 
impress of a punch much too large for the purpose. 

There is also a very finely modelled face of apparently the same 
divinity. In this face the eyes are remarkably expressive, and the 
mouth diminished so as to give a good example of the sublimated or 
ideal beauty which the Greeks aimed at. The hair is bound by a fillet 
into a knot on the top of the head, in the style usually given to Apollo. 

There is also in the collection a little figure of Horus or Harpocrates, 
with its finger to its lips, excessively slight and rude. 

Also a head, trunk, and right thigh of Harpocrates (No. 38). The 
youthful rotundity and fleshiness of the body and thigh are well ex- 
pressed. The head has the hair knotted on the top, is radiated, and sur- 
mounted with the sacred Egyptian emblem, and the finger on the lip places, 
Mr. Abington remarks, the designation of the figure beyond dispute. 
The left arm supports a horn of plenty filled with fruits. 

" It is to be regretted that this figure came so late, as it affords a 
correct key to very many fragments Avhich we have had before by piece- 
meal. It is most valuable in every point of view. We have many 
youthful heads with the same Egyptian symbol of the Nelumbium on the 
top: are they all to be referred to Harpocrates? If so, he must have 
been the most popular of the divinities at Tarsus, if we may judge from 
the number. 

"I have before noticed the identity of Assarac, Horus, and Harpocrates, 
as the incarnation of deity through a female divinity, Isis. It may be asked, 
when the Koman empire began to resound with the testimony of the Apos- 
tles, that the long-expected Messiah of the Jews was incarnate, did the 
priests of the old mythology bring out more fully to popular notice, and 
in opposition to the Christians, their ancient mystery of the incarnation 
of the son of Isis? If this policy was resorted to — and it would seem 
under the circumstances very natural — it would explain the fact of the 
representation of Horus being so multiplied at that period. 

"It would be their policy to persuade the people that the wonderful 
tales respecting the birth of the Messiah were but stolen from the sys- 
tem of religion maintained by them and their fathers, and therefore an 
innovation to be rejected." 

Another small head in the collection, similar to the foregoing, has a 
circlet of flowers as a crown, with the sacred bean in front. 

Another larger head has a diadem of flowers similar to the preced- 
ing, but surmounted by a radiation, with the Egyptian symbol in front. 

Another head similar to the one with the hair knotted on the top, 


but without any radiation; behind it rises a kind of shell-work or 

The origin of Mercury, known as the Hermes and Cyllenius of the 
Greeks, the Anubis of the Egyptians, the Theutates of the Gauls, and 
Woden of the Saxons, has been sought for in Phoenicia; the image of 
this god being the symbolical figure of the ancestor and founder of the 
kingdom. This, however, is mere speculation, and further research 
will no doubt shew that some of the many forms of this many-sym- 
bolled god were as common to the Assyrian and Hindu forms of idolatry 
as to the Egyptian and Phoenician. 

Among the different forms in which this deity is represented in the 
Cilician terra-cottas, is one which Mr. Abington calls the ancient Pelas- 
gian Mercury, in which he is usually represented terminating in an in- 
verted obelisk, cloaked, and with a phallus. Several examples of the 
same kind are met with in the British Museum. 

Hermes, under various forms, seems to have been much honoured 
in Cilicia. Among the terra-cottas is a head with a cap, which seems 
to be intended to represent a young Mercury. The expression of the 
features is very pleasing, both in front and profile. There is also an- 
other, with a curly head, more plump and infantine than the preceding. 

There is also among the terra-cottas another bonneted head of the 
same character. It is of childish age, but beai's a strong family likeness 
to some heads of Apollo, &c, modelled from the countenances of priests, 
or persons of rank ; very fat and luxurious-looking. It will be curious 
if this should be a youth of the same family, who sat to the artist for a 
study of young Hermes. 

Also, a winged boy in the act of flying; he has the hair knotted over 
the forehead, a Phrygian bonnet, and loose drapery, fastened by a fibula 
on the breast, but flying open in front. It is a very good figure. 

Mercury, as the messenger of the gods, is most usually represented 
with a winged cap, and wings to his ankles ; but in this case the wings 
are fixed to the shoulders. Apollo, as sculptured by the Greeks and 
Romans, has no wings, but at Tarsus he was winged! So that it does not 
appear that we can urge this fact of his being winged against the idea 
of its being the young postman of Olympus. We know that there were 
so many different legends concerning these deities, and so many different 
tales of their origin, descent, &c, that they are quite confusing. There are 
no fewer than six or eight different Mercurys, concerning whom we have 
accounts. The early traditions would vary in the various lines through 
which they were transmitted ; and priests and poets, by the exercise of 


a liberty which was nnrestrained by any real reverence for such objects, 
have added to the confusion. 

There is also among the terra-cottas a face and neck of a very good 
figure, similar to those just described. It is the plump, healthy coun- 
tenance which we cannot look upon but with pleasure. 

The legends of this hero were well known to the Phoenicians, and 
also to the Far East. His labours are engraved on some of the Baby- 
lonian cylinders. The tales handed down to us by the Greeks were 
drawn by them from the tradition of the East. This, independently of 
the Assyrian origin of the deity, would account for such numerous frag- 
ments of this demi-god being found at Tarsus. 

Among these is a restored figure of the hero, nearly complete, except 
the head. It is of good execution. 

In another head and bust, the breadth of shoulders and fulness of 
muscle at once declare it to be Hercules. The radiation of the head 
also shews that it is one honoured by apotheosis. 

There is also a head of plaster, which appears to represent the same 

Also a terminal figure of an old man dressed in a lion's skin. Is 
this an oriental form of Hercules? We know from the cy finders that 
the Babylonians had their Hercules. 

Also, a left hand of a Hercules holding his club ; the lion's skin fall- 
ing over it. The Assyrian Hercules was also represented holding a 
mace in his hand. 

It is remarkable, however, that among the many and various repre- 
sentations that occur of Hercules among the Cilician terra-cottas, we do 

not find any of the representations pre- 
cisely identical with that of the Assyrian 
Hercules, Sandon or Sandok, also called 
Dayyad " the hunter." 

One head of Hercules is radiated : 

it is a magnificent head, and the profile 

is like the finest figures of that deity 

which have come down to our times ; nor 

will it suffer by comparison with any of 

them, making allowance for the material. 

Among the Cilician terra-cottas are 

no. 56.— heads of ariadne and two heads in the act of kissing ; the 

bacchus. female seems to be crowned with ivy, 

the crown of the other is obliterated. These may not improbably re- 


present Bacchus and Ariadne. The ivy forbids us calling it Cupid and 

There is also a fragment of a vessel worked into the head of the In- 
dian Bacchus. Also a remarkable fragment of a figure in bold relief : 
a naked, old, fat, ugly man, bald-headed, bearing a thyrsus and a wine- 
cup, which he seems to have been making free use of. 
, It will be remembered that Bacchus brought his thyrsus, sur- 
mounted by the pine or fir-cone, from the East, when he returned from 
his Indian expedition ; and this is probably an Indian, or, at all events, 
an Oriental Bacchus. 

M. Lajard has shewn in an elaborate essay* the connexion between 
the cone of the cypress and the worship of Venus in the religious sys- 
tems of the East. 

Layard hesitates to identify the object held by the winged figures of 
the Assyrian monuments, and evidently, from their constant occurrence, 
most important objects in the religious ceremonies of the Assyrians of 
old, with the fruit of the fir or cypress ; and he adds, " Any attempt to 
explain their use, or their typical meaning, can, at present, be little 
better than an ingenious speculation." (See vol. ii. p. 471.) The 
handing down of the same tradition through long spaces of time, its 
diffusion over vast spaces geographically distant, and the permanence 
of forms in art, possess, however, an interest of their own, both artistic 
and psychological, independent of the true or corrupted meaning of 
the thing. 

It is not impossible that the origin of the veneration for the fir- 
cone has been its aphrodisiacal properties. In the celebrated Bishop 
Berkeley's Avork called Siris, a treatise on Tar- Water, the learned author 
argues, that as the elemen al i re, which he identifies with animal spirits 
and natural life (paragraph 277), may not inconsistently with the no- 
tions of that philosophy which ascribes much of generation to celestial 
influence, be supposed to impregnate animals and plants ; so the benign 
spirit of the native balsam of pines and firs may, by invigorating the 
said elemental fire, increase the power of fecundation. The Hera of the 
Assyrians, who, like her prototypes Isis, Astarta, Mylitta, and Venus, 
presided over generation, is, we see, represented bearing the cone, as are 
also her priests and priestesses. j The infamous law which, according 
to Herodotus, marked the rites of the goddess at Babylon, is generally 
known, and deservedly condemned in the apocryphal book of Jeremy. 

* Nouvelles Annalos de l'lnstitut Arche"ologique, vol. xix. 

•f* Although unseemly symbols are rare in the Assyrian monuments, still enough 
exists, as Layard has shewn, to attest that such a worship did exist even under its 
most degrading forms. 


What could be a more fitting accompaniment of Bacchus than the same 
emblem which he carries on his thyrsus ? 

Bishop Berkeley furnishes in his pages abundant proof that the 
virtues of the pine and fir were known to the ancients. Pliny tells us 
that wines in the time of the old Romans were medicated with pitch and 
resin ; wherefore but for their aphrodisiac qualities ? Pliny also re- 
cords that it was customary for the ancients to hold fleeces of wool over 
steam of boiling tar, and squeeze the moisture from them, which watery 
substance was called pissinum. Pay will have this to be the same as the 
pisselcBvm of the ancients ; but Hardouin, in his notes on Pliny, thinks 
the pisselcevm to have been produced from the cones of cedars. No doubt 
the effect of both was the same. Bishop Berkeley acknowledged that 
he was ignorant what use the ancients made of these liquors, but the 
whole evidence can suggest only one conclusion. It was used as an 
aphrodisiac; and so powerful is this property, that Jonstonus, in his 
Dendographia, observes that it is wholesome to walk in groves of pine- 
trees, which impregnate the air with balsamic particles. The Eleusinian 
and Axio-Kersian mysteries appear to have peculiarly affected pine- 
groves ; and satyrs and fauns, that dwelt in Avoods, were notorious for 
their libidinous propensities. ' 

The drunken follower of Bacchus, 
Silenus (No. 57), is represented in a 
very fine fragment of his head, in which 
only the middle part of the face re- 
mains ; but quite enough to make us 
regret that there is not more. There 
is also in the collection part of a bold 
relief figure of the same rollicking 

no. 57.— head of silenus. As illustrative of other followers 

of Bacchus we have the head of a 
young faun or wood demon, with the wattles under his throat like a 
goat. It is a good thing, and worthy of care. The top of a satyr's head, 
large size, and the lower part of a faun's head, with a characteristic 
sensual grin. 

Among the terra-cottas is also a head of Pan, or of a satyr, with a 
crown of fir-leaves and cones. It is a work of high art, and exhibits a 
freedom and facility of touch which could only come from the hand of a 
first-rate artist. The expression of the lower half of the face is admi- 
rable, and the sensuality of the mouth, &c. &c, is wonderfully charac- 
teristic. It is seen to great advantage on the three-quarter face, with 


the right cheek presented to the spectator. There is also the base of a 
figure of Pan ; all that remains is the end of his crook. Also a very 
excellent head, the expression of the mouth shewing it to be a Pan or 
wood demon. There are also the lower part of the face of Pan, and a 
small head of the same character. 

We have among the Cilician terra-cottas a figure of Minerva as 
Pallas, in white clay ; a work of art in which there is much graceful ease, 
though the facial angle is remarkably round. And it may be remarked 
here, in connexion with the Lares and Penates of cities, that as Pallas 
was essentially the city guardian and protector, so the Palladium, an 
image of Minerva, which gave security to those cities in which it was 
placed, was emblematic of the great fact that those kingdoms and 
cities flourish and prosper where wisdom presides. Also a figure of the 
same goddess, holding a ram; the ram was sometimes represented on 
her helmet, together with the sphynx. There is also another head with 
the fore part of a helmet remaining, apparently the same deity. The 
workmanship is tolerably good. 

Among the terra-cottas is a fragment of a female figure, only the 
thigh and left fore-arm remaining. She has taken Cupid captive, who 
is struggling to escape. It does not appear certain whether this was a 
figure of Venus or of a Nymph, who, having captured Cupid, is scourg- 
ing him. The portion of drapery remaining is stiff and formal. 

Among the numerous figures of Cupid that are met with in the 
Tarsus collection is one winged, bearing the club of Hercules. This 
was a not uncommon form among the Egyptians, where Horus was 
in like manner represented, according to the custom of the Neomenia, 
with different attributes, some- 
times with the wings of the Ete- 
sian wind ; at others with the 
club of Hercules and arrows of 
Apollo ; and at others riding on 
a Hon, driving a bull, or tying 
a ram. The powerful child, 
celebrated for disarming both 
gods and men, is often repre- 
sented with some trophy of this 
character, such as the helmet 
of Mars, &c. &c, to denote the 
triumj>hs of love over the 
strongest of men. 

Another Cupid (No. 58) occurs, caressing a swan; the head is radiated. 




It is a pleasing group : the association of Cupid and the swan was very 
common. It is altogether a sweet little piece, both in composition and 
execution ; but the neck appears to be too short to represent a swan's, 
and what corroborates the doubts entertained on this subject is, that Mr. 
Major, of St. John's Wood (Abbey Eoad), possesses a dozen terra-cotta 
images, found in Italy, of great beauty, among which there is a similar 
form of a bird, the neck of which is quite as short, and of which Mr. 
Major has kindly allowed a copy to be taken. It is of very superior 

finish, and must be of the time when the Eomans had arrived at their 
highest degree of perfection in the art of sculpture. Here we have the 
neck quite as short, although most graceful, and it certainly seems to be 
intended to represent a more ignoble bird than the swan. 

"We have in the same collection a fragment which represents Europa 
riding upon Jupiter in the form of a bull. A portion of the bull's head 
remains ; he is turning and rubbing his neck against her foot. Several 
fragments of bulls appear also to have formed parts of illustrations of 
the same popular fable. 

The well-known fable of Marsyas was not passed over by the Cili- 
cians. Several illustrations of this strange and ungodlike story are 
met with. In one of these Marsyas is represented bound to the tree and 
flayed alive. This favourite subject was never better expressed than 
in this particular fragment. The anatomy is perfect, and must have 
been carefully studied from nature ; and the agony of the face, as the 


head sinks upon the right shoulder, shewing the approach of death, is 
most impressive. This fragment must take its place in the first class 
for excellence : — 

" The satyr's fate, whom angry Phoebus slew, 
Who, raised with high conceit, and puffed with pride 
At his own pipe, the skilful god defied. 
Why do you tear me from myself ? he cries. 
Ah, cruel ! must my skin be made the prize ? 
This for a silly pipe, he roaring said ; 
Meanwhile his skin from off his limbs was fiay'd 
All bare and raw, one large continued wound, 
With streams of blood his body bathed the ground. 
The blueish veins their trembling pulse disclosed, 
The stringy nerves lay naked and exposed. 
His guts appeared, distinctly each express 1 d ; 
And every shining fibre of his breast." 

Ovid. Met. vi. 

Upon another very remarkable anatomical figure of Marsyas being 
flayed alive and holding something, possibly his flute, in the hands, 
which it clasps to the breast, Mr. Abington remarks, that " it is but a 
sketch with very little finish, but of the highest merit. The marking of 
the bones, though not exactly correct, is very striking: the brim of the 
pelvis and the trochanters of the thigh-bones are very well displayed. 
The head and right breast form a very bold relief. The skin is flayed 
off the face and turned back over the scalp, and its cut edges are seen 
covering the hair. The expression of agony is so intense as to make it 
a model for study : the staring eyeballs, the swollen corrugations of the 
eyebrows, and the distressing spasmodic action of the muscles of ex- 
pression on the face, strike us with horror, while they so fascinate by 
the interest felt in so much suffering, that we can hardly turn away 
from the sight." Another fragment of a very stout athletic figure, bound 
by the middle and kneeling, is supposed by Mr. Abington to represent 
Marsyas supplicating Apollo previous to his being flayed. Four other 
fragments are described by the same distinguished artist and antiquary 
as belonging to the same subject. 

In the same collection is a remarkable fragment representing a man 
swimming on his back ; he is in the act of drawing his legs up to strike, 
or tread the water from him, while he is dashing the water open with 
his hands. Only one-half the figure is left ; the head and hands are 
wanting. Also the right arm and part of the body of a man swim- 
ming. He is in the act of scooping the water back with his arm. It is 
slight, but very expressive. There are other fragments relating to the 



same subject. It would appear, from joining some of these pieces toge- 
ther, that the subject is Leander swimming the Hellespont. 


" Alone at night his wat'ry way he took ; 
About him and above the billows broke ; 
The sluices of the sky were open spread, 
And rolling thunder rattled o'er his head." 

Another interesting fragment represents the body of Leander thrown 
up by the billows upon the shore. The wave which has cast him on 
the land is retreating in a volume from the dead body, leaving 
" His floating carcass on the Sestian shore." — Virgil. 

"We have also in the Tarsus collection the lower part of a figure of 
Laocoon, or of one of his sons ; and also a very beautiful figure of Escu- 
lapius. The dignified ease of the attitude agreeing so well with the 



repose of the face, is much to be admired; the softness of the drapery 
is well expressed. 

Also the foot of a figure of Fortune standing upon an orb. And 
then, again, the fragment of a winged figure; only the right arm re- 
mains, and drapery falls from the shoulder. The feathering is remark- 
ably bold ; which would also seem to belong to the same subject. Also 
*the left arm of winged Fortune holding up a wreath. The figures of las 
we have seen, however, have often been confounded with those of Fortune. 

Among the terra-cottas are also fragments of bodies clothed in the 
lorica or corselet of scale- 
armour as worn by generals 
and superior officers, both 
Greeks and Romans, sub- 
sequently to the Homeric 
period, and more or less or- 
namented. Now, it is not 
a little remarkable that the 
Emperor Caius Caligula, 
when he had reigned with 
moderation for about two 
years, took a fancy for ho- 
nours of a higher kind, and 
ordered his statue to be 
erected in all the cities of 
the empire. Josephus gives 
a full account of the in- 
flexible resistance of the 
Jews, and of the dangers 
incurred by it, and of their 
happy deliverance by the 
death of the tyrant. The commander who was entrusted with the 
carrying out of this edict came from Syria, and it is not likely that 
he would find the priests of Antioch and Cilicia quite so scrupulous 
upon the subject. 

Images of Caligula must have been in great demand during the 
short-lived divine honours which were universally paid to him through- 
out the provinces of the enslaved empire. And it is not totally impos- 
sible that these figures of a deified person in Roman armour, or, at all 
events, of a Roman armed chief, admitted among the Lares and Penates 
of Tarsus, may have some reference to the canonisation of Caius 



We come now to a more delicate subject, but one which is so inti- 
mately interwoven with all the ancient religious systems of the East, 
that a mere mawkish regard for modern prudery should not exclude its 
consideration from our pages. It is part of the great philosophy of 
nature, and reappears in a hundred different forms in the Pantheons of 
Assyria, Babylonia, India, and Egypt, and at all the first cradles of 
thought, sentiment, and worship. In the Cilician forms we find the 
rudest representation of the mysterious principle of fecundity mixed up 
with that of the well-known fish-god of the East — the Dagon of the 
Philistines, of Ashdod, and the Annedoti of the Babylonians, which 
Layard found as a man-god (Oannes ?) at Khorsabad, and the worship 
of which was afterwards associated in one common form of icthyolatry 
in Derceto or Atergates. To the present day we see fish venerated in 
the East, just as the crocodile was for similar reasons in Egypt and 
elsewhere, and familiar examples of which occur at Urfah, ancient Ur, 
and Edessa ; at Tashun, in Luristan, and at other places. 

Among the Cilician terra-cottas there is a phallus broken from a 
figure with which it was connected, the body of which formed into a 
fish. This combination was very common, and not unfrequently the 
fish alone was used to express the same idea of fecundity. There is 
also in the same collection the lower portion of a female figure in full 
drapery, the left hand of which holds the symbol of the fish and phallus. 

In the Bacchanalian orgies the women carried this symbol in their 
processions. Such facts illustrate St. Paul's testimony in the epistle to 
the Romans, 1st chap. v. 18-32, and in Ephesians, v. 12: " It is a shame 
even to speak of the things which are done of them in secret." 

The most extraordinary work of art, however, that comes under 
this strange category is the head and upper half of a figure closely 
draped ; the head at first view seems to be covered with a helmet 
drawn over the face. But the extraordinary character of this symbolical 
figure appears on further examination, and is apparently unique. The 
head is a phallus ! 

Layard, it may be observed, discovered at Nimrud (ancient Athur) 
a broken earthen vase, on which were represented two Priapean human 
figures with the wings and claws of a bird, the breast of a woman, and 
the tail of a scorpion, or some similar reptile. (See vol. i. p. 128.) 

There is also among the Cilician terra-cottas the figure of a naked 
man bearing a huge shell on his shoulder ; he has a wild expression ; 
and we have before remarked upon the shell being appropriated to 
Priapus. There occurs also in the collection the following fragments, 
having reference to the same worship : the middle part of a female 


carrying the phallus ; she has two large bosses on her shoulders. 
Another also bearing the phallus. A phallus, simply and bond fide 
such ; as also another, with the body of a fish, — a very common Avay of 
bearing it. Further, part of a Priapean figure bearing a pitcher ; and 
lastly, a mash representing a female head of monstrous features, sur- 
mounted by a phallus. Here also we have the two bosses at the side of 
the head, such as we find on the foreheads of certain priests, to be here- 
after described, and which identify them as connected with the same 
obscene rites. 

The Harpies appear to have had their original in Egypt. That 
country being very subject, daring the months of April, May, and June, 
to vicissitudes of weather and the visitations of noxious insects, the 
Egyptians of old gave to their emblematic figures of these months a 
female face, with the bodies and claws of birds. The strange forms that 
the poetic and artistic mythology of Greece and Eorne attached to these 
imaginary demons or genii were as numerous as they were fantastic. 

Among the Cilician terra-cottas we find a harpy, the lower part of 
the body of which is vulture-shaped, with wings, the extremities of 
which are wanting. The face is very expressive of the horrid nature 
of these fabled beings. It seems in the very act of uttering its cry. 
Another fragment represents the head and wings of a harpy, which 
seems to have formed the angle of an altar of incense, or some such 
article. The head bears a sort of capital, -which probably supported the 
moulding forming the summit. 

On a fragment of a vessel in the shape of a trough or shallow laver, 
in the same collection, and the sides of which are formed of rows of leaves* 
the end is supported by a harpy. There are also in the same collection 
a harpy in relief, and a harpy which has been the handle to some 
hollow vessel. 

In describing this portion of the collection, it may perhaps also be 
noticed, that the ancient Assyrians, according to Dr. Grotefend, recog- 
nised in the stars of heaven golden chariots of heavenly hosts. They 
imagined a supreme ruler dwelling in the centre of all the revolutions 
of the stars ; the most perfect leader of the most perfect chariot. The 
seven bright stars in the north (the Great Bear) were compared to a 
four-wheeled chariot, drawn by three fiery horses, upon which the 
Creator was riding in eternal rotation. 

"We apparently see a trace of the same tradition in the Cilician terra- 
cottas in the figure of a man in the act of riding a bear. He has the 
dress of a charioteer, his loins girded with straps ; his right hand seems 
to hold a whip, with which he is urging the animal forward ; the left 



hand holds a rein connected with a collar round the neck of the beast. 
As Baal or Zeus rode the pole-star, this must have been an inferior 
deity. Possibly Abrerig, Nerig, or Nergal, the shining Bar, god of the 
starry skies and tutelar deity of the Assyrian monarchs. 


We find from this examination of a second group of the Lares and 
Penates of Tarsus, that although in early times an Assyrian city, the 
Assyrian character is very little preserved, and that only in a partial 
degree. There is no member of the Assyrian Pantheon, in the whole 
collection, simple and uudefiled by more modern traditions and more 
recent art innovation. The reason of this is well explained by the fact 
before debated upon, as to their having been blended with others or mo- 
dified in form by their transition with respect to place and time. In the 
Babylonian cylinders Ave have Hercules in the earliest representation 
of that hero which the world perhaps possesses. We have also the 
thyrsus of the Indian Bacchus as preserved in the hands of the winged 
figures of Assyria ; the mythological figure of a charioteer riding the 
bear ; the female figure with conical cap, like the Diana of Assyria ; 
the worship of the fish-god ; the lion of Rhea ; the winged horse, the 
Pegasus of the Greeks, which we have seen so identified with the story 
of Tarsus, and which is also found among the emblematical forms and 
types of Assyria. 

We have also illustrations of the story of Perseus. According to 
Herodotus (fib. vi. c. 54), a great astronomer who instructed men in the 
knowledge of the stars, and according to the scholiast in Lycophron, 



v. 18, the same as the sun, and all the traditions connected with whom, 
more especially his reputed marriage with Astarte the daughter of 
Belus, Layard points out (vol. ii. p. 443) to have reference to his As- 
syrian origin. We have Asarac or Nisroch, the same as Horus and 
Harpocrates, viewed as the incarnation of a deity through a female divi- 
nity — Mylitta or Isis — one of the oldest and most important traditions of 
the East, viewed in all its bearings. We have also the Ras Majusi, or 
head magi of the Persians, transmitting an original Babylonian and 
Assyrian form, just as Mithra effects the transition of Nergal to Apollo; 
and Layard has shewn that the Assyrians knew also the obscene rites 
of Priapus. 

The collection, taken in all its parts, truly shews that the mythology 
of Tarsus was (as indeed might have been anticipated from what is 
known of its history — its boasted Assyrian origin — its mercantile re- 
nown — its connexion with Greece and Eome, and its celebrity as a 
school of philosophy and religion) of such a mingled character, Assyrian, 
Egyptian, Indian, Syrian, Greek, and Eoman, that it will always be dif- 
ficult to unravel it. Yet in this very fact consists in a great measure 
the value, the interest, and the great peculiarity of this remarkable 

G2.— ATYS. 






It is not surprising that the Cilician terra-cottas, which, we have seen, 
embrace so large a held of Oriental, Egyptian, Greek, and Roman my- 
thology, should also contain illustrations of oracular beings and virgin 
prophetesses, Avho played an important part in the rise of Christianity ; 
whose books were largely used by the ancient fathers of the Church, as 
Justin Martyr, Athenagoras, Theophilus of Antioch, Tertullian, Lactan- 
tius, Eusebius, St. Jerome, St. Austin, and others, against the Pagans, 
and whose prophecies did not fall before the light of a new religion for 
nearly four centuries after the advent of Jesus. 

Among the various female heads, for 
example, which adorn this interesting 
collection, is one (Xo. 6-i) with African 
features, broad nose, and projecting 
jaws. It is a female of rank. The 
hair is well dressed, and formed into a 
circle or crown of plait on the top. 

Of this head Mr. Abington re- 
marks : " It is remarkable as being one 
of a class of heads of which there are 
several examples, having a hole in the 
basis of the cranium to receive an axis 
for its support. There is no appearance 
of their having been in any way con- 
nected with a body, unless it was in the manner in which the Chinese 
heads upon their figures of Mandarins, &c, which are centred upon an 
axle, to which is appended a balance to counterpoise the head. By this 
the head has the free motion which makes it nod and bow to a spectator 
on the slightest agitation being, communicated to the image. The head 


SIBYLS. 229 

in question might be some priestess or sibyl of African origin and of 
celebrity; and it remains a matter of conjecture if such beads were not 
used, as above described, for purposes of divination." 

The same remarks apply to a female head chiefly differing from the 
former in the prolongation of the nose. It is crowned with a kind of 
cap made of plaited work, with an arch or bow on the top. Such a 
face, pretending to the possession of sibylline foresight, would have great 
influence with the multitude. 

The following also possibly come under the same category: 1st, a 
female head, with the hair in great profusion, worked into plaits, which 
are doubled and crossed on the top of the head, so as to form a noble 
tiara. The face is pleasing from its tranquillity, though not of the first 
order as a work of art. Another female head, with the locks of hair 
twisted and carried back, so as to be bound together behind the head. 
This style of twisting, instead of plaiting, is partly seen in the preceding 
head. Also, another head of a lady crowned with a very graceful head- 
dress or turban, which is formed of materials folded and bound together. 
It is a very pleasing face, though much damaged. Again, the head of 
a lady in fine red clay; the ears are ornamented with large pendants, and 
the head covered with hair- work, which may probably be artificial, 
finishing with a rosette on the top : altogether it is a very pleasing 
figure. "We have also other heads and busts of ladies, who cannot but 
be classed in the category of sibyls. In one of them the hair is dressed 
so as to spread very fully round the face, and gathered into a knot 
behind ; over the forehead is a jewel which supports what appears to 
be a further expansion of the hair. The ears are decorated with large 
spherical pendants, probably pearls. In another the hair is elaborately 
dressed in front and plaited behind. The bust is beautifully modelled, 
and the head gracefully set. Jewels adorn the ears. It is a well-pro- 
portioned and pleasing figure. Also the bust and right arm of a female 
in relief. She is holding some object in her right hand, which she is 
looking at with earnestness and complacency. Her hair is plaited, and 
a jewel in the ear; but there is not enough of the subject to found more 
than a conjecture. Also, the head of a lady with a tiara, and her hair 
full dressed; there are jewels in the ears. The right side is in the best 
preservation, and gives a very pleasing expression. There is also another 
female head of the same family likeness in the nose and mouth. She 
wears a bonnet or 6mall cap much ornamented. Further, a woman's 
head with a high cap, conical in the front, and flattened at the sides. 
The round masses with which it is decorated are perfectly plain, as if 
they were globular buttons ; but not a touch of the tool to give them 



the expression of roses or any other flower, nor is there the least bond 
of connexion between them to give the idea of " chaplets." Lastly, we 
have a small female head with a tiara, the hair turned back in the style 
of the figures of Pallas. It is mvich polished, as if it had been moulded 
from. And the face and bust of a matron, full-faced and plump, 
crowned with a tiara, the hair arranged in curled rolls, different from 
any we have yet seen. The ears have jewels pendent from them ; a 
robe is drawn closely over the shoulders. Could a sibyl have been a 
matron ? 

A very interesting illustrated work on the various modes of dressing 
the hair, as practised by the ladies of old time, might be written from 
the Tarsus collection of Cilician sibyls, and the other female heads in the 

"We also find in the Tarsus collection a remarkable number of illus- 
trations of dolphins and their riders, which, as in the instance of other 

works of art, are studied to the 
greatest advantage, taken, not singly, 
but in an order of connexion with 
each other. 

This group comprises nearly 
thirty pieces, among which are no 
fewer than five heads of dolphins, all 
of them most effectively modelled; 
two parts of the bodies and two tails. 
One, the posterior end of a dol- 
phin, having the tail perfect, has also 
connected with it the right arm of 
a boy riding the fish and holding 
a ship's rudder. Another, the tail 
end of a dolphin, has the right 
thigh of a youth riding it. A third, 
the middle part of a dolphin, with 
the right leg and thigh of the naked 
young rider. A fourth, the same on 
a smaller scale. On a fifth, the leg 
only of the rider remains. A sixth 
is the tail of a dolphin held by the 
right hand of the rider ; but in what 
attitude he was placed it is difficult to imagine. A seventh, the head 
of a dolphin with a boy riding. He has a rein in the fish's mouth, which 
he holds tightly. Only the leg and forearms of the rider remain. This 



appears to have been a lamp, the snout of the dolphin being formed into 
a spout to carry a Avick. Lastly, the body and arm of a boy (No. 65), 
Avith part of the head of a dolphin, to which he holds on as he rides. 

Nine other examples have been previously described. 

In the whole of this series of figures mounted on dolphins, all the 
riders, it is to be observed, are children ; and the placing of figures 
upon a fish, especially the dolphin, was a sign of apotheosis, or that 
consecration of deceased children which prevailed in Cilicia, to which 
we have so often had our attention called. There are in the collec- 
tion a number of these deified little ones, which, from their attitude 
and the position of their arms, appear to have been riding the dolphin. 
Several of them wear the bulla round the neck, and all are radiated. We 
should not have suspected their having been connected with the symbol 
of the dolphin but for the clue afforded by the preceding fragments. 

Another fragment presents the right arm and part of a figure in 
drapery, with the hands resting upon the head of a dolphin. In this 
interesting work of art, the arm seems to be that of an adult and not of 
a child; the drapery is also in a different style from all the rest. It 
does not seem to sit on the fish upon whose head the hand rests. It is 
possibly a fragment of the beautiful story of Arion, who, after having 
charmed the dolphins by his music, leaped into the sea to escape from 
his murderers, and was conveyed by them safe to land. 

In the same group is the head and bust of a chubby boy, wearing 
the bulla, and in the same attitude as the rest ; but instead of the head 
being radiated, it is crowned with the Stephanos, which was worn by 
persons engaged in sacrifice. Little boys were employed to hold the 
incense-box, and the crowns and garlands used at sacrifices; the same 
as children are employed for similar duties at the Mass in Romish 
churches. This head is that of a deceased boy who had been so offici- 
ally employed, probably the son of a priest ; his attitude indicates that, 
like the rest, he was riding, and, from the analogies, it may be presumed 
that it was on a dolphin. 

The figure of another radiated boy differs from the others by having 
a broad girdle or belt round his middle. It is not certain if this figure 
Avas not mounted on a horse, as there is some appearance of a mane 
before him ; but the Avork of that part is too defective to be read intel- 
ligibly. It also differs from the others in the attitude, the face looking 
back over the right shoulder. We shall describe other examples of 
deified children in the chapter devoted to the description and general 
illustration of human fiarxres. 



Among the more remarkable relics which assist in illustrating the 
transition of Oriental systems into Greek and Roman mythology are the 
evidence, in the existence of two miniature figures of Magi (No. 66), of 
the wise men of the East having formed part of the Cilician Pantheon. 
These figures are bearded, and dressed in 
close round cloaks, with a hood or mitre, all 
in one piece, which must have been put on 
like a blouse. 

The Chaldean magi enjoyed a long period 
of prosperity at Babylon. A pontiff ap- 
pointed by the sovereign ruled over a col- 
lege of seventy-two hierophants. They were 
also established at Memphis and at Tibet, 
where the costume is preserved by the priests 
to this day; they also extended their in- 
fluence and doctrines into Etruria. When 
the Medes and Persians overthrew the reign- 
ing power at Babylon, they put down the 
old mythology, and set up their own re- 
ligion. The Chaldeans, to recover their lost 
influence, brought in one of their own num- 
ber, Smerdis the magian, as king ; but the 
imposture was detected, and he was slain. 
After this they revolted in the absence of the Persian king, and set 
up a Babylonian of their own choice; but Xerxes returned, the city was 
taken and sacked, and the people slaughtered (b.c.487). The defeated 
Chaldeans fled to Asia Minor, and fixed their central college at Per- 
gamos, and took the palladium of Babylon, the cubic stone, with them. 

NO. 66. — A MAGUS. 


Here, independent of state control, they carried on the rites of their re- 
ligion, and plotted against the peace of the Persian empire, caballing 
with the Greeks for that purpose. They brought forward Alexander as 
a divine incarnation, and by their craft did as much as the Greeks by 
their prowess to overthrow the Persian power. 

These figures will render good service in the study of the mythology 
of Tarsus, and will account for the mixture of Eastern superstitions 
with those of the West. 

These suggestions are, however, only thrown out for the right use 
of them ; but there is every reason to believe that these two little 
figures will be found to be keys to a rich store of treasures of thought 
and of discovery. 

The words magi and magii, it may be added, no doubt, originally 
carried with them a very innocent, nay laudable meaning ; being used 
purely to signify the study of wisdom and the more sublime parts of 
knowledge. But in regard as the ancient magi engaged themselves in 
astrology, divination, and sorcery, so, apart from the consideration that 
the vulgar looked upon the knowledge of the most skilful mathemati- 
cians and philosophers of the age as supernatural, they were also, by 
their very arts, entitled to be looked upon from a very early period more 
or less in the light of necromancers and pi'actisers of occult science. 

The Egyptians, as well as the Chaldeans and Assyrians, believed in 
magii and in daemons; and these superstitious notions, which had spread 
all over the East, the Jews imbibed during their captivity in Babylon. 
Hence we find them in the writings of the New Testament attributing 
almost every disease to which they were incident to the immediate 
agency of devils. Many of the same impious superstitions were brought 
from Egypt and Chaldea by Pythagoras, and transmitted by him and his 
followers to the Platonists in Greece. This was at the time that magic 
still cherished its mysteries in the caverns of Dakki, Akmin, and Dum- 
daniel, or shadowed forth its secrets in the mysteries of Isis, the prac- 
tices condemned by the Jewish prophets, the Samo-Thracian orgies, and 
those in vogue at Delphi, and in almost every pagan temple throughout 
the world. Modern mesmerists or magicians would have us believe that 
" the powers with which the early race of man was endowed seem never 
to have been entirely lost." (See Warburton's Crescent and the Cross, 
vol. i. pp. 148-50.) Such is also the basis of the doctrine of apostolic 

" Oh ! never rudely will I blame his faith 

In the might of stars and angels : 'tis not merely 
The human being's pride that peoples space 
With life and mystical predominance." — Schiller, 


It would be curious to know in which light, that of learned and 
pious teachers, or that of practisers of occult arts, the Cilicians admitted 
the inagi among their Lares and Penates. Their dress would seem to 
indicate a foreshadowing of that system of monasticism which both in 
Europe and Asia, under Christianity and Buddhism alike, has always 
been something exclusive and mischievous, — something that cloaked 
and hooded itself, and has ever shunned the light of day. 

In connexion with the subject of monasticism, it may be remarked 
on another perplexing head among the Cilician terra-cottas, that we have 
the head and shoulders of a man exactly like one of the bonzes of 
Japan ; his head plucked clean of all its hairs, Tartar features, with 
long moustaches hanging from his upper lip, and his shoulders covered 
by a robe. The question arises, how came such a figure at Tarsus ? 

This cannot be very satisfactorily answered; but a few thoughts may 
be ventured on the subject. It is now pretty well understood that at 
Babylon, the cradle of superstition, all the idolatries of the world had 
their origin. There was a pontiff, orders of men bound to celibacy, 
and devoted to a religious life. The divinity was represented as a 
Triad: the eternal father, Mylitta the female, and Assarac the incar- 
nate son. Mylitta we have in Syria as Astarte, in Egypt Isis, in Greece 
Aphrodite, and Assarac as Horus and Harpocrates. We have this Triad 
all through the East, under other names; and it is to be apprehended 
that the more this is studied, the more clearly it will appear that all the 
diversified forms of superstition are from one source. All have the 
same monkish orders, set apart for the benefit of the rest. Whether we 
know them as bonzes, lamas, talapoins, fakirs, derwises, monks, or 
friars, all are found to bear the same character, and came from the 
same common source. 

When the Medes and Persians introduced another religion into the 
great empire of the East, this rascality was after many plottings driven 
out, and found a refuge in Asia Minor, which became their head-quar- 
ters. Their holy brethren in all quarters would keep up correspondence 
with them, and cause a strange mixture of heads. It is also not a little 
curious to observe that these heads are shaven, just like the other 
monkish orders, with the exception of the Christian monks, who affect 
to retain a memorial of the crown of thorns, by leaving a circle of hair. 
It is not unlikely that at the time these figures were made, there was a 
closer community of feeling and of interest among all the diversified 
orders of holy men than we are aware of; and the seat of their autho- 
rity being shifted from Babylon to Pergamos would cause a great resort 
of them to Asia Minor. 


The problem is — " why do we find bonzes, fakirs, &c. &c. at Tarsus," 
and why they should seem to be objects of religious respect? 

That in their dispersion they found refuge and a safe asylum in Asia 
Minor is an historical fact, and that they brought their own mythology 
with them is equally clear. This mythology was essentially the same 
as that of Egypt, Baal for Osiris, Mylitta for Isis or Aphrodite, Assarac 
for Horus or Harpocrates. The priests of Isis were a profligate, sen- 
sual lot, notwithstanding their shaven crowns and vows of celibacy. It 
would appear that many of the bare-heads in the Tarsus collection re- 
present these priests of Isis; and that they were not natives of the 
country, but men of the east, preferred for their sanctity and great 
powers. Such men were proficient in many occult arts, and strange 
things were done by them in that day. Versed in the doctrines of 
astrology, divination, mesmeric arts and wonders, their ugly counte- 
nances would serve to increase the distance between them and the 
people. There would be nothing, as I have already observed in chap- 
ter v., to prevent the modeller from even exaggerating this difference, 
and the priesthood would never take offence at it, if it tended to make 
the deluded multitude stand in awe of them as beings of another and a 
higher order. 

We have in the Tarsus collection what appears to be a perfect head 
of a Buddhist bonze. It might have been recently brought from 
Japan ! As also numerous heads of religious devotees, such as are to 
be seen daily in India by the road-sides. For this unexpected and per- 
plexing enigma we want a solution. The only one which can AveD be 
imagined is, that though there is noio a great gulf of separation between 
those people and the western countries, there was at, or before the 
Christian era, a wide-spread diffusion of these monkish lrlluws through 
all the heathen countries; but that, through the influence of Christianity, 
their occupation was gone, and they disappeared, or made their exit 
from a stage no longer suited to their action. May these very tribes 
not be represented by our gypsies as their descendants, who practise 
similar arts as far as the manners of the age permit, and are of unques- 
tionable antiquity, and of Oriental descent ; many of their words being 
known to be pure Sanscrit? 

" In Antioch, the Oriental element of superstition and imposture 
was active. The Chaldean astrologers found their most credulous dis- 
ciples in Antioch. Jewish impostors, sufficiently common throughout 
the East, found their best opportunities here. It is probable that no 
populations have ever been more abandoned than those of the Oriental 
Greek cities under the Roman empire ; and of these cities, Antioch was 


the greatest and the worst Juvenal traces the superstitions of 

heathen Rome to Antioch."* 

This quotation is given here as bearing upon the matter of our in- 
quiry; for whatever may be said of Antioch may be applied to Tarsus. 

In an account of Pococke's India in Greece, given in Blackwood's 
Magazine, it is said, " By an original method of interpretation, applied to 
documents existing in the Greek and Sanscrit languages, the author Las 
discovered important facts, illustrative of the most obscure periods in 
ancient universal history. The interpretations introduced consecutively 
into this work, and accompanied by the true Sanscrit text in lieu of the 
corrupt Greek version, produce abundant and interesting results, espe- 
cially in relation to early Grecian history, of which results the following 
is a brief summary. 

"In the great conflict between the Brahminical and Buddhistic sects 
in India, the latter being defeated, emigrated in large bands, and colo- 
nised other countries. It is demonstrated in this work that the princi- 
pal locality from which this emigration took place was Affghanistan and 
North-western India; that the Indian tribes proceeding thence, colo- 
nised Greece, Egypt, Palestine, and Italy ; that they also produced the 
great Scandinavian families, the early Britons inclusive; and that they 
carried with them to their new settlements the evidences of their civili- 
sation, their arts, institutions, and religion." 

Surely this goes to confirm the fact of a connexion between the East 
and West in old time, and to support the opinion as to the great value 
of the Cilician or Tarsus collection, as containing some hidden mysteries 
in history, which will be opened in due time by some one competent to 
the work. 

The contest between Brahma's disciples and the followers of Buddha 
is a dark page in history, but the issue of it in the dispersion of the lat- 
ter is a known fact. If we must go to the Sanscrit for the solution of 
these things, we shall find a new field opening before us, the results of a 
thorough exploration of which it would be difficult to anticipate. 

* Conybeare and Howson, Life of St. Paul, 135. 



Among what may truly be termed the curiosities of the Tarsus collec- 
tion are many heads of monsters and idiots, among the first of which we 
may describe a small head (No. G7), much damaged, but still retaining all 
the horrible expression of its original state. The brows are enormously 
swollen, and the eyes seem starting from 
their sockets; the mouth is in keeping with 
all the other ugly features. It has a chaplet 
round the head, binding two large round tufts 
to it for ornament ; but what they were 
formed of, or intended to represent, we can- 
not distinguish, as they are only marked by 
the impress of a small square punch. Is 
this, it might fairly be inquired, male or 
female, human or divine ? It is horrible 
enough for Typhon himself, or one of his 
ministers. Then, again, we have the aqui- 
line nose and hairy upper lip of a monstrous 
face ; the view of the left side shews the 
strange outline most strikingly. There is a 

work called the Magus, or Celestial Intelligencer, in which are heads of 
spirits, one of which has a nose and lip just like this. 

In the same category is a fragment of the lower part of a nose with 
the upper jaw. The nose is turned up, as if by the expression of scorn 
and hatred; the lip rises in harmony with that feeling, laying bare the 
teeth. It is made of red clay, and the teeth have been painted white. 

Also, more or less associable with the same order of ideas, and yet 
in another category, is a head with strongly -marked features, having a 
kind of cap upon it. It is loose, having, like others, a hole for an axle. 
It is of the same class with many others as to beauty. The expanded 

NO. 67. — HEAD OF A 




ears, long nose, and slavering mouth, give it much of the expression 
of an idiot, which also agrees with the miserably-contracted cranium. 
Was this image sarcastic ? or were idots, as in modern times in the East, 
looked upon as sacred or mysterious beings ; beings labouring under 
an occult dispensation, and more particularly taken under divine pro- 
tection ? However bad superstition may generally be, whoever first 
promulgated this, although in some instances public nuisances are 
entailed, secured kind treatment among a semi-barbarous people to an 
afflicted humanity. 

Among the same group is a very remarkable head (No. 68) with Afri- 
can features, and large thick ears; 
the cranium is of an extraordinary 
length from front to back. This ap- 
pears to be a head of the Macroce- 
phali, a tribe of Asia Minor, who 
took liberties in shaping the heads 
of their children as the Chinese do 
with their ladies' feet. 

There are also in the collection 
two other heads of Macrocephali ; 
one is remarkable for a bump above the organ of firmness ; his mouth, 
however, seems to indicate much bodily pain, as if he were roaring. 

Among the other monstrous heads is one with horrid teeth, yet it 
would seem to be a lady by the dress ; the 
malignity of the eyes is most repulsive. 
Another monstrosity (No. 69) is the repre- 
sentation of a man's head with no brains, 
the tongue projecting from his slavering 
mouth; the ears project like a dog's. The 
expression is that of animal pain. 

It would seem to be as dangerous to 
draw ethnological deductions from the 
monstrous productions of the Cilician ar- 
tists, as it would for some Australian of 
the year 4000 to discuss our national pe- 
culiarities from the grotesque heads that adorn many of the old religious 
buildings, supposed, hi some cases, to illustrate the spite and antagon- 
ism of rival monastic orders. 

Among the heads of a more particularly idiotic character is one 
with a face with projecting chin and pug-nose, giving a very straight 
facial hue. The mouth is monstrous, and the expression malignant. 



Another idiot face has the skull shelving back where the brains 
ought to lie. Yet it is radiated ! Was it a portrait of such a character 
deceased ? Possibly so. We have before remarked that idiots are still 
looked upon in the East as beings under a mysterious dispensation and 
divinely protected. 

Another curious head is that of a merry fool, who has been painted 
white and red, like Joe Grimaldi. He looks as if he could keep a regi- 
ment in good humour, in spite of his ugly face. In another, again, the 
reverse, or extreme bodily pain, is well expressed. It is almost enough 
to give one the tooth-ache to look at it. It would require a spoonful 
of magic embrocation to make him smile. Poor fellow! it is no sham. 

There is also another ox-eyed head represented as in a woful plight. 
It is very rudely sketched, but tells its tale. 

There is also in the collection the head and right shoulder of a 
figure which, like some others, indicates the lowest degree of mental 
debasement. He turns to look over his shoulder without any particular 
expression of pain or pleasure, but as if he were giving utterance to some 
unmeaning sound. The hair is woolly like a negro's. 

Among the same group are two monstrous heads with caps, which, 
unnatural as they are, are doubtless correct representatives of persons 
then existing. Fools, dwarfs — out of the very sport of nature — were 
formerly kept in the establishments of great people and in king's courts. 
Negro servants were much employed in this country, and dressed fan- 
tastically, a century ago. Might not monstrous productions be sought 
out and retained about the temples ? 

We have also half the face of another of the same kind, and the 
lower face of another, but the mouth and chin of better mould. An- 
other, again, with the chin almost nil; and another with a better chin. 
It would seem as if there had been wens upon the bottom of the cheeks, 
which have been broken off. If it is so, these goitres would confirm the 
preceding suggestions, and prove that they were cretins. It does not 
appear, however, that such have as yet been met with in the mountain- 
ous districts of Asia Minor. It does not follow, however, that they do 
not exist in the secluded and little-frequented valleys of Taurus ; per- 
haps near to Tarsus. 

Among heads and faces of a similar character is part of one, the 
brows of which are contorted and indicative of much suffering, which 
the eyes also express ; and another which is almost all face, the cra- 
nium excessively small. This, like some of the others, is thoroughly 

What were the superstitions (it may well be inquired on viewing 


such deified heads,) of that age respecting idiots ? "Were they not 
thought to be in more immediate connexion with the gods ? If so, these 
may be portraits of some such unhappy beings. In the same strange 
category we may also place another unnatural head, with huge project- 
ing ears, and a pinched narrow forehead, and the face utterly unintel- 
lectual. Two heads in slave's caps, not quite so monstrous as the last, 
but most intolerably ugly ; another head of the same class, but with a 
sly sinister expression about the eyes, yet low intellectual faculties for 
want of brain ; a small head of the same breed as the preceding, but 
somewhat better, except the chin, with a cap on painted blue ; also 
two other heads of the same parentage ; large eyes, heavy noses, thick 
bullock mouths, and enormous ears. One of them seems in pain ; but it 
looks like mere brute suffering. Another, again, is a fragment of a head ; 
the nose and mouth monstrous. It is a fact, that a small receding chin, 
and an open mouth with relaxed lips, as if never used but to take in 
food, is always accompanied by defective intellect. Look at the chins of 
George Washington and Napoleon, and the close grip of their lips, and 
contrast the chin of George III. and the mouth of the late Charles X. of 

Another has an enormous goitre hanging on the throat ; and the 
little of the face which remains is in keeping with it. There can be no 
doubt from this that some of these idiots were true cretins. 

Of another there is not much left, but enough to exhibit the ma- 
niac — the demoniac — in whom dwelt a god ! Then again we have 
two other fragments of heads of the same description, perfect idiots. In 
another the cheek is hairy, and the nose and mouth extravagantly out 
of proportion. 

Monstrous features and forms of head, or countenances of idiotic ex- 
pression, are not confined to men. There is in the collection the frag- 
ment of a female head in which the nose is monstrous, the mouth, the 
chin, and the forehead idiotic. The hair in this figure is plaited and 
carried back. We have also a female head, the hair of which is dressed 
and the ears jewelled ; but the mouth and chin identifying it with the 
same class. 

It may be remarked upon these strange works of art, that if such 
characters were held in supers 'itious veneration, it is likely that they 
were supported by the temples, and used by the priests for the pro- 
motion of their own objects. The female head having a high cap 
or bonnet, ornamented with orbicular masses, like buttons, all over 
its surface, suggests curious thoughts. If she is of that class of un- 
happy beings referred to, may not the round projecting objects on her 


cap be spherical bells ? They are all of one size, and' have as great a 
projection as the potter's mould would allow. Such a belled cap was 
worn by the fools and jesters of kings, popes, and nobles in the middle 
ages. It is not less probable that this head may give us the only re- 
maining memorial of the ancient and original fool's cap and bells. In 
this view the head is perhaps unique. 

There is more disagreeably suggestive matter connected with the 
subject of the deification of idiots, contained in the following letter. 
It is, however, borne out by the well-known fact, that at the present 
day Egyptian fellah women will assemble and veil with their bodies, 
as it were, an idiot engaged in the indulgence of his disgusting sensual 

Mr. Abington Avrites, under date of August 10, 1852 : " I have 
thought much on the subject of the idiot {cretin) heads, so numerous; 
and having read some papers on matters of a similar character by 
a learned but anonymous writer, I obtained his address, and informed 
him in general terms of your valuable collection ; of the articles it 
comprises, especially of these heads. I asked whether such unhappy 
beings were not supposed to be in more immediate connexion with 
the gods ? Whether it is likely that they might be kept and fed at 
the expense of the temples ; being used by the priests for their super- 
stitious purposes, and generally for the promotion of their craft. I 
pointed out also the occurrence of figures similar to the Buddhist priests 
and the fakirs of India. 

" He replies : ' I do not recollect that they were permanently at- 
tached to the temples ; but I take it that reverence was paid them as 
being preternaturally endowed with sensual propensities. I believe 
that cretins are much given this way. Fakirs, we all know, are won- 
derfully so given, inasmuch that no notice or resentment is ever shewn 
at any insult by them to a female, even in open daylight, or even by a 
husband. A military friend of mine in India, who had wandered shoot- 
ing into a village about forty miles from Nypore, which no European had 
entered before, came suddenly upon a religious festival, at which all the 
maidens of the neighbourhood were assembled to wait upon and feast a 
set of naked fakirs, who were sitting in a circle with fool's caps upon 
their heads ; their carcasses were painted like harlequins. He was at 
once requested to withdraw ; but expresses his belief that the old rites 
of Astarte were about to follow.' 

" All this so fully agrees with my own surmises respecting these 
creatures being associated with the figures of the gods, that I could not 
forbear sending it to you. I believe that the same remarks will apply 




to both sexes, Avhere you find the cranium faithfully represented as 
formed almost entirely of animal propensities, without any adequate 
proportion of the sentiments to balance them. Certainly nothing can 
be imagined too gross and beastly for them to have embodied in their 
religion, when we recollect the free use of the obscene phallus in their 
public rites. But it is an unpleasant subject to dilate upon." 






Among the fragments of human figures which do not belong to any of 

the categories before described, may be enumerated, in the first place, 

that of a bard reciting his verses. 

This figure is far more ancient 

than any other piece in the 

collection ; he is playing on an 

instrument that is unknown, but 

of which there are two other 

pieces that will throw some light 

on this subject. These will 

be referred to in a subsequent 

chapter, where mention is made 

of a boy playing on a pan-pipe 

and of a syrinx. Next, two 
figures of priests bearing a bas- 
ket or some vessel on their 
heads, to which their hands are 
applied for support. These 
figures are altogether of an ori- 
ental character. There are two 
bosses, or balls, on the head- 
dress, which help to identify 
them as to their occupation, 
which was undoubtedly in the 
temple or rites of Priapus. 
There is also a figure of another 
bearded man, which resembles 
the preceding, but has no chap- 


let on the head, though the unknown instrument. 



hands are elevated to support a burden under which he seems to bend. 
Another figure represents a priest of the same order, but standing at 
ease ; he bears in his hand something which appears like the links of 
a chain folded up. Was it for inflicting penance ? We know that self- 
mortification was carried to great lengths by some orders of the ancient 
heathen priests, the same as is now practised in India. These figures 
go to confirm the previous suggestions made with regard to the con- 
nexion of the mythology of Cilicia with Buddhism. 

Besides the above heads of bards and priests, we have also a man's 
head, probably a portrait, from its peculiar expression; the ears are 
remarkably long. Also a cloaked figure, the head of which is well- 
modelled and interesting; the hair is very ample and curly. 

Then, again, we have a head painted white. There is another such 
on a lamp ; it has a helmet ; the twist of the nose and mouth in a con- 
trary direction gives it a ludicrous appearance. This was probably a 
likeness of some well-known character employed about a temple. There 
is also the bald head of a man. It has a well-developed cranium, over 
which a cloth is thrown. It was connected with something on the back, 
which is too scanty to give any idea of what it was. One of the heads 
in the same group is more of a grotesque character, and from its pecu- 
liarity and natural propor- 
tions, a portion of one who 
was " no fool." 

In the same collection we 
have the upper part of the 
body of a conquered gladia- 
tor; a relic of art so full of 
expression, so eloquent in its 
mute agony, that we have 
introduced it here. 

Then again we have the 
middle part of a figure bear- 
ing a wine-sack, as if pouring 
it out. Part of a figure which 
has the thigh extended, as if 
sitting on a horse; the mor- 
tar by which it was fastened 
to the seat remains. Also 
the left side of a man, half 
conquered gladiator. naked, well modeUed. The 

left hand of a bearded figure, holding up something which is broken off. 


Then part of the body of a man, having a cloak over his shoulders in 
the style of Apollo. Then an old man's head with a cap, very expres- 
sive ; his bushy eyebrows give great force and character to it. 

We have also the upper face of a man with his head bound up, as 
if he was sick ; his eyes and brows seem to indicate the same. It is 
well modelled. Also a fragment of a head with a very bushy brow ; there 
is a wen on the forehead. And lastly, the lower face of a man with a 
full-developed chin: indicating that he could both raise and enjoy a 
laugh ; but the lips are gone. 

The above are male : there are also fragments of female figures, as 
exemplified in the left arm and drapery of a female reclining. The 
lower limbs of a female; they are crossed, while drapery painted red 
falls down behind her. It has been a graceful figure, well drawn. Also 
a sitting figure of a naked female. The head is wanting. It has been 
found lately and proved that she represented a sibyl on her seat of in- 
spiration. It was used as a fountain; the base is formed into a pipe, 
through which the water or wine would ascend ; and the seat on which 
she is placed inclines downward, to give a free flow to the fluid. 

Among miscellaneous fragments, we have an arm holding up a 
tripod, possibly part of a priestess of Apollo. Also part of a female 
and child. Then, again, the right half and head of a female with a 
tiara and veil ; possibly a Venus. Also a female bust in relief, the left 
breast and shoulder naked; stiff and inferior. Another fragment repre- 
sents the upper half of a female figure, having all the character of a 
divinity ; but the right hand of a man is placed on her right shoulder. 
And another is the head of a dignified lady, the hair full dressed, stand- 
ing on a pediment. 

Among other fragments we have part of a circular medallion, con- 
taining a female in relief; the hand and part of the body remain, 
sufficient to shew that it refers to the rites or honours of Cybele. It 
was probably votive. Then, again, we have part of an elegant figure of 
a female bearing a veil, which floats in the wind. Also another pleasing 
head, little, but good, of a lady in full dress, with jewels in her ears. 
Another pretty head in a close dress, the veil hanging down full behind, 
and shewing the gathering of the hair at the back of the head. Again, 
a female divinity, with the hair knotted, and the drapery flowing. Then 
the bust of a female carrying a bird. Also the head of an old woman; 
she wears a cap most unique, ornamented with buttons or other round 
objects. And the lower part of a head, which is female, from the ringlet 
hanging on the cheek. Lastly, we have the upper part of a figure of a 
woman dressed in a garment which is wrapped close round her, and is 


drawn over her head ; in her left arm she bears a naked boy. It has 
been painted. It would do for a Madonna, but must be of a date long 
prior to any such representations of Mary and her child. There are 
two of these, and they both appear to be far more ancient than the 
generality of the pieces, if we may judge from their style of sculpture, 
and from the blackness of the terra- cotta. 

In the same category may be classed the following interesting works 
of art, being chiefly figures of deified children. 

1. A fragment representing a child with wings, and in close drapery; 
the hair of the head is knotted on the top. There is connected with it 
an ornamented ring, apparently to hang it by. " It is possibly a me- 
morial," says Mr. Abington, " of a deceased and deified child." 

2. A boy with wings and a radiated crown, reposing, with his right 
arm over an object covered by a cloth or skin, which hangs in folds 
over it, and which has been painted blue. The crown also was painted 
the same Colour, and the hair red. The figure appears to be slumbering. 

3. The bust of a deified child, with the head radiated, and the right 
hand elevated in valediction. 

4. A little fragment, having a winged infant, in relief. 

5. Head of a deified child, bearing a vase, probably to receive liba- 

There are also the following pieces. A fragment of a Bacchanalian 
group of boys, in high relief; one kneeling, with an armful of grapes. 
There appears something like a bow by the side; but it may be the 
trunk of a vine. Another fragment of a well-executed figure of a boy 
reminds us of Flamingo's models. An excellent figure of a boy looking 
upward. The balancing of the body is well managed ; while it seems 
bent out of the perpendicular, it stands firm. A bust of a deified child. 
Upper portion of a boy ; another is holding him by the chin ; his eyes 
are shut. A boy in a tunic, as if ascending upward on wings : a me- 
morial of the dead. Part of a boy holding a sickle, with which he is 
gathering grapes. A naked boy with a cock ; on his left shoulder there 
is a foot like that of an eagle. This is possibly a Ganymede. Another 
winged boy, not improbably Eros. A boy closely cloaked, very imper- 
fect, and a young child, led by a female. The head of a youth, with 
the left hand elevated with much energy. A boy carrying a basket 
of grapes on his back ; he looks as if he was conscious of having stolen 
them. An imperfect fragment of a youth : good, but much decayed. 
A young student ; a good study for the historical painter ; it is com- 
plete except the feet. The hands of a boy carrying a goose. A 
youth's hands crossed in front, as if standing in the presence of his 


superiors. A fragment of two boys ; they seem engaged in drawing a 
carriage of some kind. A boy's bead, with the hair disposed in ring- 
lets, in the style of theatrical masks. A small chaplet is placed on 
the crown, to which were attached large bunches of ivy-berries ; it is 
surrounded by a copious radiation of ivy-leaves. The expression is 
peculiar, though quite juvenile. Still more interesting is a very beau- 
tiful boy's head, the hair thin and scanty, radiated. The more this is 
studied, the more it must be admired. Flamingo or Cipriana might 
have been proud of the production of it. And lastly, a trunk of a boy, 
naked, except a cloak, fastened by a fibula on the right shoulder; lie 
carries in the cloak a variety of fruits, among which grapes and the pine 
are the most conspicuous. 

There are several fragments in the collection, the character and 
gender of which it is not so easy to determine. Among these are, 
part of a figure bearing a square vessel or chest, covered with drapery. 
A left hand, belonging to a figure in drapery holding something like 
a modern book. The lower portion of a closely clothed figure, with 
shoes on the feet. It is remarkable that the legs are cut free behind, 
and the back drapery worked. It was sitting. Also three fragments 
of sitting Egyptian figures, apparently connected with the worship of 
Isis. And lastly, a number of detached arms and hands, not requiring 
any individual description. 

Among the Cilician terra-cottas, the true character of which has not 
been as yet satisfactorily determined, may also be noticed a fragment 
of a figure in a sitting posture; only the lap and legs remain. It is 
closely clothed, and the left hand rests on the thigh, holding with the 
fingers and thumb a remarkable portion of the dress, consisting of two 
tablets hanging from the girdle. The style is altogether Egyptian, and 
if not a deity, it has been some sacerdotal officer. 

Also part of a figure formed into a cup at the top, probably for 
the purpose of holding perfume. The head only remains, which is 
bonneted; the features are youthful, with curled locks, and the right 
hand is elevated, to hold the cup which rises out of the figure. Again, 
a fragment of a relief, which shews the left arm of a slave carrying fish, 
which are suspended in a bundle at the end of a pole. There is also 
another similar fragment ; but instead of fish, a basket or net hangs at 
the end of a pole. The contents are so slightly modelled, that it is 
difficiilt to say what is intended. 

We may perhaps be permitted to include in this chapter a notice of 
the following, among the strange fragments contained in the Tarsus 
collection, viz. several images of the lower human jaw, one with the 



symphysis marked very deep, a row of incisor teeth, and the left canine 
teeth. Another, with the teeth still more strongly marked, the canine 
tooth being much curved ; and others with slight variations. All these 
remnants are portions of flat, circular medallions or reliefs; and all have 
the ground within the jaws, modelled to represent flames, and have been 
painted red. 

Among the works of our early painters of Church legends, and of 
the temptations of saints, &c, we often find representations of heaven 
and hell. The latter is generally depicted as the wide yawning jaws 
of a great monster with enormous teeth, and belching out fire and 
flames. Do not these fragments shew us that such a mode of repre- 
senting a fiery infernal region was but traditionary 1 ? Are they not 
personifications of the Tartarus of the .ancients ? If so, was the fact 
ever known before ? 


Lastly, several masks occur in the same collection. Among these 
is the half of the mask of a bald-headed man. Also a very expressive 
tragic mask. Again, a figure in a mask, excessively rude and imperfect 
in every point. In another part of a mask the hair is in short curls, 
and is dressed to a great height. A pair of wings ornamented the front 
of it. It has been painted. Is it Perseus ? The variety of masks, both 
tragic and comic, is too numerous to be entered upon here, and they 
would require more illustrations than the nature of this work permits. 






Both wild and domestic animals have their illustrations among the 
Tarsus terra-cottas ; some with a mythological meaning, as in the in- 
stance of the Hon, the ape, the cock, and others. The meaning of 
others is more difficult to detect, unless as accompaniments to figures 
and personages wanting in the work to make it complete. 

Among such is the hind half of a dog in relief, which seems to have 
been the top of a lamp ; also the hind legs of a dog in relief, behind 
which is a basket. 

Also, a dog sitting by the side of a figure, the foot of which only 
remains. This may have been Diana and a hound, as it forms the 
plinth of a statue. 

Further, the rump of a shaggy dog in the act of running ; and a dog 
whole length appears to be climbing; and lastly, a hound's head at full 
speed — good. There are also several hind-quarters of dogs, which do 
not require particularising. 

Among these zoological fragments are also a very fine head of a 
young ox, and the forehead of a bull, with the hole in front by which 
the golden disk was fastened, shewing it to have been divine. Also, a 
good bull's head, one horn wanting ; the expression is admh-able. An- 
other bull's head, probably a fragment of a group, with a lion on his 
back. Again, a head which appears to have belonged to an Indian 

The buffalo, it may be remarked, is a common animal in the marshes 
of Asia-Minor and Syria; and the Indian buffalo is met with on the 
Euphrates and Tigris. The bull may be partly illustrative of Egyp- 
tian, or also of Greek and Roman mythology. 

Besides the numerous fragments of horses attached to chariots or 


otherwise, and the still more numerous horses' feet, the meaning of which 
has been previously discussed, fragments of horses and of equestrian 
figures are common in the Tarsus collection. Among these, we may- 
notice as deserving of separate mention : 

A boy riding a horse, of which the hind half only remains. Part of 
a horse with a saddle, and naked leg of a boy-rider. Also, the thigh 
and leg of an equestrian figure, who, by the bend of his body, would 
seem to be at full speed. Also, the upper part of a horseman: his 
loins are belted, and he seems to be racing. And then, again, part of a 
group of horses — the bridled head of one, and the shoulder and neck of 
the other harnessed. We have also, in part of a circular tablet in bas- 
relief, the fore-leg of a horse, and the booted leg of a man running by 
the side of him. By putting all these and other pieces before him, the 
sculptor has been enabled to restore several complete figures that are 
most interesting. 

Among animal relics of another order, we have a small head of a 
lion; when viewed on the left side, the effect is admirable. It was 
attached to some other object on the right side, which is therefore un- 
finished, not being intended to be seen. Also, the head and paw of a 
lion's skin, hanging by the side of a throne — only one leg of which re- 
mains : it is formed of a chimaera head and lion's paw. Also, a detached 
lion's head, and a lion's skin, from the figure of Hercules. As also a 
lion with a figure riding upon it. The left arm and drinking-cup re- 
mains. And the same subject, but only the head of the lion is left. 

Then, again, we have a panther, probably part of a bacchanalian 
group, in high relief. The head of a wolf, and the fore part of a boar 
wanting the snout. The figured face of an ape is a solitary instance of 
the kind : it has a cap on the head : this animal is rarely found in Greek 
sculptures, but it was a sacred animal among the Egyptians. Isis is 
sometimes represented riding upon a monkey. It was in some such 
association that this figure was used. Also, the fore part of an animal, 
thick, clumsy, and short-legged, which might be taken for a fragment of 
an hippopotamus, sacred to Typhon ; and in the collection there exists 
the snout of this intelligent animal. 

Among figures of other familiar creatures are the head of the long- 
eared Syrian goat ; another goat's head ; a fragment of the same, and 
a fragment of a boy riding a goat. Also, the top of the head of a ram ; 
a ram's horn, and part of a sheep kneeling on a plinth. The ram had 
mostly reference to the rites of Minerva. 

Among the same relics we find the mutilated or imperfect repre- 
sentation of the crocodile. We have had occasion to remark elsewhere, 


that there exists ih Cilicia, a river called Andricus by Pliny, as also a 
mom crocodilus, and that both are connected geographically as well as 
by name. This river, now called Markatz Su, and remarkable as flow- 
ing between the walls of the antique Syro-Cilician gates, is of too small 
a size ever to have been frequented by so remarkable a saurian. But 
the same river is called Kersus by Xenophon — a word derived from a 
Coptic and Syriac idiom, and which refers to the ancient crocodile wor- 
ship, being met with in the Axio-Kersus of the Samo-Thracian mys- 
teries, and is explained by Soega and Miinter, as the great principle of 
fecundation ; and hence it was expressed by Pliny by the word Andri- 
cus, whilst the mons crocodilus rose up above it. 

It is to be observed that the crocodile worshipped by the Syrians 
was also called Succoth ; but the able commentators of Pancoucke's 
Pliny suggest an identity between the Syriac Kersus and the Egyptian 
Kamses, the name of a ferocious crocodile, which has been ascertained 
to be a different species from the sucko or succoth. 

In this same class we have also a snake winding round a staff, the 
symbol of iEsculapius, and probably part of his statue. 

There are also several fragments of figures of birds ; and to take the 
most noble birds first among fragments of this description, there is a 
foot of an eagle ; the ground has been painted blue. It was of great 
size, and probably connected with a figure of Jupiter. Also the full 
figure of an eagle, which has been connected with some object at the 
side, most likely the throne of Jupiter, to whom the eagle would then be 
looking up. Then, again, we have the figure of an ostrich, with a loop 
behind for suspension; as also of a swan, the head of which is supported 
by a human hand. The crane is also here represented and the dove. 

Among the other ornithological fragments may be noticed three cocks, 
probably relating to iEsculapius; as also two cocks' heads. 

Nergal, the Assyrian Abrerig, god of the starry sky, and the tutelar 
deity of the king, was also, it is to be observed, conjectured, according 
to the presumed Semitic or Indo-European origin of the name, to have 
reference to a fire-worship, or to that of the sun under the form of a 

* See Layard, vol. ii. p. 459. It is worth mentioning, however, that being at the 
mines of Ishik Tagh, near Angora, in the year 1839, we were surprised one day to find 
a cock, in the midst of great scarcity, newly killed, yet not eaten, in front of the houses. 
Upon inquiry, we ascertained that the miners, who were Christians by name, of the 
Greek Church, had killed it in order to propitiate some genius of the mines, and that a 
sacrifice must not be eaten. This was evidently a remnant of the old superstition of 
cocks being sacrificed to Pluto for the same objects. See Travels and Researches in 
Asia Minor, &c. vol. i. p. 131.— W. F. A. 



We have also in the collection the figure of the hawk — a bird, like 
the eagle, of quite as great importance in the Assyrian pantheism as the 
Egyptian ; and of which we introduce an illustration. 







Objects of domestic and religious art are not so numerous in the 
Tarsus collection as might a priori be imagined. Among these are 
fragments of the wheel of a chariot, with the hind leg of the lion which 
is drawing it. It was painted red. The lion was connected with the 
worship of Cybele ; and the goddess Rhea, with her lions, as described 
by Diodorus, may be recognised with similar accompaniments in the 
Assyrian sculptures ; so also Hera, the Assyrian Venus, stands erect 
on a lion in the rock tablets of Pterium and those of Assyria.* 

Also, of a more or less similar character, a chariot driven by a naked 
boy ; the wheel is partly covered by what appears to be the tail of the 
animal drawing. Also the hand of a boy, holding the reins and driv- 
ing a chariot ; and the two hands of a boy in the same action. He 
holds the reins with much apparent skill and energy. And lastly, a 
chariot, in which sits the lower half of a boy, with a portion of drapery 
thrown across him. If they are horses' legs immediately before the 
wheel, they are very stiff and out of place. Add to which, a boy's 
hands grasping reins, and several detached chariot- wheels, two of which 
are bored as if placed free in their axles. 

In the same collection are several fragments of vases, of greater or 
less interest both in an artistic and an archaeological point of view. One is 
ornamented with vine-leaves and annular handles. The foot is wanting. 
Only one side of it is wrought, shewing that it was fixed against a wall. 
The cavity is shallow. It was, perhaps, used for libations to Bacchus, 
and was possibly placed on the head of a figure. 

Another is somewhat like the preceding, but not ornamented. This 
* See Layard, vol. ii. p. 456. 


appears to have been borne on the head of a figure, and supported by 
the right hand. 

Another part of a vase is of very elegant design, but slight work- 
manship. It is a portion of the foot only ; the plinth part is ornamented 
with festoons of fruit, supported on ox-heads, and on the shoulders of 
winged boys. The cove rising to the leg of the vase is very gracefully 

There is also part of a cup or vase in the Egyptian style. It is 
formed of two rows of lotus-leaves representing a flower, and very like 
the capitals of some columns of Egyptian temples. Bound the bottom 
there is a row of animals, such as are seen on some cornices in the 
British Museum ; but whether they are hooded snakes cannot well be 
made out. 

There is also, among fragments of a similar character, one that pre- 
sents a very graceful design for the support of a vase, or for an incense 
altar. It is formed of three leaves, giving it a tripod character. The 
intervals between the leaves are occupied by swans couching, with their 
pinions advanced over their breasts. This would indicate its application 
to the rites of Pan or Venus. 

Another fragment seems to have been intended as a leg or support 
for some article. We have a round base, upon which is a well-formed 
lion's paw, which passes into the figure of a crouching man, who grasps 
the two handles of a drinking vase. It has very much the aspect of a 
Babylonian work. 

Lastly, we have two vases, one between two animals. There is a 
hole in it, and the vase being in the shape of an amphora, indicates 
that it was part of a vessel to hold wine. And another with drapery 
thrown over it, in modern funereal style. 

Among the minor objects of art having a similar tendency, and illus- 
trative both of art and feeling, are a portion of the side of a drinking 
bowl in red clay (No. 54). It bears a bas-relief of the head of a Bac- 
chante, crowned with ivy and bearing a thyrsus, that is, a long pole, 
with an ornamental head, formed by a fir-cone, or by ivy or vine- 
leaves, which Avas carried by Bacchus and his votaries at the celebration 
of their rites. The back of the Bacchante is turned toward the eye, and 
her face is looking over the left shoulder, from which the tunic is sliding 
off : nothing could be better conceived ; it must have come from the 
hand of an artist of the first order, though it has somewhat degenerated 
in the hand of the potter. Altogether this is a precious fragment, and 
will bear comparison with any thing which has hitherto been discovered 
of ancient ceramic art. 


Among objects of a similar character are a fragment of a Bacchana- 
lian bowl ; it has a moulding of beads and buttons round the top, under 
which is a border of vine-leaves and grapes. On the body is a mask, 
and a nymph, slightly draped, beating upon an instrument like a drum 
or gong. This vessel was painted red, and by its curvature must have 
been seven and a quarter inches in diameter. 

Also a portion of a bowl of a different shape from the preceding. 
It was of a beautiful shape, though the ornamentation is very rude and 
slight. The leaves, &c. were pressed on with a die after the bowl had 
been thrown by hand upon the wheel. It is also red ; the diameter 
is about five inches and three eighths. 

Eeclinir.g on a large wine-jar or amphora is the figure of a come- 
dian performing his part in a play. He is in the attitude of one at a 
banquet, has the comic mask on, and sandals (baxea) on his feet. The 
baxa, or baxea, worn on the comic stage,* and by philosophers who 
affected simplicity of dress, t are, it may be observed, sometimes indi- 
cated on the feet of Egyptian statues, and many originals have been 
discovered in the Egyptian tombs ; some made with close sides and 
upper leather, like a shoe ; others with a leaf, forming a mere strap, 
like a clog, across the instep ; and others with a band across the instq>, 
and another smaller leaf on the fore part of the sole, intended to pass 
the great toe through. 

We have next to notice a fragment in yellow clay (No. 58), part of a 
cylindrical drinking- vessel, three inches in diameter, similar to our modern 
mugs. A relief has been made out of a plaster-mould, and laid upon 
it ; but the body of the vessel was thrown upon the potter's wheel. The 
subject is a female, slightly clothed, holding in her hand a branch of 
sesamum, which she is attentively watching to observe the opening of 
the seed-capsules, a mode of divination often resorted to for the solution 
of love-questions. The modelling is very good, except the breasts, which 
are out of place. The back part of the vessel was decorated with ivy. 
This vessel might, it may also be observed, possibly, have been an oil- 
jar ; and the female contemplating the common oil plant (sum-sum of 
the Arabs) be poetically emblematic of the uses of the vase. "The piece," 
says Mr. Aldington, " is interesting to a potter, as it shews that the an- 
cients laid reliefs upon their works in the same manner as is practised 
now ; but the workmanship on the part of the ancient potter was un- 
worthy of the beautiful models supplied to him by the artist, and would 
not be tolerated in a modern pot-work." 

Among the minor objects of art in the additional collection are many 
* Pluut. Men. ii. 3, 40. t Apul. Met. xi. p. 244. 


fragments of lamps well deserving of mention. Among these are the 
upper portion of one with a bas-relief of a centaur bearing a wine-vase 
upon his back, and about to drink from a bowl. The modelling of this 
beautiful fragment is truly admirable. Another fragment of the top of 
a lamp has a relief representing Vulcan occupied in his workshop. He 
sits with one foot upon his anvil, and upon his raised knee is a shield, 
which he is fashioning into shape with a finishing hammer. His pincers, 
or tongs, are lying upon the ground. This is one of the pleasing deifi- 
cations of the most humble art, ennobled in this case by the object in 
which the artist is engaged, and a tribute to the imaginary inventor of 
forges, and the first teacher of the malleability and polishing of metals. 
Another part of the top of a lamp is adorned with the figure of a Roman 
herald, bearing his staff and an ensign. This fragment is painted red, 
and is of inferior merit as a work of art. Lastly, another has the head 
of a satyr on the top, and is like the former of rude workmanship. 

The designs for handles found among the Tarsus terra-cottas are 
sometimes very elegant. Among them may be particularly noticed a 
most elegant handle of a lamp: it is formed of a horse's head of first-rate 
execution, emerging from foliage most gracefully drawn. Also a lamp- 
handle very plain, but the lines graceful and well drawn ; as well as the 
handle of a lamp with a slight relief of the conventional honeysuckle, 
in pure Greek style, on the triangular face of the top. There are figures 
of such in many works of antiquity. Well worthy of notice also is the 
handle of a lamp in the form of the prow of a ship ; there is the figure 
of a bird upon it. This piece was burned so hard in the fire as to be 
vitrified in the surface. Also a very primitive handle of a lamp ; the 
ornamentation is such as is attempted by men in their earliest efforts. 
The handle of a vase, with a head, the tragic Muse. A ring-handle, 
with a fragment of the vessel with which it was connected, very perfect ; 
and then, again, a portion of a handle, with a human head upon it. 
This is remarkable for having a glazing upon it of vitrified lead. Part 
of a good handle terminating in a chimasra head, with a frill of leaves 
behind it. Also the handle of a lamp, with chimsera head. A vine- 
leaf, forming the handle of a bowl or dish ; and lastly, parts of two 
snakes, probably connected as handles to a vessel; and a harpy's head, 
which served as a handle. 

"We have next to notice the handle of a flat dish or tazza, the orna- 
ment of which, though rude, is complex, and appears to have a mytho- 
logical meaning. It has a circular altar or short column in the centre 
supporting a basket ; on each side of which a humped buffalo or Indian 
bull is couching; over these are two human heads, apparently female, 


and behind these, fishes : there are others below the fishes, the character 
of which is not easily determined. The bulls, the fishes, and the female 
heads have a mythological meaning in harmony with the purpose to which 
the vessel was appropriated, which was religious. The dish was large, the 
diameter being nearly 14^ inches, and coated with a red varnish. Also 
another handle from the same mould, with a small portion of the bowl- 
part of the dish ; this fragment shews the ornamentation was all on the 
under side, and would be unseen when the dish was in use; when out 
of use, it would be reversed, the concave part would be unseen, and the 
decorated bottom exposed to view ; the very opposite to the construction 
and use of our dishes. Does not this illustrate a passage in the Bible ? 
2 Kings, chap. xxi. 13, "I will wipe Jerusalem as a man wipeth a dish, 
turning it upside down." Next, a small fragment of a red dish, with a 
part of the handle, having a flower, the syrinx of Pan, and a figure like 
a running dog. It is on the same plan as the preceding. And in the 
same category may be placed a very good head of Medusa, in relievo, 
painted red. It had been applied as an ornament to some vessel, from 
which it is detached, leaving part of its hair behind. The head of 
Medusa, it is well known, is sometimes depicted as one of the most beau- 
tiful, and at others as one of the most shocking objects in the world; 
the noble head in the Strozzi collection at Rome is an example of the 
former. Lastly, a fragment of a beautiful bowl, the outside of which has 
been ornamented with leaves impressed on it by a punch or die. The 
handle or lip projected from the rim, and was decorated with scrolls. 

In the department of furniture, we find a fragment of a relief, repre- 
senting a tripod table, with chimasra legs, and some provisions lying 
upon it ; also the side of a chair of state, with a well-formed chirmera 
in the front. Both these objects appear to have belonged to temples, 
most probably dedicated to Apollo. 

Among the same objects, also, we may notice a ring of glass. 
It was coated with an enamel made of oxide of silver, and consequently 
of a yellow or amber colour; but the maker of it did not use silex 
enough in the composition of the enamel to make it permanent. 
The article being buried so long in the earth, and thereby exposed to 
moisture, the enamel has been decomposed, the alkali in it has been 
carried off, and the oxide of silver, losing its oxygen, has returned to the 
metallic state, now forming a coat of pure silver upon the glass. The 
silver being in an imperfect state of crystallisation, causes the spangled 
appearance. There are several such silver enamels in the British 
Museum which have not suffered decomposition, having been preserved 
in dry tombs, &c. As to the purpose for which this ring was used 




when covered with a smooth coating of enamel, it is more fit to be 
guessed than described. It was connected with rites which could not 
stand before the purifying influence of the Christian religion. 

In the same collection we find a round disc of pottery, having a hole 
to hang it by. The panel in front has the character M upon it. It is 
probably a numeral of the Greeks representing 40. We manufacture 
similar labels for the purpose of hanging in wine-cellars to distinguish 
different lots ; this was probably used for some like purpose. 

Among more miscellaneous objects may be briefly described, an 
ornamented net containing flowers, and something like our butter-prints ; 
but the subject is in cameo. 




There are several fragments of lyres in the collection, one of them 
painted red ; another with a hand resting upon it, and which formed 
part of a Muse. These fragments do not throw any light upon the oft- 
discussed questions as to the original inventor of the lyre and the num- 
ber of its strings. It is more interesting to us to remember that the 
Abyssinians have a tradition that this instrument was brought from 
Egypt into Ethiopia by Thot in the very first ages of the world ; and 
even Greek and Roman authorities will be found to bear out the opinion, 
that the invention of the primitive lyre with three strings was due to 
the Egyptian Mercury, Hermes. 

Layard found only one musical instrument depicted by the As- 
syrians, and that was a triangular lyre, the strings of which were 
nine or ten in number. The god, says Layard, which Mr. Birch now 
conjectures to be Baal, is represented at Talmis playing on a triangular 

These last discoveries may well be considered as disposing of the 
story of Mercury's first affixing thongs to a tortoise-shell; of Choraebus, 
the son of Atys, adding a fifth string ; Hyagnis, a sixth ; Terpander, a 
seventh; and according to some, Pythagoras, or according to others, 
Lychaon of Samos, an eighth string, by which the octave, which con- 
sisted of two disjoint tetrachords, was produced ; and which discoveries 
are seriously discussed by Mr. Spence, Dr. Burney, and others, and 
which may be now fairly consigned to the same fabulous repositories 
as Mercury's peace-offering to Apollo, Apollo's vindictive jealousy of 
Marsyas, the rage of the Theban women against Orpheus, and the 
building of the seven gates of Thebes to the seven strings of Amphion's 

In thin department of the collection may be classed the upper 

* Rossellini, M.C., Teste, tern. iii. p. 19, tav. ami. Layard, vol. ii. p. 412. 



portion of a youth playing the syrinx or Pandean organ, the fabled 
origin of which, from the conversion of a beantiful naiad pursued by 
Pan into a tuft of musical reeds, is so well known. The instrument 
appears to be suspended by a band to his neck, and he regulates it with 
his right hand, while the left seems to have been free. The pipes are 
more numerous, and those in the bass part of the instrument much 
longer than is usually represented. The player seems quite satisfied 
with his performance. 

There is also another fragment giving the middle portion of another 
figure playing upon a red instrument of a more perfect form. There 
seems to be little doubt that our modern complicated organs are to be 
traced to Pan's pipes as their origin. In Hawkins' History of Music is 
an engraving of an ancient monument at Rome, in which is the repre- 
sentation of a primitive organ. It is a small chest placed on a table; 
in the front is a female playing on keys, and on the other side is a man 



blowing into the box with a pair of bellows. This, I believe, is the 
only known link connecting the organ with the Pandean syrinx. But 
does not this fragment supply another link in the chain of improvement, 
and take its place between the simple reeds of Pan and the rude organ 
just described ? It may be unique, and of value in its bearing on the 
history of music. 

Let us look at it again. The instrument consists of a vertical row 
of pipes, the length unknown, as the lower portion is wanting ; they are 


inserted into a small air-chest, which appears inflated in the middle 
part. The right hand is operating upon it with a kind of cushion or 
compress, by which he forces the air into the pipes, and which he seems 
to apply to different parts at will. There appears to have been a pro- 
longation of the central part of the instrument across the left arm : the 
loss of this is much to be lamented, as that would have shewn us more 
of its construction, and also how the left hand was employed in playing 
it. It is firmly fixed to the body ; but the upper ends of the reeds are 
too low for the performer to blow into them with his mouth. The 
openings in the tops of the reeds are all perfect, nothing is deficient at 
that end. This may be looked upon as the very first application of a 
pneumatic chest to the Pandean organ, which still retains its place on 
the breast of the player, though he no longer operates upon it with his 
mouth. It is most desirable to restore this figure ; we should then see 
whether the left hand or the foot was employed to blow the air into the 

In the same collection we have also the representation of a syrinx 
detached from some figure : there is a fracture on the front, marking the 
place from which the hand that held it was broken off. The reeds 
are bound together by a broad ornamented band. Part of the top of 
the instrument is perfect, and likewise the lower ends of the five treble 
pipes, but the bass is broken. 

«^^^d> : «9i( 













This chapter has reference to the sites of ancient towns or cities in 
Cilicia, which ought not to be passed over in silence in a general 
account of the antiquities of the country. 

Commencing at the south-easterly extremity of the province, the 
olden episcopacy of Rhosus or Ehosopolis, now Arsus, we have seen 
still presents some interesting remains of olden time. There are re- 
mains of a Christian church with Corinthian columns, and of an exten- 
sive aqueduct, besides . other fragments of art. The existing Greek 
church also presents many features of archaeological interest. 

According to the distances given by Xenophon of five parasangs 
from the gates of Cilicia and Syria, the site of Myriandrus (which still 
remains to be discovered) ought to be on the way from Markatz to 
Arsus, unless, as is not improbably the case, it was situated at the foot 
of the Baylan pass, or within the pass itself. 

At Alexandre tta- are the ruins of the Levantine factory, and a little 
to the southward is a polygonal fort of massive masonry, the construc- 
tion of which is traditionally attributed to the crusaders under Godfrey 
de Bouillon ; beyond this, again, are fragmentary ruins at a spring 


called Jacob's Spring by some, but Joseph's Well by Pococke, and 
which has been supposed by Ecnnell and others to be the site of 

Baylan is a remarkable town on the crest of the gorge forming the 
Syrian gates, and it corresponds to the Pictanus of the Jerusalem 
Itinerary, which was nine miles from Alexandria and eight from Pan- 
grios (Pagrae). It appears also to represent the Pinara of Pliny and 
Ptolemy, placed by both in the neighbourhood of Pagrae or Pagras, as 
also, by corruption, the Erana of Cicero, which is described as being in 
the mountain above the region in which the altars of Alexander are 

The mosque of Baylan was built, according to the Mecca Itinerary, 
by Sultan Selim, and the Khan by Sultan Sulaiman the Magnificent. 
There are also remains of a causeway, of an aqueduct, and of a bridge, 
appertaining to the time of the Romans. 

Higher up in the mountains, and a few miles northwards of Baylan, 
are the remains of a well- constructed Christian church of the earliest 
form after the Basilica ; being an oblong area, with colonnades at the 
sides, supporting an arched or vaulted roof; and at the end opposite the 
entrance, a semicircular space surmounted by a half cupola. Dr. Po- 
cocke, it is also to be observed, met with several Christian sites in the 
district between Mount Ehosus and Coryphaeus. 

On the Syrian side of the Baylan pass, we have, to the south, the 
ruins of a Saracenic castle called that of Ibn Abi Daud, at the site of 
the ancient Pagras or Pangrios ; to the east, the ruins of Khan Karamut ; 
and to the north, within the hills, is the castle called Baylan Bustandah, 
one of the apartments of which is used as a sepulchral chamber, and 
within which are preserved many arrows — reminiscences of medieval 

To return to Alexandretta : the colossal mai'ble fragment known as 
Jonas's Pillars is familiar to all travellers. There is much reason to 
believe, as we have before pointed out, that these are the remains of 
the altars erected by Alexander to commemorate his victory over the 
Persians. It was in vain that the traces of such were sought for on the 
Pinarus. Quintus Curtius may have been in error when he stated 
that this commemorative monument was erected on the banks of that 
river. Pliny says that the " Bomitae," or altars, were between Am anus 
and Ehosus ; and the monument or gateway in question belongs ap- 
parently to the Macedonian era. Beyond Jonas's Pillars (Sakal Tutan 
of the Mecca Itinerary), and to the right on the acclivity of the hills, 
is a Saracenic castle, called Markatz Kalahsi. Beyond this, again, the 


Markatz Su, tlie Kersus of Xenoplion and Andricus of Pliny, close by 
Mount Crocodile. The way in which the Kersus of Xenoplion came to 
be called Andricus by Pliny is curious, and exemplifies the great diffi- 
culty which the comparative geographer sometimes experiences in arriv- 
ing at a correct identification. There would seem to be at first no sort 
of relation between Kersus and Andricus. But the Markatz Su, called 
by Pliny the Andricus, was called by Ptolemy Xepaiag. Pliny has also 
a Mons Crocodilus on the Andricus, evidently the precipitous rock that 
rises up above the villages of Markatz, and the site of the Syrian and 
Cilician gates. The word Kersus, derived from a Coptic and Syriac 
idiom, refers to the ancient crocodile worship, and is met with in the 
Axio-Kersus of the Samo-Thracian mysteries. It is explained by Zoega 
and Munter as the great principle of fecundation ; and hence it was ex- 
plained by Pliny by the word Andricus, which term becomes identified 
with Kersus. It is to be observed that the crocodile worshipped by the 
Syrians was also called succoth ; but the able commentators of Pan- 
coucke's Pliny suggest an identity between the Syriac Kersus and the 
Egyptian Kamses, the name of a ferocious crocodile which has been as- 
certained to be of a different species from the sucko or succoth. It has 
been seen before that we have the crocodile preserved in the terra- 
cottas of Tarsus. 

The ruins of a wall can be traced north of the southerly branch of 
the Markatz Su, from the precipitous rocks to the sea-side, where it 
terminates in a tower ; and to the north of this are also ruins of a tower 
on the shore, marking the extremities of the other wall, which were 
three stadia apart. These are the remains of the gates of Cilicia and 
Syria, to gain which both Cyrus and Alexander despatched a fleet of 
boats in advance of their respective armies. It is not improbable that 
it was because the Macedonian hero had gained this point, and attained 
the heights of the Sakal Tutan, which command the whole Issic Gulf, 
before he returned to give battle to Darius, that he afterwards erected 
his altar of thanksgiving at that point. 

Bayas has been described in a note to the text ; so also with regard 
to the supposed site of Issus. We have only the authority of Stephanus 
of Byzantium, that Issus was called Nicopolis after the great victory 
won there by the Macedonians ; but what city in Cilicia is there so 
worthy of the name ? The fact, however, of Strabo and Ptolemy 
noticing Nicopolis as distinct from Issus renders the identification very 

The remarkable and extensive ruins of Epiphanea have also been 
described ; and by the distances given of twenty- six Eoman miles from 


iEga?, and sixteen miles from Bais (Baiae), there can be little doubt but 
that the castle and ruins of Kara Kaya, " the Black Rock," represent 
the Catabolon of the Antonine Itinerary and the Castabala of writers, 
as also the castle near Epiphanea, to which Cicero repaired. 

There are remains of a Roman causeway and of arches leading from 
Epiphanea across the Burnuz Su to the mounds and ruins at Matakh, 
and the Amanian gates, near to the Cyclopean arch, called the Tamir 
Kapu or iron gates. At Kurt-Kulak there is a fine but ruinous old 
khan. The castle of Ayas, ancient JEgesz, is a dilapidated structure of 
various ages, the Avails and towers at the angles alone remaining. To 
the -westward is a round toAver Avith an Arabic inscription ; and Admiral 
Sir Francis Beaufort's party copied a Greek inscription at the same 
place, which will always possess a melancholy interest as the spot where 
the much- esteemed hydrographer receiA-ed a seA r ere wound, and a young 
midshipman of the Frederikssteen Avas killed. This is the site also of 
a plaintiA'e story related by Gibbon, of Maria, the Christian maiden of 

The Ammodes, or sandy cape, noticed by Mela Pomponius as being 
between the Pyramus and the Cydnus, and now so celebrated for its 
numerous turtle, leads the way to Kara Tash, a promontory of rock 
with a port for boats, a village and caravanserai, a ruinous castle like 
that of Ayas, of various ages, and other fragments of ruins around. A 
variety of curious considerations, which it is needless to enter upon noAV, 
led me at one time to identity Mallus Avith that portion of Mopsuestia 
Avliich Avas on the east or further side of the Pyramus ; but a further 
study of all the details of the question has induced me to return to the 
views entertained by Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort and by Colonel 
Leake, and to identify the site of the city of Amphilochus and of the 
fane of Minerva (Megarsus), as Avell as of the tombs built out of sight 
the one of the other, Avith the ruins at Kara Tash, Avhich are minutely 
described in Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort's work. 

North of Kara Tash is the great Aleian plain, iioav called Tchukur 
Uvah ; and up the existing bed of the river Pyramus (Jaihun Su) are the 
ruins of Mopsuestia ;* to the east, terminating the rocky ridge called 
the Jibal al Nur or " Mountain of Light," and overlooking the vast ex- 
panse of plain beyond, is the ruinous castle designated as Shah Maran 
Kalahsi (Jihan Numa, p. 603), or the Castle of the King of the Serpents. 
Beyond this again, on rocky knolls rising out of the plain, are Turn 
Kalahsi and Saliyath Kalahsi, which Ave did not explore ; and beyond 
that again, at the junction of a tributary floAving from the Kuzan Tagh 

* See page 110. 


with the Pyramus, are the ruins of Anazarba, before noticed, and 
crowned by a similar rock isolated castle. 

Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort has so ably discussed the positions 
along the coast of the Sari Capita of Pliny, of the second promontory 
called Zephyrium by Strabo, and of the twice historically united and 
twice separated waters of the Sarus and the Pyramus, that it is un- 
necessary to allude to these here. His work contains also a detailed 
description, with a neatly engraved plan, of the ruins of Soli and Pom- 
peiopolis, which, with the description given of the nuns at Karaduvar 
(Anchiale ?) are more perfect than any that Ave yet possess of other 
Cilician cities. 

Prom the extensive ruins at Parshandy to Korghos, ancient Corycus, 
and thence to Ayash (Sebaste and Eleusa), and for several miles east- 
ward of the latter, the same authority describes the shore as presenting 
" a continued scene of ruins, all of which being white, and relieved by 
the dark-wooded hills behind them, give to the country an appearance 
of splendour and populousness, that serves only, on a nearer approach, 
to heighten the contrast with its real poverty and degradation." 

To return inland, or into what the olden geographers called Medi- 
terranean Cilicia: on our way from Tarsus to the renowned Cilician 
gates (Kulak Bughaz) are traces of a Roman causeway, with an arch ; 
a ruinous castle called Yanifa Kishla ; and a ravine, with sepulchral 
grottoes and an inscription, now called Masarlik or " the Place of Graves." 
A castellated building also crowns the crest of the rugged rocks at the 
narrowest portion of the pass, where the work of the chisel to widen the 
road is very manifest. We are indebted to Mr. Barker for the first 
notice of a castle in the same neighboiu'hood, called after Nimrod, a 
name which would give evidence of great antiquity, and to which he 
supposes Syennesis to have retreated. 

The country of perpetual rebels, of the lawless Tibareni, of the 
Cliteans, of the predatory Armenians, and of the unconquered Aushir 
and Kusan Ughlu tribes, contains, in the present day, the old castles of 
Kara Sis, and of Andal Kalah, which may correspond to the Cadra and 
Davara of the Cliteans ; and the pass of the Pyramus through Taurus 
into Cilicia, the bridle-way to Marash, so minutely described by Strabo, 
is also characterised by its defensive structures, among which the castles 
of Anabad and Dun Kalah are the most remarkable. 







The bay of Antioeh extends from Ras al Khanzir, or Cape Boar, on the 
north, to Ras Pussit (Ancient Posideum), on the south, a distance of 
about thirty miles. Hemmed in by Mount Casius — Jibal Akrab, or 
bald mountain (so called from its summit being covered with snow the 
greater part of the year), and Anti-Casius to the south; it is bounded to 
the north by Mount Moses (Jibal Musa), above which again rise the lof- 
tier peaks of Jibal Akma, in ancient Rhosus, which attain an elevation 
of 5,550 feet; and these two ranges are united by low, wood-clad hills in 
the back-ground, to Mount Saint Simon, a hill that stands in advance 
of Mount Casius, from which it is separated by a narrow and precipi- 
tous but wooded and picturesque ravine, through whose shady depths the 
river Orontes (Al Asi, " the rebel") forces its way, flowing onwards by 
the ruins of a monastery, church, and khan — all that remains of the 
old port of St. Simon — and then by a hamlet or two, constituting the 
modern port, into the sea. 

The modern village of Suwaidiyah, or Suedia, as Seleucia is orien- 
talised, or as it is more commonly called Zaitunli, " the place of olives," 
embosomed in luxuriant groves of mulberry, olive, grape-vine, pome- 
granate, and apricot trees, occupies the range of the lower hills ; and 
there are also several large villages in the mountains to the north and 
sotith, and on the south bank of the Orontes. Close by the latter is a 
small grotto, with a spring of clear water ; connected with which are 
many large hewn stones and other fragments of antiquity. The site 
appears, from a variety of circumstances, to correspond to that of 
nymphceum cum specu of Strabo, situated between the mouth of the 
Orontes and Mount Casius. 


If ever Meliboea, of poetical celebrity, was an island at the mouth of 
the Orontes, it must be now joined to the mainland, which is not at all 
an improbable circumstance. We have the explicit authority of Op- 
pianus* in favour of the first fact ; and the fabled lover of Orontes, and 
the nymph of Meliboea, would bear out the latter, as well as the physi- 
cal features of the soil, the alluvium slowly but steadily adding to the 
extent of the coast. 

On the other hand, we have the combined testimonies of Virgil, 

" Victori chlamydem auratam, quam plurima circum 
Purpura Mrcandro duplici Meliboea cucurrit." — JSneid, v. 251. 

and of Lucretius, 

" Jam tibi bai~baric£e vestes, Melibceaque fulgens 
Purpura Thessalico concharum tincta colore." — Lib. i. v. 499. 

that Meliboea was a Thessalian island ; but this would only shew, what 
is frequently the case, that there were two of the same naine.f 

The line of coast from the Orontes northwards is low and sandy on 
the shore, but pastoral or marshy in the interior to the foot of the hills. 
Nearly half way to the ruins of Seleucia Pieria is the neatly white- 
washed tomb of a holy Mohammedan, which being a ziyarat, or place 
of pilgrimage, has some ruinous buildings attached to it. Close by is a 
well of fresh water. 

The ruins of the city and port of the Seleucidaj are beyond this at 
the foot of the rocky range of Jibal Musa,formerly called Uupta, or Pierius, 
when Seleucia of Antioch Avas distinguished from other cities bearing the 
same name, by the epithet Seleucia Pieria. Strabo calls Mount Pierius 
a continuation ofAmanus; but it is rather an outlying range of Rhosus, 
or Rhossus. The bare cliffs of Mount Pierius rise at this point abruptly 
from the low level plain below, and advance in rude promontories into 
the sea on the other, and the ruins of the once strong, populous, and 
well-frequented port are still indicated by the now filled-up basin or 

* Cyneget. vers. 115 to 120. 

+ There is at the mouth of the Orontes a piece of ground of about a hundred acres, 
which the Orontes forms (by winding round it) into a peninsula, and which the people 
of the country call " Gezire'," the island, because it is evident that the neck of land 
has also been traversed by the river at no very distant period. This piece of land be- 
longs to Mr. Barker's garden at Suedia, it being customary there to have a piece of 
land for each garden, in order that the people who rear the silkworms may have 
a place on which to cultivate the wheat and barley they require for their immediate 
use. Without such land it is difficult, almost impossible, to get any one to take 
charge of a garden. The most delicious melons grow on this peninsula, and the crops 
are very fertile in consequence of the propinquity of the water in that warm climate. 
The two vessels which afterwards navigated the river Euphrates were landed at this 
point, which was called by Colonel Chesney, in his despatches, Amelia Depot. 


dock, the crumbling gates and ramparts, tumbled-down buildings and 
houses, numerous sarcophagi, and still more interesting sepidchral grot- 
toes, and the remarkable extensive hollow way or excavation cut through 
the mountain, and attesting in so singular a manner to every successive 
visitor the industry and perseverance, as well as the skill and ingenuity, 
of the older inhabitants of this free port. 

The walls of the city appear to have been quadrangular, and they 
had a double line of defence; the northern extremity abutting on the 
hill, whose summit was crowned by the acropolis. There were also 
walls of a suburb, triangularly disposed, and reaching down to the 
mole, traces of which are still extant. A gate led from the suburb to- 
wards the sea, and on the opposite side another opened towards Antioch, 
which was adorned with pilasters, and defended by handsome towers. 
The space occupied within the walls had a circumference of about four 
miles, and is filled with the ruins of houses. 

The basin is 2000 feet long by 1200 feet wide, occupying an area 
of 47 acres, and was in fact as large as the export and import basins of 
the East and West India Docks together. The inner port is entirely 
excavated, and its canal is 1000 feet long; the area of the outer port is 
about 18,000 feet square, and it affords good shelter, but is obstructed 
by sand. There ai'e two moles, 240 paces apart, constructed of enor- 
mous stones, and a pier called that of St. Paulas, which rims west 80 
paces, and then turns N.W. 

Colonel Chesney proposed some years back to open this port* to 
modern commerce. Since that time, Captain William Allen, R.N., who 
so distinguished himself in exploring the river Niger, has surveyed and 
carefully mapped this interesting basin ; and his calculations of the ex- 
pense of clearing the port of mud, and opening it to navigation, chiefly 
by the natural means formerly used by the inhabitants of letting down 
the winter floods by the ravine, which is their natural channel, instead 
of turning them off into the excavated and artificial channel, corresponds 
almost precisely to that made by Colonel Chesney (30,000^.). 

Dr. Holt Yates, who has erected a handsome house in the neigh- 
bourhood, near the Orontes, has also entered warmly into a project 
which promises to be of so much benefit to commerce and to the im- 
mediate neighbourhood, and has read a paper on the subject to the 
Syro-Egyptian Society. The great advantages to be gained by opening 
this port are, that it is nearer at hand than that of Iskandrun or Alex- 
andretta ; that it avoids the difficult navigation of the Gulf of Issus ; 

* Description of Soleucia Picria, in Journal of Royal Geographical Society, vol. viii. 
p. 228. 


that, whereas Alexandretta is infamous as one of the most unhealthy- 
spots on the coast of Syria, and hence few can be induced to reside 
there, Seleucia is a comparatively healthy spot, and would, if opened 
to commerce, soon become in all probability a flourishing town ; that 
the road from Seleucia to Antioch, Aleppo, and the Euphrates, is com- 
paratively open, while that from Alexandretta has to cross the for- 
midable Syrian gates — the mountain pass of Baylan (ancient Erana), 
between Amanus and Ehosus ; and lastly, that while Cilicia is con- 
stantly disturbed by local dissensions and the rebellion of races, the 
neighbourhood of Seleucia, chiefly tenanted by peaceful Christians, is re- 
markable for its tranquillity and security ; and lastly, Seleucia would con- 
stitute the safest harbour (especially for steamers), on the whole coast of 
Syria, and would, from that circumstance, and from its greater proximity 
to Antioch and Aleppo, entirely supersede the ports of Bayrut or Beirut, 
of Tripoli, and Latakiyah. The same circumstances that have existed 
from the period of Mr. John Barker's settling here, and which induced 
Colonel Chesney to adopt it as the site for landing the steam-boats and 
equipments of the Euphrates expedition, still exist ; and at a very mode- 
rate outlay, Seleucia might be again rendered what it once was, the 
most capable, the most flourishing, the most fertile, the most populous, 
the most wealthy, the most beautiful, and the most healthy port of Syria. 
As to the effect which the opening of such a port would have upon the 
commerce of the interior, the promises it holds out as the key to North 
Syria, the Euphrates, Mesopotamia, the Tigris, Kurdistan, and Persia, 
and the line of communication that could be opened, as originally pro- 
posed by Colonel Chesney, by this route to India, such subjects are of too 
great a magnitude to be entered upon here ; but once the port opened, 
they would force themselves upon the Turkish authorities, the Anglo- 
Indian government, and all concerned or interested in the amelioration 
of the countries in question, in the progress of commerce, and the 
general advance in civilisation. 

On the side of the city opposite to the harbour are the ruins of two 
temples, and of an amphitheatre partly cut out of the rock, as is so fre- 
quently the case ; and here also commence the numerous sepulchral 
excavations, which extend nearly two miles along the face and up the 
ravines of the mountain, and in front of which many hundreds of sarco- 
phagi, some of which Mr. W. B. Barker opened, are scattered. One 
portion of the excavations, called the Tomb of the Kings, has a facade 
entrance, and suites of apartments, with columns and staircases leading 
to a set of chambers above. In some of the grottoes were traces of 
paintings, with remarkably bright colours ; in general, however, they 


were ordinary excavations, devoid of architectural ornaments, and many- 
appear to have been used subsequently as broglodyte dwellings. They 
are now, however, only tenanted by foxes, jackals, and porcupines. 

But the most remarkable feature in the ruins of Seleucia is the 
great cut or hollow way before noticed, and by Avhich the inhabited 
and tomb-dotted portion of the mountain is separated from the heights 
above. This extraordinary work takes its origin from an open valley 
in Pieria, which is prolonged in a north-easterly direction to beyond 
the city, upon which it opens to the south-west, above the inner ex- 
tremity of the harbour. This opening being artificially dammed up, the 
cutting led the waters away through the mountain to the sea, or to the 
mouth of the harbour to the north of the city. It is altogether 3074 
feet in length, and attains in places an elevation of 120 feet, averaging 
a width of 22 feet, and it terminates abruptly over the sea. This great 
excavation is divided into portions, the greater part being an open, hol- 
low way; interrupted, however, by two tunnelled portions or covered 
ways, the one 102, and the other 293 feet long. The cut is also crossed 
in its eastern part by an aqueduct supported by a single arch, and its 
western extremity by another arch, bearing a mutilated inscription of 
the time of the Caesars. A recess, with sepulchral grottoes, occurs in 
another portion. 

Water was carried along this hollow way, in addition to what may 
have flowed along its base, by a little channel hewn in the face of the 
rock, 18 inches in width; and in one part a narrow staircase leads down 
to within about 14 feet of the base, and which Colonel Chesney thinks 
was the ordinary level of tin- waters. The waters of the valley before 
mentioned, although no longer artificially dammed up from their natural 
course, appear still to flow at times along the bed of the hollow \v;iv, 
which they seem to have deepened, for the line of demarcation be- 
tween the hewn portion and that which has been since excavated by the 
waters is very distinct, and these waters have forced a passage for them- 
selves through the south-western sides of the excavation leading down 
to the mouth of the harbour; and hence, according to some, used to 
keep that mouth open. But the excavation can be traced beyond this 
opening towards the sea, although the traces of running waters are no 
longer discernible in that direction. 

Appian relates in his Syriacs (p. 202), that Seleucia was founded in 
obedience to an intimation to that effect, obtained from the thunder. 
Hence it was dedicated to the thunder-god, as may be seen on a coin 
recorded by Spanheimus, " Jupiter fulminans Seleucensium," and this 
thunder-god was identified by the Romans with Jupiter Casius. 


Seleucia was embellished and strengthened by Selencus Nicator, who 
gave the place his own name. It was so strongly fortified, that Strabo 
designates it an impregnable city; and it was made a free port after the 
conquest of Syria by the Romans under Pompey, as is recorded on coins 
belonging to the times of Caius Cassar, Trajan, and Caracalla. It was 
one of the four most distinguished cities of the Macedonian dynasty of 
the Seleucidaa, and which, including Antioch, Apamea (Kalah Mudik), 
and Laodicea (Latakiyah), were called sisters, on account of the concord 
which existed between them. 

Mount St. Simon, so called from the tomb of that well-known 
Syrian ascetic, but also denominated Bin Kilisa, or " the thousand 
churches," from its extensive remains of ecclesiastical structures be- 
longing to an early Christianity, has been described by Mr. Barker, and 
it need only be added here, that the memory of this fanatic, whose feats 
of penance have been misrepresented by Lucian, and justly derided, and 
that without any indecent allusions, by Gibbon, is as much venerated 
by the Muliammedans as by the Christians of the country; and the 
Mecca Itinerary contains especial injunctions to pilgrims, on their arri- 
val at Antioch, to pay their respects to the tomb of Hazrat Simun — the 
holy, or beloved Simon. This will not appear at all extraordinary to 
those who are aware how much of the legendary and historical por- 
tion of the Kuran is borrowed from what had been long before adopted 
by Syrian monks and priests, and their followers, the Byzantine chro- 
nographers. Indeed this use of Christian- Syrian materials is made 
evident by a comparison of the narrative of the Prophet of tbe Islamites 
with the writings of Ephrem Syrus — the Euphrates of the Church, as 
he has been called by his admirers ; yet who was one of the earliest 
propounders of those systems of scriptural astronomy and geography, 
for refuting which Galileo was thrown into a dungeon; as also with the 
works of Syncellus, and the Paschal Chronicle* 

Mount Casius attains an elevation of 5318 feet above the sea. This 
was determined by angles taken from the two extremities of a base, 
measured on the plain below, and by the sinndtaneous comparison of 
two barometers, one at the top of the mountain, the other at its base. 

* The founder of the sect of the Stylites, the fanatical pillar-saint, Simeon Sisanites, 
the son of a Syrian herdsman, is said to have passed thirty-seven years in religious 
contemplation on the summits of five successive pillars, each higher than the pre- 
ceding. The last pillar was forty ells high. He died in the year 461. For seven 
hundred years there continued to be men who imitated this manner of life, and were 
called " Sancti columnares" (pillar-saints). Even in Germany, in the diocese of 
Treves, it was proposed to erect such aerial cloisters ; but the bishops opposed the 
undertaking. (Mosheim, Institut. Hist. Eccles. 1755, p. 215.) 


The foot of the mountain is mainly myrtle-clad, at an elevation of 
1500 feet; this is succeeded by oak, and the oaks are again succeeded 
by gloomy pine-forests, which, at an elevation of 3500 feet, are them- 
selves succeeded by open glades of birch, and occasional wild pear, apple, 
quince, and medlar trees. Vegetation is both luxuriant and beautiful, 
and in April the patches of gaudy scarlet peonies alternate, and are re- 
lieved by patches of yellow asphodel, not far from the snow-clad sum- 
mit, where violets and pansies are succeeded by dark -green fennel. The 
extreme summit is composed of naked limestone rock. 

Mount Casius is, with the exception of Mount Lebanon, Mount 
Sinai, and a few hills in Palestine rendered more familiar from frequent 
Scriptural references, the most celebrated in Syria.* Sacrifices to the 
Thunderer were offered on its summit from the most remote antiquity, 
and they were said to have originated with the descendants of Tripto- 
lemus, settled at Seleucia, and whom Seleucus Nicator invited to An- 
tioch. These sacrifices were kept up by the Caesars, who dedicated 
them to Jupiter Casius. Julian the Apostate, discomfited at Daphne, 
cheered himself with a hecatomb on Mount Casius; and Pliny relates 
that Jupiter, yielding to prayers addressed to him on Mount Casius, 
sent the birds called Seleueida>, the roseate thrush (Tardus roseus), to 
destroy the scourge of the country — the locusts. 

But the most curious tradition connected with the mountain, which 
the Emperors Hadrian and Julian went especially bo witness, and which 
is described at length by Aristotle (.Meteor, i. 16) and by Pliny (v. 18), 
is, that at the fourth watch, or at the second crow of the cock, as Am- 
mianus relates it, day and night are, by the walk round of a few paces, 
seen at the same time. The elevation of the mountain we have before 
observed, is 5318 feet above the sea. Now, the rising of the sun com- 
mences about one minute sooner at an elevation of 1000 feet than at 
the level of the sea. Hence the world below is, in these countries, win are 
there is little twilight, wrapped in darkness for five minutes after it is 
day on the summit of Mount Casius. 

* Bochart (Phalcg, p. 333) derives Casius (as more particularly applied to the 
Phoenician Casius, which was on the boundaries of Syria and Egypt) from the Hebrew 
signifying a boundary. Another Hebrew origin might be found in Kas, " straw or 
stubble," as used in Psalm lxxxiii. 14, and Jer. xiii. 24. Homer (Iliad, v. 499) uses 
Achne in the same sense ; and Pliny says of an island of Rhodes, " Casus ohm Achne." 
A'more likely origin may, however, be found in the Syriac and Chaldean Kas, "shin- 
ing," in reference to its bald summit, whence its actual Arabic name, Jibal Akrab, 
"Mount Bald." Tin, and also lead, according to Mela and Pliny, were probably 
called by the Greeks Kasiteros, from their lustre. Tin (in Numbers xxxi. 22) is read 
Kastira by Jonathan ; and in Arabic, Kasdir. This was the origin also of the British 


On the acclivity of the same mountain, to the eastward, are the 
ruins of a very pretty temple or church, now embosomed among woods. 
It was constructed in the form of the Basilicum, but not so simply so 
as some of the early Christian churches. The oblong area within the 
Avails is divided into nave and aisles by a handsome row of columns 
supporting a vaulted roof, and the semicircular space opposite the en- 
trance is supported by a half cupola. This little remnant of early times, 
placed in so remarkable a position, has been identified by Colonel Ches- 
ney with the site of the Pagan temple described by Sanchoniatho (see 
Cory's Ancient Fragments, p. 11) as having been consecrated to Cronus 
or Hamon on Mount Casius by the descendants of the Dioscuri. It is also 
noticed by Strabo (xvi. 750) and by Ammianus Marcellinus (xxii. 14). 

We cannot do better than close this chapter with an extract from 
Strabo,* premising that tetrapole, a title given to Antioch, means a city 
consisting of four parts, each fortified separately, and the four collectively 
forming one city.' 

" Seleucus Nicator also gathered together at this place the descendants 
of Triptolemus, of whom I have spoken before. This is why the inha- 
bitants of Antioch render to Triptolemus heroic honours, and celebrate 
a feast in honour of him at Mount Casius near Seleucia. It is said that 
this hero, sent by the Argives in search of Io, who had for some time 
past disappeared from Tyre, and was wandering in Cilicia, was in that 
country abandoned by some of the Argives who accompanied him, and 
they founded the city of Tarsus. The rest continued to follow him 
along the shores of the sea, but despsiiring of succeeding in the object 
of their -search, they established themselves with Triptolemus on the 
plains watered by the Orontes. Gordys, the son of Triptolemus, went 
and founded a colony in Gordiasus f (Topdcua), with a portion of those 
who had followed his father, the others remained in the country; and it 
was the descendants of these people that Seleucus united to the inhabi- 
tants of Antioch. Forty stadia further on is Daphne, an inconsiderable 
suburb. An extended and dense wood is met with there, which is 
watered by live springs ; and in the centre there is a sacred enclo- 
sure which serves as an asylum, as also a temple of Apollo and of 
Diana. The people of Antioch and of the neighbourhood are in the 
habit of assembling there to celebrate festivals. The circumference 
of the wood is eighty stadia. The Orontes flows near the city. This 
river, which has its sources in Coelo-Syria, passes under ground, then 

* Vol. v. p. 202. British Museum. 

f Gordi;eus was the most southerly part of Assyria, or of the present Kurdistan, 
near Lake Van. The inhabitants of Gorditeus have also borne the name of Cardrichi, 
whence the njodern name Kurd. 




shews itself again, to flow through the territory of Apamea and water 
that of Antioch ; and after having passed near the town, it enters the sea 
near Seleucia. This river, called Orontes, from the name of the person 
who built a bridge over it, was first called after Typhon ; and according 
to fable, it was in this place that the adventures of Typhon and Arimes 
(Inarimes) took place. It is said that Typhon, struck by lightning, fled, 
seeking refuge ; this dragon in his flight furrowed the ground so deeply 
as to cause the source of this river to spring up, and he gave to it his 
name. The sea is to the west, and is above the territory of Antioch 
on the side of Seleucia. It is near this latter city, situated forty stadia 
from the sea and one hundred and twenty stadia from Antioch, that the 
Orontes flows into the sea. The ascent from the mouth of the river to 
Antioch can be effected in a day." 






gh'aik, OR IBEX. 

There are different species of wild animals in the mountains of Cilicia, 
among which we may note the ounce, the skin of which is much esteemed 
by the Turks, Avho use it chiefly to cover their saddles.* I saw a lynx 
which had been caught in Mount Taurus, but it died after a few months 
of an inveterate mange, which communicated itself to all the domestic 
animals in the mansion, and was so virulent that even the fowls died of 
it. This malady in this incurable state seems to be as indigenous to 
Tarsus as the fever of the place, which I consider worse than any other: 
inasmuch as, firstly, it carries off the patient in three days (unless copious 
bleeding is had recourse to) ; and secondly, that it is almost impossible 
to eradicate it out of the system even for years afterwards. The most 
effective relief I have found to be following up the cold-water system ; 
this seems to possess the best means of alleviating, if not of entirely cur- 
ing, the evil effects of continued attacks of fever. But with regard to 
the mange in dogs I will relate one instance that is remarkable. 

I had been requested to procure Count Pourtalles two brace of 
greyhounds, of which the Turkmans possess a very fine breed. One 
of these greyhounds had had the mange, but was considered cured by 
a preparation of gunpowder and oil ; and as he was quite a champion, 
and celebrated for his feats, I was tempted to send him among the num- 
ber; and I have since been informed by the Count, whom I had the 
honour of visiting when ambassador for Prussia at Constantinople, that 

* The largest animal of the feline tribe seen by our party in Cilicia was rather a 
leopard or panther than an ounce. It was called Nimar by the natives, and was pro- 
bably the same animal that is called Kaplan in Lycia. A smaller species, apparently 
corresponding to the Felis jiardina of Oken and Temminck, was very common. A 
lynx with black ears (kara kulak) was also met with. — W. F. A. 


the malady broke out again and communicated itself to the other dogs, 
and that they all four died in spite of every exertion to cure them that 
European knowledge and treatment could afford. From the same malady 
I have lost the most valuable dogs. At last I discovered that dogs at 
Tarsus generally died either of this or of the yellow fever, unless they 
were washed daily with cold water and soap, and confined in a court- 
yard and kept from all contact even with the ground trodden on by 
other dogs wherein the seeds of the malady might be left ; for I suspect 
that it is caused by some minute insect that gets into the skin of the 
animal, and nothing can drive it out that would not be equally pernicious 
to the life of the dog. 

Bears are to he found in Mount Taurus; but as they only prowl 
about at night, they are not frequently met with. I have had them 
shot, or rather they shot themselves by a not very ingenious contrivance 
of the people of the country. As the bears come down into the gardens 
nearest the mountains to feed upon the vegetables, they walk along 
the paths and leave marks of their footsteps. The gardener ob- 
serving this, puts across their road a string which is connected with 
the trigger of a gun that is set so as to fire on the poor creature as it 
passes, and the gardener hearing the gun go off, comes up and finishes 
the work of destruction. The flesh of this animal is remarkably fat, 
and not unlike beef, but it is not eaten by the people of the country. 
I have seen one ham which weighed CO lbs. 

The flesh of the porcupine when young is good and tender. The 
gipsies are constantly in search of them ; but it requires some cleverness 
and patience to get a shot at them ; their acute sense of hearing renders 
them sensible to a person's being in wait, and they cannot easily be 
compelled to leave their burrows. The native sportsmen even jjretend 
that it is necessary to cover the flint lock of the gun with the left hand 
when firing, as they discover the flash and dip back into their holes 
before the shot can reach them ! The Turks do not consider tin in 
unclean, but few eat them ; their flesh is white, and tastes like some- 
thing between a sucking-pig and a hare. 

Hyenas, wolves, and jackals abound, and prowl about at night in 
search of carrion. I have heard the hyenas howling within a few yards 
of me, when I have slept on the sands of the sea-shore, where we would 
light a fire to keep off the innumerable mosquitoes that infest the coast. 
The people plant the stems of four fir-trees and form a kind of table on 
the top with branches and leaves ; here they climb to the height of 
twenty to thirty feet, and endeavour to sleep in the air out of the reach 
of this plague, the most irritating of all insects, and which is believed 


to have a peculiar relish for a stranger's blood. The jackals frequent 
the marshes ; they are very numerous and noisy, but are so thick-skinned 
that it is a difficult matter to kill one with a club. I have had to do 
this with one that had been attacked by my dogs, and I can speak 
from experience as to their toughness ; if a cat has nine lives, the 
jackal may be said to have nine times nine ! There are two kinds of 
foxes ; the one large and grey, the other small and brown. These, as 
well as the jackals, appear to have a fine scent, and they hunt for them- 
selves, destroying a great deal of game, which is, however, very abundant 
in spite of their depredations. A friend of mine assured me that some 
years previous to my coming to Tarsus he had been out shooting, and 
had first counted a hundred francolins, which he put up in the course 
of an hour and a half, after which he desisted from counting any more. 
There is but one kind of hare in Cilicia, the large heavy hare. It 
is of a darker colour than the desert hare, found to the east of 
Syria. This latter kind is very small, and will often beat the grey- 
hounds in a straight line, without their being able to turn her once. A 
gentleman of veracity residing at Aleppo related to me an incident hav- 
ing reference to the hare of the desert which I may be allowed to repeat 
here. He was out coursing on the desert side of the city; and, strange 
to say, the strength of the hare, dogs, hawk, and horses was so per- 
fectly matched, that after a long chase they all came to a full stop. 
First the hare came to a stand ; then the dogs, out of breath, a few 
paces behind ; next the horses of the sportsmen brought to a perfect 
stand -still; and lastly, the hawk resting on a stone close by quite 
exhausted ! The gentleman's servant dismounted and took up the hare 
in his hands. 

On the plains of Adana a kind of falloAV-deer is met with, called by the 
natives yumurgia; their skins are dyed and used by the Muhammadans as 
carpets to say their prayers upon. This animal is very large, but is by 
no means so swift as the gazelle ; the latter are very abundant, and may 
be seen in flocks of fifty or sixty. They afford the chief sport for cours- 
ing, and are seldom taken except by an extraordinary dog, unless they 
can be driven into a muddy field after heavy rains, which they have the 
instinct to avoid, by making for the high road as soon as they apprehend 
pursuit. It requires a great deal of tact and ingenuity to manoeuvre 
so as to get them into the predicament requisite to make them flounder 
till the dogs can come up to them. I recollect when at Mosul being 
instrumental in the capture of two, which we took on the plains of 
Nineveh with dogs that my friend the French consul had in vain taken 
out on several occasions. The flesh of the red gazelle is barely eat- 


able, — it is always lean and dry; whereas the rimi, or white gazelle 
of the desert, is very fat, and is, perhaps, the most delicious of all 
venison. The gazelle supplies a tribe of Arabs called Slaih with 
food, raiment, and tents. These people have a simple method ©f taking 
large herds of them for their winter provisions. They build a Avail of 
loose stones about four feet high and about a quarter of a mile long, dis- 
posed in a semicircle. In the centre they leave a breach, behind which 
they dig a deep pit. When they have contrived to drive the gazelles 
along this cul-de-sac, which is effected by the whole tribe turning out to- 
gether, the poor animals, seeing no other exit, jump through the breach 
and fall into the pit, where the men are ready to slaughter them. Their 
flesh is dried in the sun, and is said to form the only food of the tribe; 
their skins also serve as covering for the body, and are used as tents to 
shelter them from the rays of the sun. This Slaih tribe is a remarkable 
one; with the exception of a very few donkeys, they possess no worldly 
goods either of camels, sheep, or horses, whereby to tempt the cupidity 
of their neighbours, with all of whom they are thus enabled to keep at 

The dogs used for coursing in Cilicia are very beautiful, having 
silky hair on their ears and tails ; they are bred in the higher regions 
of Mount Taurus and Anatolia, and are brought down by the Turkmans 
in the winter, and return to their yailas in the summer, as they cannot 
hold out against the heat of the plains. They are very tame, and, unlike 
any other dog of the Turks, are much petted, and allowed to lie on their 
carpets and beds. They are very susceptible of cold, and are always 
kept covered with cloth-felt. A good dog is much prized, and is often 
not to be had in exchange for a cow or a horse and a measure of wheat. 
Such as take hares may be had from halt" a guinea to a guinea; but one 
that has taken a gazelle, under the most favourable circumstances, will 
fetch 21. 10s. at least ; and then the proprietor will only part with it 
when constrained to do so by his superior or by his superstitious preju- 
dices; for the Orientals think that if they refuse to part with an animal 
they have been asked to dispose of, it will be struck with the evil eye 
and die, or be lost or stolen. They profess, indeed, to despise dogs, 
and express their contempt of any one refusing to give a dog or horse ; 
and yet the Turkman will never give away either if good for any thing, 
nor sell either but at an exorbitant price. They have a very fine 
breed of shepherd-dogs, which they bring up on milk, as they seldom 
have any bread to spare. (The greater part of their wheat is purchased 
with the money produced by the sale of their cattle.) This breed is 
promulgated all over the north of Asia Minor, and I have seen it as 


perfect on the borders of the Lake ofUrumiyah in Persia. It is a large 
handsome dog, of a light-brown colour, with long woolly hair, and is 
faithful, courageous, and hardy. Some have been known to possess a 
good scent, and I have seen them used to find game, and to attack the 
wild boar, which is very large, and does much mischief to the crops of 
the villagers, who each pay so much a year to people who make a busi- 
ness of hunting this monster of the marshes. While hunting or hawking 
I have often come across a sow with seven or eight young ones; but my 
pointers had no chance with them, and it required larger dogs to over- 
come them. I recollect encountering one on foot with a lance, and I 
had to keep the lance in the huge beast to save myself until my com- 
panions came up and put a ball into the animal. 

There is a kind of antelope in the higher regions of Mount Taurus 
which the people call Gha-ik. It is remarkable for the length of its 
horns, which are sometimes four feet long, and curve over its back in a 
semicircle without branching off at all. It is as large as the fallow- 
deer, and its skin is much esteemed by the Muhammadans ; it has a 
strong musk smell, is hard and short in the hair, which is brown, with 
a darker streak along the back and a dirty yellow white on the stomach. 

Some years ago one of these animals being caught before it was three 
days old, it was brought up by a goat in a village near Kulak Bughaz 
Castle. If not taken very young, it is impossible to have one alive, and 
there is much difficulty in getting a shot at them, as they are very alert 
and live among the highest rocks of Mount Taurus. I offered the sports- 
men of Nimrud a handsome present for a live specimen, but in vain.* 

* This is evidently the ibex (Capra ibex) which occurs throughout Tamils, and is 
described by Professor Edward Forbes as inhabiting the mountainous parts of Lycia, 
where it is known by the same name, spelt by him Caik or Caigi. Professor Forbes 
says (Travels in Lycia, vol. ii. p. 62) that it is specifically identical with the ibex of 
Switzerland. The " wild goat" of Crete, whose horns are figured in Mr. Pashley's 
work, is the same species. A specimen was procured alive and kept tame as a pet 
on board the Beacon, (Capt. Graves). In Lycia the ibex frequents the summits of 
the highest mountains in summer. In the month of October 1841, during Mr. 
Hoskyn's torn', a herd of them was met with on the summits of the Massicytus, 
travelling in single file over the steep rocks, at an elevation of 9000 feet. In the 
winter they are said to descend from the heights. The wild goat of Crete mentioned 
by Aristotle, and of which he reports that, when wounded, it is said to seek the herb 
dictamnus, was doubtless this ibex. Its modern name Professor Forbes thinks is only 
a corruption of the ancient ai'f . — W. F, A. 




Quails and woodcocks are very abundant in their respective seasons of 
passage. The former afford amusement to the peasants, who take them 
in a very curious manner. A lad walks about till he sees a quail, which 
he intimidates from rising by holding a jacket extended by two sticks 
over his head, which the quail mistakes for the wings of a large bird or 
hawk, and by shaking either of these " wings" he drives the poor little 
creature in the direction he pleases, till he conducts it into a small net 
he has fixed some yards further off, and then he takes it with the hand. 

I witnessed another plan for entrapping the quail used by the Arabs 
on the eoast of Egypt, which I will here note. The Arab sticks two 
branches of the date-tree in the earth; and these are joined about afoot 
high at the top, fomiing a triangle, of which the ground is the base, 
and he fastens thereto a small net opposite the side facing the sea ; of 
these he makes several hundred, planting them in regular rows at ten 
paces from each other; the quails arrive during the night, or rather very 
early in the morning, and as soon as they begin to feel the heat of the sun, 
they naturally seek for shade, which is no where to be found in the 
sandy desert (between Alexandria and Eosetta) except under these ar- 
tificial bowers, where they are induced to take refuge. About ten 
o'clock, the Arab knows that all the quails have repaired under his 
treacherous cover, and he has nothing further to do but to present him- 
self on the side facing the sea, which is open, and the quail, if it attempts 
to fly at all, must be entangled in the net on the other side. In this way 
thousands are taken daily and brought in cages to market ; but they are 
never so good as those shot, because they soon fret in captivity and 
become lean. 

Some of the peasants of the plain of Tarsus and Adana employ 


sparrow-hawks, which they capture a few days before the passage of 
the quails (which takes place from the 15th of April to the end of 
May, and again between the 15th of September and 15th of October), 
and train them to take quails, letting them go again when the sea- 
son is over. If this useful little hawk is kept two years, it is capable 
of taking partridges and francolins, to do which it is requisite to prac- 
tise it at the young birds, which he will continue to take until they are 
full fledged. But it is the most delicate of all hawks, and it is very 
seldom that any remain free from accident for so long a period. 

Cilicia abounds in francolins and partridges; the latter are of the 
red-legged species and keep to the mountains, coming down into the 
hilly part of the plains in the winter, and are at that time to be met 
with in vast numbers among the bushy mounds of sand on the sea- 
shore. The former is a morass bird, and never to be found at any 
distance from water; the female is exactly like the hen pheasant, but 
not so the male, which has a little tail; but is quite as variegated in 
colours and as courageous as any of the gallinaceous breed. The people 
of the country have a curious way of taking these two kinds of birds, 
namely, by galloping them down ; for when they have flown twice, they 
generally allow themselves to be taken with the hand, probably from 
exhaustion. The same method is practised in regard to the cormorant 
in the shallow waters of some rivers ; and Sir John Malcolm, in his 
Sketches in Persia, mentions the circumstance of the Persians taking 
the partridge in the same manner in the environs of Bushire (Abu 
Shahir), when he was on his way from that place towards the capital. 

The natives sometimes keep a decoy bird, which they expose in 
spring-time in its cage, when, by its crowing, it attracts other male 
birds which come to fight with it, and which are thereupon shot from 
behind a wall or hedge. It is remarkable that the cock will eat the 
brains of its fallen enemy, which are generally given to it; and it is 
curious to see it crow and quite glut itself as if triumphing in its repast. 
Partridges and francolins are also approached by a man holding in his 
hand a light framework, on which is fixed a checkered linen cloth, two 
feet by six, with a small hole to peer through, till he comes within shot, 
when he sticks it in the ground and fires from behind. Turkman 
children have also an ingenious way of catching larks or any other 
small bird. The contrivance is this: they tie at one end of a horse-hair 
four inches long, a piece of dry sheep or goat's dung, and to the other 
end an insect or grub of any kind ; they throw several of these on the 
ground and retire to a distance ; when they see that a bird has swallowed 
one of these baits, they run to it, and invariably, on its flying, its wings 



get entangled in the horse-hair, which is kept hanging down by the 
weight attached to it, and the bird is thus soon caught. 

The natives of Galata, to the west of Mursina, have also a simple 
yet efficacious method of capturing wild doves ; these, like all other birds 
of passage, on their first arrival, fly in a direct line, never deviating thirty 
paces to the right or left; the people know this, and in the twilight be- 
fore sunrise they place across their road a net six feet high by fifty long. 
On each side of the road, six or eight men stand with crooked branches 
of trees about three feet long in their hands, and when they see the 
doves coming, they throw these dark branches up in the air, and the 
doves imagining them to be hawks coming down upon them fly very 
low, and consequently come in contact with the nets, and as they go in 
flights of thirty or more, many are taken in this way, 





The ancient and aristocratic sport of falconry, formerly much in vogue 
in Cilicia, lias latterly fallen into disuse; even in that province the rich 
have degenerated to such a point that they cannot conceive any gratifi- 
cation in activity, and the poor are too much occupied in matters more 
profitable than attending to their hawks, which require constant care and 
trouble. Still, man is by nature a sportsman, and the Turkmans appre- 
ciate the qualities of a good falconer, the term avgi being still a lauda- 
tory one, and many of their chiefs feel flattered by it. When they see a 
European excel in their own line, they are much pleased, and look upon 
him as one of themselves. Some of the young chiefs keep hawks ; but 
their dogs are badly trained: when young they are allowed to run wild, 

* From the original plaster of Paris sketch modelled by Mr. J. Hancock of New- 


and are therefore never afterwards under command. They hunt, how- 
ever, with considerable activity; but it is for themselves, as they gene- 
rally eat the game they get hold of, if they are not closely Avatched. In- 
deed, I once saw a dog swallow a quail — bones, feathers, and all — with- 
out giving his master the chance or time to get it out of his mouth. 

Of course they cannot be expected to bring the game on which they 
are fed, to " induce them to be sharp and look after itP' as a young Turk- 
man told me ; considering it as a matter of course that a dog would not 
hunt without such incentive. As soon as the dog seizes the bird, the 
master calls out, " Husht ! hushtT throwing a stone or any thing he 
can at him to make him let go the bird, in order to get hold of it him- 
self, and cut its throat before it dies; for if it dies of itself, or is killed 
by the dog, they look upon it as strangled, and their religion forbids 
their eating it. But some confirmed sportsmen laugh at this, and cut 
the bird's throat subsequently, in order to make it appear that this 
prescribed formality has been gone through in proper time, and thus 
induce their women to cook the game for them. 

The Turkmans have but one kind of sporting dog. It appears to be 
of a somewhat similar breed to the Scotch terrier, and is well adapted to 
go through the bushes, as its hair is long, and it is a hardy beast. It is 
called boji; is small, and has long bristly hair (generally grey, and 
abounding about the eyes and nose). It is an intelligent animal, and 
were it brought up by a European, might be rendered subservient and 
useful for the hawk; and as they are natives of a hot climate, they can 
stand the heat well, and remain longer without water. Such qualities 
are valuable; for I have seen my dogs quite knocked up as late in the 
year as the 25th of November, and chiefly from the heal of the season. 

These Turkman bojis have not so acute a scent as some of our best 
dogs in England, but the}" are as good as the generality of common 
breeds, and very persevering. It is really astonishing how these poor 
creatures hunt at all, for they are nearly starved. 

Besides the sparrow-hawk (accipiter m'sus), hashek in Arabic, abmajia 
in Turkish, the Cilicians are acquainted with three species of hawks : 

The gos-hawk, doghan; autour of Buffon, aster palumbarius of 

The lanner, seifee ; falco rjentilis or Janarius of Linnaeus. 

The peregrine, sheheen; falco nobilis or peregrinua of Linnaeus.* 

* The sparrow-hawk is the falco nisus ; the gos-hawk the falco palumbarius ; the 
falco gentilia is the greater buzzard, falco gallinarius of Temminck. According to 
the latter author, the falco peregrinus of Linnaeus and the falco lanarius of Gmelin 
are different ages of the true blue-backed falcon. — \V. F. A. 


The doghan or gos-hawk is a native of Mount Taurus. It is fre- 
quently brought up from the nest, as bad sportsmen imagine that by 
that means a hawk becomes tamer, and not so likely to fly away. But 
this is an error ; and I do not know that there is really any benefit to be 
derived from an eyas ; and I can point out several disadvantages. One 
is, that unless very carefully and constantly fed when young, it gets into 
the habit of " calling" when it is hungry — a great vice, and one that is 
catching in birds. No sportsman would keep such among his hawks, 
as it would spoil the whole lot. Further, the hawk takes to scratching, 
and will not easily give up the game it seizes, which it often nearly 
tears to pieces. Besides these disadvantages, the hawk having never 
caught any thing in the wild state, must be taught ; and it requires some 
time to develop its instinct : whereas haggards, that is, hawks taken by 
the net full-fledged, know what they have to do, having hunted on their 
own account, and it is merely necessary to tame them in order to ren- 
der them useful birds. They are also more careful of their wings, the 
advantages of which they can appreciate better than a bird that has 
never flown, and they are soon brought into the use of their faculties ; 
whereas the nestling or eyas has to be taught to fly, and practised a 
long while before it can be brought into ivind. On the whole, therefore, 
I lean towards the haggard; and the doghan is so tractable a creature, 
that in the course of ten days it may be brought to be as tame as can 
be desired. Generally speaking, a much longer time is taken to train 
them by timid or inexperienced falconers ; but I have myself hunted a 
doghan and made him take a partridge the eighth day; but then I had 
dogs accustomed to hunt under the hawk, which is of great consequence, 
as a dog that does not know what hawks are will do more harm than 

In England hawks are "floicn at hack ;" that is, when brought from 
the nest, they are kept in a shed, where they are regularly fed, and 
allowed to fly away and return in the evening to their roost.* This is 
a great advantage, as it enables you to keep your hawk much fatter; 
and in after times, when hunting, if it is lost or flies away, you know 
that it will return home. And this is particularly advantageous in case 
of hawks of the hire, which are most prone to wander. The doghan is 
so steady a bird that it is extremely difficult to lose it ; and he must be 
a very inexperienced falconer who would allow it to be in that state 
which would induce it to fly away. Thus, on the whole, the doghan 
gives the least trouble of any kind of hawk, and requires the least train- 

* The falconers in the East cannot do this, as they would be sure to have their 
hawks stolen. 


ing ; and we shall see further that it is the bird the best adapted for 
the present state of the country. 

I have lately perused a work of much interest, called Game Birds 
and Wild Fowl, their Friends and their Foes, by A. E. Knox, M.A., 
F.L.S. The author devotes a chapter to falconry, and gives a graphic 
account of this exhilarating sport from the experience of his friend, 
Colonel Bonham, of the 10th Hussars, who, he says, although a good 
shot and a practised stalker, laid aside the gun and the rifle for the en- 
joyment of the " noble craft." " Would that others could be tempted 
to follow his example !" To this I would add, as an inducement, my 
persuasion, that those who have not felt all the excitement experienced 
by the falconer cannot be said to have tasted of all the pleasures of life ; 
and surely if there remain to them still one enjoyment which is so re- 
fined and innocent, it is worth their while to give it a fair trial, which 
all can do who have the means of keeping a man, two horses, and a dog, 
and have the run of an open country. 

Knox's description (page 164) of the perfection to which dogs can be 
brought goes far beyond my experience, as I have not had the advan- 
tage of seeing dogs in such good training; and I considered that one dog 
I had for seven years had reached the acme of what dogs were capable 
of; but I find, from what he says, that the intelligence of the Russian set- 
ters leads them to distinguish and appreciate the nature of the different 
characters in which they were alternately required to appear; and when 
the game was sprung, and the bird fell or flew away, no attempt was 
made, no inclination was evinced, to break the point; they would " down 
charge" as instantaneously and perfectly as if the discipline usual in 
such cases had never been for a moment relaxed in their sport under 
the hawks. Dogs, in hawking, are expected to run in upon the game 
directly it rises, and follow the hawk as closely as possible. I had a 
pointer that would cross the river and hunt alone under the hawk who 
had pursued the quarry to the other side, and would be on the top of 
a bush waiting the arrival of his coadjutor to raise the game, which 
generally takes refuge on the first flight in the closest cover at hand. 
Doll would first go round the bush to make sure that the partridge had 
not skidked out, and then entering, would raise it. The bird would 
then try to fly back to the side of the river from whence it was first 
started, and would sometimes be struck close to my feet by the hawk. 
Sometimes the bird fell into the river at the moment of being seized. 
In this case the hawk would not let go his prey ; but both might be seen 
sailing down the stream, until Doll, swimming back to me, and see- 
ing how matters stood, could go to the rescue, and land hawk and 


partridge on my side of the river. If the quarry drops in the river be- 
fore it is caught, the doghan will not lay hold of it, but will return to 
his master. But it happens that he sometimes overtakes it before it is 
quite in the water, and yet not sufficiently in the air to enable him to 
carry it, which he can easily do, to a distance of a couple of hundred 
yards, when at a sufficient height in the air. Can you imagine any 
sight more attractive and picturesque than the repose of the party after 
the excitement of an exploit like the one just mentioned ? Often might 
you see the dog actually hunt alone with the hawk across the river, and 
return with the hawk, or be in time to rescue it from the stream. My 
Arab mare appeared, upon these occasions, to understand what was 
going on, and to take as much interest as the falconer in the sport.* 
And as the hawk (after having been duly fed) was perched on her back, 
she would turn round and look approvingly (for horses can look approv- 
ingly) at the intelligent victor, while the dog, having shaken off the water 
from its back, would be jumping up to lick her mouth ; the sportsman 
caressing all the three, wondering which he loved best, his gallant hawk, 
his generous mare, or his faithful dog! 

Mr. Knox acknowledges that the movements of the gos-hawk in cover 
are exceedingly rapid and effective. Its short wings enable it to pass 
more easily through the interstices of boughs ; while with its long and 
fan -like tail it steers its way and performs marvellously intricate evo- 
lutions, as it pursues the pheasant, the black-cock, the hare, or the 
squirrel, through the tangled labyrinths of coppice and underwood. 
But he says, " its character is altogether devoid of that energy and per- 
severance that are so conspicuous in the falcon. If the quarry should 
gain an advantage at the beginning of the chase, it frequently relin- 
quishes the pursuit altogether, and, settling on the nearest branch, pre- 
pares to dart upon the next passer-by." 

This is the general complaint made by sportsmen against the gos- 

* I am not exaggerating the intelligence of these noble creatures ; and I declare 
that my horse would always distinguish between a hare and any other animal, be- 
tween the game I sought and any common bird, of which it would take no notice, but 
always start off in pursuit of the quarry, when put up, if I happened to be looking 
a different way. It is a known fact, that the Arab horse, when let loose to graze 
while his master is reposing, will always come up and snort, to apprise him of the 
approach of an intruder on the privacy of the desert. 

In the East the saddles are made to cover the greater pai~t of the back of the horse, 
and are much more convenient than the English saddle for mounting and dismounting, 
with the embarrassment of the hawk on the hand, which it is very often requisite to 
do. The pommel is large enough to form a hold for the left hand ; and the hind part 
of the saddle is raised, so that it is often convenient to perch the hawk upon it. An 
English rider mounts by the mane of the horse, and not the pommel, in order not 
to throw too great a strain upon the saddle and saddle-girths. 


hawk, but my experience has shewn me that these defects are not in- 
herent in the hawk ; but originate generally with the sportsman. If a 
gos-hawk is properly trained, and given something (say the head) of 
every thing he takes, he will never give up the pursuit until he reaches 
the bush wherein the quarry has taken refuge; but the dog and the 
falconer must be alert, and come to his assistance, and never give up the 
search for that identical bird. If the bird is let go, and the sportsman 
looks after another, the hawk, whose mind and soul are set upon that 
particular bird, which he will distinguish from among any number that 
may rise, and will never fail to pursue in preference to the rest, is dis- 
couraged from the sport. 

Mr. Knox proceeds : — " It was not without reason, therefore, that 
this species, and some other hawks of similar structure, habits, and 
character, were styled ' ignoble ' by our ancestors, to distinguish them 
from the long-winged, high-flying, or 'noble' falcons." 

I am sorry to differ from an authority of such high standing as the 
naturalist above quoted; but I would beg to suggest a very different 
reason for the epithet in question. The gos-hawk, and those of his 
structure, are birds so much easier to train and keep than the falcons, 
which require a man for each, that the vulgar herd used them when 
they could not afford to keep those of a higher flight, which were thus 
left to the privileged aristocratic and rich falconers. That the gos-hawk 
is more efficient than the peregrine is clear from the fact that Colonel 
Bonham, according to Mr. Knox, acknowledges that " three grouse were 
sufficient to take from a falcon in one day." Colonel Bonham being a 
great proficient, and having had great practice, must be allowed to be a 
fair judge; and I am assured that, in general, the peregrine cannot be 
brought to take so many. One flight, or two at most, daily, is all that 
is expected of him by the falconers of the present day. Now, the dog- 
han will take as many birds as you can fly him at; and I have repeat- 
edly taken fifteen to twenty francolins in a country where there were 
no preserves, and where we had to hunt out our game What would 
the doghan not do here in England, provided always he had the head of 
the quarry given him to encourage him ? That our forefathers did not 
look upon the gos-hawk as really ignoble, may be seen from the many 
elaborate treatises published in the way of treating and hunting this 
hawk alone ; and that they appreciated his good qualities may be inferred 
from their always keeping one " to feed their falcons urith" that is, to secure 
game for them when the peregrine was not in humour to hunt, a thing 
of constant occurrence. Indeed, I believe that the uncertainty and ca- 
prices of this latter bird have been the chief cause of the noble art of 



falconry falling into disrepute. People could not afford to keep several 
of these birds (for each of which, properly speaking, a man is required) 
in order to secure one flight or two. Sometimes the falconer might, in 
his zest for the sport, invite a party of friends to witness his exploits, 
and twenty to one but they were all disappointed, and told that the 
bird, on being tried out in the field, was not in the humour ; was 
too fat, or too thin, or some other excuse ; and you are never sure 
what your bird will do till you have had the trouble of going out to 
fly him. 

Now the gos-hawk, when properly broken in, requires little or no 
attention; his master need keep no servants or falconer to attend upon 
him, and carry him day and night on the hand, which is requisite with 
the peregrine; if in proper trim, he is ready to hunt, and you can count 
upon him, and you may fly him as often as you please in the course of 
a day. I do not recollect over seeing my hawks done up from flight 
after flight, for six hours consecutively ; and I have known a gos-hawk 
belonging to Eizu Kuli Mirza Nayebel Ayaly, a Persian prince residing 
at Bagdad, take twenty-one francolins consecutively. The prince as- 
sured me, and I firmly believe him, that he made sure of the quarry 
every time he let him fly from his hand. I have myself taken four 
hares and a dozen francolins, with several minor birds, and some larger 
birds, in one day; and I invariably found my gos-hawk improve by ex- 
ercise, — the more I hunted him, the more he was anxious to continue 
the sport. 

If ever falconry is to be revived in England, this bird will be the 
one to which Ave must have recourse. The enclosed state of the country 
has been generally brought forward as a reason for this sport having 
been discontinued. Such may be the case; and it constitutes the chief 
impediment in hunting with the peregrine, where life and death are in 
the scale ; for if you do not arrive in time to assist your falcon, he may 
be killed by the crane or heron. But in following the gos-hawk, you 
need never go faster than a hand canter ; and you will not find more 
impediments in your way than a fox-hunter is prepared to meet : surely, 
therefore, this shovdd be no discouragement. Besides, if your dogs know 
what they are about, they will follow the hawk while you go round by 
a gate ; and when you come up, you will be just in time to see the game 
raised, and the hawk waiting your arrival on the nearest bush or tree; 
for the gos-hawk flies in a straight line at his quarry, which he never 
allows to go beyond a thousand yards from the place it first started from. 
Indeed, the sport with the gos-hawk is so gentle, and, in a tolerably open 
country, so easy, that I think it particularly adapted for Jadies; and I 


shall be happy to hear of some of our noble-minded countrywomen setting 
the example to the sex, and give every encouragement to the sportsman 
by honouring him with their presence, and cheering him by an interest 
in his success. With such inducements of so refined a character, I have 
no doubt that the art of falconry Avould be revived ; and it would be 
delightful to strive, by patience and attention to our hawks, to gain the 
approving smile of beauty. Indeed, the presence of the fair sex consti- 
tuted in former times, no doubt, half the charm of falconry. 

Let me not be thought desirous of detracting from the merits of the 
peregrine or the lanner. The latter is one of the most perfect of its race ; 
but both require much attention and an open country, and must be left 
to those who have attained great perfection in the art of falconry. Gene- 
rally speaking, the gos-hawk will answer the purposes of most sportsmen. 

At the Zoological Gardens there are now five or six gos-hawks 
imported from Germany ; one of these I have trained and sent into the 
country, consigning it to the care of F. H. Salvin, Esq., Killingbeck 
Hall, Leeds, who has succeeded in making it take rabbits ; and latterly 
" Juno" has distinguished herself, and taken hares, which is an inter- 
esting sight, and one that no person in England has witnessed, except 
myself and a friend who Adsited me in Cilicia. I trust this bird, by her 
feats, may be the cause of once more attracting the attention of the 
public to an amusement now almost extinct.* I cannot speak too highly 
of Mr. Salvia's intelligence, patience, and perseverance. He has carried 
his refinement so far, as to hunt with the otter, and has performed mi- 
racles with some cormorants, which he tamed and trained to take fish 
for him. I am happy that he has turned his attention to the gos-hawk, 
as, having kept falcons some years back, he will no doubt be better able 
to do justice to this bird than any one else. 

Mr. John Hancock of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, a gentleman well known 
as one of our first naturalists, has, I believe, carried falconry to perfec- 
tion. Pie has kept every kind of hawk, and understands well their 
habits and mode of life. His collection of stuffed birds and their egg3 
is quite unique both in its variety and in the way they are got up. No 
one who has seen them can forget the specimens of taxidermy he exhi- 
bited in the transept of the Great Exhibition ; and I am happy to hear 
that he is about to favour the public with lithographic drawings, done 
by himself, of Avhat I may very properly call " anatomical specimens 
of stuffed birds," and which stand prominent in the art which he has 

* I have since received two trained gos-hawks from Tarsus. They were three 
months in a cage on their way to England, and came in perfect health. They have 
just finished moulting in the Zoological Gardens. 


carried to such perfection, as to rank, in my opinion, -with the first 

Falconry is, indeed, not quite extinct in England; for I find that the 
Duke of Leeds takes an interest in this noble sport ; and Colonel Thorn- 
ton, Lord Orford, Sir Thomas Sebright, Colonel Wilson, and the late 
Duke of St. Alban's (the Grand Falconer of England), have all kept 

So late as 1839, there was a Hawking Society, called the Norfolk 
Hawking Club ; and on its being dissolved, some of the members, such 
as the Duke of Leeds, the late Honourable C. Wortley, and Mr. E. 
Cluff Newcome, joined the Loo Club patronised by the present King of 

Mr. Newcome, as well as Captain Verner and some others, still 
pursue this sport with great success ; and I cannot but express the 
greatest interest in their pursuit, and wish their example may be fol- 
lowed by others. 

I am also informed that there are plenty of open districts still in 
England, upon the chalk formation, suitable to falconry, such as the 
country between Lincoln and Peterborough, the Berkshire and Wilt- 
shire Doavus, seen from the Great Western Railway, and the country 
about Brighton, Winchester, &c. Those who cannot find time or con- 
venience to go to these places, let them keep the humble, unassuming, 
useful, and efficient gos-hawk, which I have hunted successfully in a 
country as bushy as any that nature has produced, and as wild as can 
be well imagined. The dense thickets that occur between Mount Tau- 
rus and the sea-shore, are, indeed, remarkable. The dog can scarcely 
penetrate them, and sportsmen would generally flinch from flying a 
hawk there ; but living as I did in the vicinity at Mursina, I used to 
try, day after day, and I soon learned the " dodges" requisite to ensure 
a good day's sport, even with such difficulties to surmount. 

I find that Colonel Thornton and the Earl of Orford were the last 
sportsmen who took the hare and the kite with the Iceland falcon 
towards the close of the 17th century (1700). In 1844, Mr. E. C. New- 
come, of Hockwold Hall, Brandon, Norfolk, took, with a cast of old 
" passage-hawks," fifty-seven herons.* 

I also hear from my fellow-admirers of this sport, that his Grace the 
Duke of Leeds, when Marquis of Carmarthen, and living at Dunotar 

* The herons are not killed ; but being taken alive from the hawk, a copper ring, with 
the name of the captor and date upon it, is fixed to its legs, and it is turned off again ; 
and as the heron is a long-lived bird, I have read of their being recaptured many years 
after. Indeed, in one instance, a bird was shot at the Cape of Good Hope, bearing on 
its leg a date so ancient that I am, afraid to venture upon noting it here. 


House, near Stonehaven, in Kincardineshire, Scotland, killed with one 
peregrine, an old eyas tiercel, " the General," 130 partridges out of 133 
flights in one season. These instances, and Colonel Bonham's suc- 
cess in Ireland, should, I think, encourage others to enter the field of 
competition ; and I should be happy to afford them every assistance and 
information in my power, having had great experience for many years, 
during my residence in the East, in the training of hawks. Indeed, 
when I visited Persia, Malek Kasem Mirza, the viceroy of Azerbigian, 
declared to his officers that he had learned a great deal from me in con- 
versation on the subject, when I passed some twenty days in his happy 
valley near the borders of the lake of Urimiyah ; and I confess that I 
also learned much from him, for the Persians have carried falconry to 
the greatest perfection possible. As an example of which I will cite 
one case. Timour Mirza Seif-il-dowly, great grandson of the King of Per- 
sia, Feth Ali Shah, now residing with his two elder brothers at Bagdad, 
when at Aleppo some years ago, was accompanied by my brother in a 
hawking expedition. He had only a gos-hawk with him, having left 
his other falcons (of which he has more than a dozen, chiefly lanners) 
at home. He rode with his slave behind him equally well mounted. 
On coming to the place where partridges were expected to be found, two 
rose at the same time. He let off his hawk, which seized one of them 
immediately in the air at a few paces off. The prince dismounted and 
took it from the hawk, which he raised in his right hand, concealing 
the prize with his left. The hawk looked forward, and seeing the other 
partridge still flying in the open country, proceeded in pursuit of it. 
The prince remounted, giving the first partridge to his man, and gal- 
lopped off after his hawk, coining up just after it had overtaken and 
seized the partridge that had flown upwards of a quarter of a mile, 
thus effecting " un coup double /" This he did three times successively, 
taking six partridges one after the other, to the astonishment of my bro- 
ther, who was aware of the difficulty that is experienced by falconers in 
extracting the quarry out of the hand of the hawk, so as to enable it to 
look forward, instead of looking after the missing bird. I must note, 
however, that the country where this took place was clear of any bush, 
and that the partridge could scarcely hide itself any where, except 
under a stone; and that it is not extraordinary that it should be taken 
in such an open country; the wonder lay in the bird's patient obedience 
to its master, in allowing him possession of the partridge, and flying im- 
mediately after the second. In that open country, I have myself taken 
forty-two partridges in three days, with a bird I had not had in train- 
ing ten days, and which Ibrahim Pasha had given me ; and I believe 


that there is no limit to the number of birds a gos-hawk would take 
when in proper condition — quite as many as he may be flown at, always 
provided he is not discouraged by being deprived of his right to the 

Sportsmen have found that it is necessary to keep each falcon to a 
distinct species of quarry, i. e. you cannot properly fly them at fur and 
feather indiscriminately. But although this rule applies also to the 
gos-hawk in some degree, I have found that it is by no means unexcep- 
tionable ; for I used to fly my gos-hawk (one I kept seven years) at every 
thing ; and I remember often returning home with every kind of game 
that I had met Avith, including hares, ducks, geese, partridges, franco- 
lins, curlews, water-birds, small herons, quails, rails, and even crows, 
and birds of rapine, three times his size ! Indeed, there was nothing he 
would not fly at, if I would let him go ; and he once actually attacked 
a vulture, which had carried off one of his companions, a gos-hawk 
belonging to a sporting friend, who was out with me, and who had 
neglected his bird in pursuing the game his dogs were hot upon. 

Besides the German gos-hawk, there is at the Zoological Gardens, 
Regent's Park, a precious and beautiful specimen of the Australian gos- 
hawk ; it is perfectly white, and its eyes are the colour of bright rubies. 
This is a hawk of considerable value for the sportsman ; its hands are 
larger in comparison to the other European and Asiatic gos-hawks, as it 
is smaller in body. But judging from appearances, I am led to believe 
that it would be swifter in flight, and, on the whole, a more efficient bird. 
I have had the pleasure of taming this bird, and could, I think, promise 
to turn it out a perfect hawk. This is the only specimen in England ; 
but I believe that Mr. Mitchell, the secretary to the society, is daily 
expecting some more of them from our antipodes. It forms, in my 
opinion, the beau idea of perfection in a hawk. I consider it worthy of 
a princely hand, and should be happy to see his Royal Highness Prince 
Albert patronise the training of this bird to afford amusement to our 
young Prince of Wales. It is without a defect, and might be brought 
to perform wonders. There are also peregrines and Iceland falcons to 
be seen in the same collection. Hitherto, indeed, the natural history 
of hawks has been much neglected, and we must look forward to 
more correct and valuable drawings, which we are promised by Mr. 

The two accompanying illustrations have been kindly furnished me 
by my friend Mr. John Hancock, to exhibit the different forms of the 
two tribes of " hawk of the hire" and " hawk of the fist."* 

* I cannot avoid making a few remarks here on the wanton destruction of life 



In England, hawks are divided into long-winged and short-winged ; 
in the East, they follow the same division, but call them black and 
yellow-eyed ; the peregrine and lanner being of the former, the gos- 
hawk and sparrow-hawk of the latter. And it is remarkable how, on 
almost every point, the sportsmen of the East and West are agreed. 
Although the communication between them has been interrupted for 
centuries, the general system of treatment, the many ingenious con- 
trivances, either discovered or handed down from posterity, are in 



both alike. Each use bells, jesses, leashes, hoods, and gauntlets, that 
are much alike. They imp the broken feathers in the same way; and 
both bathe and weather their hawks, give castings, and feed them in the 
same manner. This alone woidd prove the ancient origin of falconry, 
which appears to have had one source, and probably to have been in- 
troduced by the Indo-Germanic race from the plains of Hindustan, so 
favourable to hawking. It appears from all accounts that falconry is 
more generally attended to there than in any other part of the world ; 
and it was there that Colonel Bonham seems to have acquired his valu- 
able experience, " in spite of Thugs, tigers, and fever," and where his 

which the mania for collecting eggs and birds to stuff has generated. At the late sale 
of the valuable and interesting zoological collection at Knowsley, many a rare animal 
was bouglit in order to kill and stuff it ; and the exertions made in collecting eggs, an 
unfair practice and a morbid taste, will soon deprive us of many an interesting bird, 
unless put a stop to by the execration of public opinion, expressed on all possible 


perseverance lias been rewarded by the acquisition of many a sporting 

There is a kind of hawk called by the Easterns ispir. I have only 
seen one of these. They are much esteemed and fetch a great price : 
I have heard it said that 51., a dog, a horse, a camel, a donkey, a cow, a 
goat, and a sheep, have been given in exchange for one of these birds. 
They are very rare in Syria, and always haggards ; but I must confess 
that I have not been able to make a real distinction between them and 
the doghan, except that, when they have moulted, their eyes remain 
yellow, the pristine colour of the first year, whereas that of the doghan 
changes into a ruby red. They are certainly more powerful and swifter 
of flight, flying up hill after partridges, and taking them often compre- 
hensively, that is, flying at the covey, and not singling out any particular 
bird, by which means the whole lot is brought to a stand-still in a small 
space, while the hawk is flying about from bush to bush making a 
whistling noice, which so frightens the partridges that they allow them- 
selves to be taken by the dogs rather than fly again. When the sports- 
man has thus secured the whole covey, he throws up one to the hawk 
in waiting, who seizes it in the air, and gives it up, after having been 
rewarded with the head for his patience and assistance, and is ready to 
renew the sport until evening, when, of course, he must be well fed 
on the last taken. Modern sportsmen, in these degenerate days, will 
perhaps call this proceeding a species of poaching ; but when we 
consider the difficulty and merit of training hawks to be so tractable, 
we must not, in consideration of the tastes of others, desecrate the 
noble art of falconry with such an appellation ; and we must recollect 
that, in the East, the chief point looked to is the quantity bagged, which, 
by the by, is much the same with our present generation, who go out in 
a preserve to shoot at game as if they were so many barn-door fowls, 
and glory in the number they bring down without any exertion or 
trouble. It is related of Charles X. of France, that a shooting day 
used to cost him thousands of francs in powder alone, as he had a party 
of keepers sent round to drive up the game (by firing at it in the air 
without shot), and bring it under the aim of the royal gun ! 

The yellow-eyed hawks, or hawks of the fist, are never hooded; those 
of the lure are accustomed to the hood, because, I believe, that, as the 
latter sit more forward on the hand than the former, they cannot ba- 
lance themselves so well; and it is necessary to blind them in order to 
carry them about, as by that means yoii compel them to have recourse 
to their " hands, 1 " instead of constantly opening their " sails," to help 
themselves in their balance. This is the only use I can discover of the 


hood, and I would never recommend it, except on particular occasions, 
when necessary to keep the bird quiet. But otherwise I consider the 
use of the hood should be deprecated. 

The songhur* is a larger species of peregrine. It is sometimes taken 
in the north of Asia Minor; but I have not seen a specimen of this falcon. 
It is considered by the Turkmans as the king of birds, and they have 
assured me that all the feathered tribes " tremble in its presence." 

The peregrine of the cliffs of Mount Taurus is smaller than the Eng- 
lish peregrine, but more beautifully variegated in plumage. It is 
known as the " Barbary falcon." It is generally kept in the East by 
rich men, who can afford to have one man, or even two men, for each 
bird. The hand of the falconer should be its only perch. Thus 
treated, its natural wildness is conquered, and it may be brought to 
take any thing, although it is generally kept to protect the doghan from 
the attacks of its natural enemies, the eagle and vulture. So we see 
that the peregrine acts but a secondary, although a loyal part, in the 
estimation of Eastern falconers. 

The lanner, I have said, is the perfection of birds. The older it 
grows, the more perfect it becomes, it is so gentle and so tractable ; but 
it requires a very experienced sportsman to bring it to hunt at all. If 
he once succeeds, the bird is without price. It is the hawk most in use 
in Bagdad, where they are divided into several species, each having a 
separate name and employment. Some are trained to assist the dogs in 
taking the gazelles of the neighbouring desert, which it docs by fasten- 
ing itself on the head of the females, which have no horns, until the 
dogs come up. It is a native of the centre of Asia Minor; and I am told 
that you may see a nest on every tree in front of the habitations of the 
people of Bur and Nigdy. If naturalists have not called this hawk 
the " falco gentilis," they have given a misnomer to any other species, 
and deprived it of its rights. Its eyes are of a bluish-black colour; its 
beak grey, with whitish-grey feet, and black claws. It is not unlike in 
feathers to the English peregrine in its first year's plumage. I cannot, 
however, be expected to enter here into a dissertation on the treatment 
and training of hawks. To do this effectively a separate volume should 
be devoted to the subject. I have only mentioned cursorily what 1 
thought might be of most interest, and which I trust will attract the 
attention of the sporting world. 

Falconry is a source of healthy and innocent enjoyment ; and it is 
very desirable that some person of distinction should patronise its re- 
vival. Being conducted on horseback, quietly, it is more adapted to the 
* The Turkish appellation of this falcon. 


generality of sportsmen than fox-hunting or shooting, both of which 
are too violent exercises for many persons, and subject to many serious 
accidents, from which falconry is quite free. This " noble craft" com- 
bines every advantage, and let us hope will be brought into fashion 
once again; that we may see, as our ancestors did, those scenes so gra- 
phically portrayed by our immortal Walter Scott and other celebrated 
novelists, when describing this pageant of past glory. 




Among the medicinal herbs that have fallen under my notice, I must 
mention the Adiantum capillus Veneris, or maiden-hair, of which the 
people of the country make a strong decoction to remove dysentery and 
violent diarrhoea. 

There is also a black seed, like a dried black bean, of which I have 
not learned the name (nor is it, perhaps, used in the materia medica, if 
known at all). It is remarkably useful in the above maladies ; it is 
a tasteless astringent, and one or two seeds pounded up and taken in 
coffee bring about the desired effect. 

The Colocynth, or bitter apple, which grows wild on the sea-coast. 

The Palma Christi, or castor-oil plant, which the inhabitants culti- 
vate for domestic as well as medicinal purposes. 

Mount Taurus produces also the Scammony plant, and the gum is 
collected from the wild plants by persons who come to Tarsus from 
Latachia expressly for the purpose. 

And, lastly, the Scilla maritima, which is to be found every where 
on a sandy ground. The bulb of this plant is dried in an oven and 
reduced to powder ; it forms an excellent gum or glue, used by shoe- 
makers instead of their wax ; when required, it is simply rubbed up 
gradually with a little cold water into a paste, and after it is used and 
has dried, it becomes impervious to moisture, and no insect will touch 
it. In the state used in Turkey, it is of a brown colour ; but I think 
that, by sifting it of the rind, the remaining pith would be white, and 
it might he made available in book-binding, saddlery, &c. I brought 
some of it "with me to England, and it has been declared to possess many 
valuable qualities. In Europe, the squill is a well-known medicinal 
agent for coughs and consumption; but these maladies are unknown in 
Cilicia and Syria. So true is this, that the ancient Greek and Roman 
physicians were in the habit of sending their consumptive patients from 
Europe to Antioch and Suedia, on account of the beauty and salubrity 



of the climate : an example which, it is to be hoped, our countrymen 
mil soon learn to follow; for in few places can so fine a climate, such 
beautiful scenery and vegetation, such resources in learned or philan- 
thropic piu'suits, or in field-sports, and such cheap living, be found 
united together. The country would also benefit infinitely by the 
occasional residence of our valetudinarians at Suedia, Betias, or the 
neighbourhood. The reason that these districts have hitherto attracted 
so little attention is because travellers generally confine themselves to 
the beaten tract from Beyrut to Palestine. In this respect Mr. Neale's 
work, lately published, is calculated to do some good. 




Depcis l'instant ou Dieu tout puissant crea dans le ciel l'etoile qiii devait 
marquer mon existence, et depuis le jour de ina naissauce jusqu'a l'age de 
onze ans, enfant, je ne savais rien, je n'avais rien fu, si ce n'est les pleurs 
de ma bien-aiinee et tres-honoree mere, possedant une ame celeste, qui, au 
milieu d'un chagrin continuel, n'avait pu m'apprendre autre chose qu'a l'ai- 
mer et a partager ses peines. J'appris aussi. avant de 1'avoir jamais vu, 
que mon bien-aime empereur et pere avait ete assassine par son propre 
frere qui par-la a imprime sur le front de mon oncle une tache de sang, 
que rien ne pourra effacer de son vivant, et qui souillera sa meinoire lors- 
qu'il aura rejoint see anc&rea dans l'eternite. J'appris encore qua l'epoque 
du massacre des innocentes dames de son harem, ce Dieu tout puissant et 
misericordieux. qui m'a donue l'et it de la main merue d'un des 

ssina pour sauver les jours de ma tendre mere — barbare 
qui montrait des sentimens de generosite et d'humanite siqwrieurs a cetix 
d'lui oncle souille de sang — empereur de droit, mais de fait on 
qui s'abreuvait du sang de sa propre famille. De cette epoque, quoiqu'en- 
fant, mon jeuue cceur eprouvait toutes les angoisses d'une pareille tra- 

* The mistakes left are those in the original, -which, though incorrect, is verr good 
for a Turk to dictate to an Italian amanuensis. (For Translation, see p. 310. > 

It may be proper to premise here, that the author in no way pretends to guarantee 
the authenticity of the above extraordinary document. The improbability of the 
events and the incoherence of the writer are manifest throughout Little faith can 
therefore be placed in the princely origin claimed by its author. Still there are such 
strange things enacted in a country circumstanced as Turkey is, and which receive 
such frequent iUustration in its past history, and there is so much that is romantic in 
the life of this Oriental adventurer, that there is every excuse for presenting so curious 
a biography in his own words. If necessary, a further excuse might be found for such 
a publication, in the fact that the existence of such a personage as Nadir Bey — as a 
pretender to the throne of the Osmanlis— was very generally known in the countries 
that bonier the Mediterranean. Miss Romer, as we shall afterwards see, has already 
published some account of " the Turkish pretender," as that lady designates him ; and 
frequent allusions have also been made in the Maltese and other newspapers of the 
day to the same extraordinary personage, whose story has now for some time excited 
the greatest interest and curiosity in many parts of the world, but has never before 
been given in the author's own words. 


gedie de mon pauvre pere, que mes yeux n'avaient pas eu le bonlieur de 
voir, mais que mon coeur avait devine, et je detestais Taction horrible de 
mon oncle. Comme enfant, je partageais les chagrins de ma royale mere, 
l'objet de mon affection la plus devouee dans mon enfance, et de mon 
respect, de mon amour, dans l'adolescence, et mon unique consolation 
dans l'age viril. Mais helas ! peu de terns apres le chagrin qui la con- 
sumait termina les jours de cette auguste dame, et elle s'envola, comme 
je l'espere et le crois fermement, vers les regions du bonlieur eternel. 
Elle me laissa par droit d'heritage les droits de prince imperial, titre 
que la puissance divine m'accordait, et qu'aucun pouvoir humain ne 
pouvait me contester, et dont on ne peut sans crime me priver ; mais en 
meme terns elle me legua aussi un chagrin profond, et une douleur dont la 
puissance humaine ne pouvait adoucir l'amertume. Elle me laissa aussi 
un vetement superficiel que nul ne pouvait dechirer a l'exception de moi- 
meme ; elle me laissa un sentiment de vengeance dont moi seul peut 
connaitre la profondeiu* ; elle me laissa des diamants, preuve de la muni- 
ficence imperiale de son auguste epoux le sultan, et son amant ; elle me 
laissa des papiers ecris de son auguste main — ajoutez a cela quelle me 
confia aux soins, a la prudence, et a la protection de Joaniza, homme 
d'environ soixante-dix ans, qui avait survecu a sa femme et ses enfants, 
etre devoue et fidele au service de ma m£re, et reconnaissant des bontes 
et des bienfaits qu'elle avait repandus sur lui pendant sa vie. Elle lui 
recommanda de me conduire a Constantinople, ayant soin de ne faire 
connaitre ni mon nom ni ma naissance, mais de me faire donner une 
education ottomane aussi brillante que possible; et lorsque je arriverais 
a l'age de majorite, de declarer mes droits, et de m'engager a les faire 
valoir. C'est ainsi que la plus cherie des meres expira clans cet espoir. 
Mais il ne fut pas realise ; car " l'homme propose, et Dieu dispose." 
L'honnete vieillard, fidele executeur des ordres de sa bienfaitrice, 
essaya de me conduire a Constantinople, sans s'inquieter de ses propres 
infirmites et de son age avance. Peu de tems apres la mort de ma mere 
nous partimes de Caffa, ville de la Crim^e, ou ses saintes cendres impe- 
riales reposent : nous arrivames a Odessa dans l'intention de nous 
rendre a, la capitale oil avaient regne mes ancetres; mais nous fumes 
arretes dans notre voyage par les lois arbitraires de la Eussie, qui ne 
permettent a aucun sujet de passer la frontiere ; et quoique le vieux 
Joaniza fut descendu d'une famille de la Moldavie, et devenu sujet de 
la Eussie par suite d'un sejour de plusieurs annees dans cet empire, oil 
la justice est inconnue. Cependant, apres avoir ete retenu pendant trois 
ans dans cette ville, le bon vieillard termina sa carriere, et je restai sans 
protection, isole, et sans un seul ami, a l'age de quinze ans. Je connus 


alors la situation deplorable dans laquelle je me trouvais place. Je 
rappellai a ma memoire les dernidres paroles de ma noble mere, que me 
redisait souvent le bon vieillard, et ce fut alors que la vengeance prit 
reellement possession de mon cceur; et ayant arrange mes projets, j'ini- 
plorai dans les larmes la protection de Dieu seul, et placant toute ma 
confiance en lui, j'appellai la prudence et le courage a mon aide, et 
quittai la ville, accompagne d'un Grec nomme Macris, qui allait en 
Moree, passant par Trieste pour servir son pays, disait-il. Arrive a 
Bulta, les Juifs astucieux decouvrirent un air de mystere existant entre 
moi et mon compagnon, attendu que, n'ayant point de passeport, je 
comptais sur sa prudence; malgre que j'eusse achete" cherement l'amitie 
de ces Juifs, les malheureux n'en suivirent pas moins leurs dispositions 
a la duplicite, et aussitot que j'en eus connaissance, je quittai cette ville 
et mon compagnon, et seul je gagnai Mozilow sur le Dniester. La je fus 
assez tranquille, et je fis tout ce que je put pour gagner l'amitie de 
chacun, et apprendre tout ce que je pouvais. La j'appris un peu le 
Polonais ; de-la je me rendis a Lozensk, ou, par hasard, je me suis procure 
un document d'Elefthery, en Grec, sorte de passeport, qui me mit a 
meme ensuite de voyager en Russie sous ce deguisement, et d'etre admis 
dans la meilleure societe de cet empire. Je fus a meme d'etudier sa 
force et sa politique, ses lois, et la faiblesse de ses ressources ; en un 
mot, je put apprecier son gouvernement avec justesse. La j'ai vu l'en- 
nemi puissant de mon pays, et par consequent de mon cceur ; enfin, je 
quittai la Russie pour me rendre en Pologne, ou je trouvai ce peuple 
guerrier, brave et genereux, et sa brillante armee ; je commeneai des 
lors a m'attacher a la theorie et aux tactiques de leur armee; et j'arrivai 
a dix-liuit ans connaissant parfaitement la politique astucieuse de la 
Russie, et penetre" des souffrances qii'enduraient mon pays natal par 
suite de la revoke des Grecs. Je fus oblige de quitter la Pologne a cause 
des soupeons que j'avais inspire a la police, et je passais en Galicie dans 
l'intention de me rendre en Moldavie, et de-la dans la capitale de mes 
ancetres. Mais a Lembergh on me demanda dans l'hotel ou j'etais 
descendu, d'ou je venais ; mais ne desirant pas les satisfaire sur ce point, 
ou plutot craignant le gouvernement russe, je repondis que j'arrivais de 
la Moldavie, sans penser aux consequences qui en pouvaient resulter. 
Lorsqu'on me demanda ou j'avais fait quarantaine, je balbutiai, et re- 
pondis, " Nulle part." Cette reponse etonna tout le monde, et on me 
dit que je serais pendu pour m'etre soustrait a cette mesui'e de precau- 
tion. Ce que je compris facilement ; mais ne voulant pas etre traite 
comme coiqiable sans avoir commis un crime, je quittai cette ville, et, 
sous l'egide de la protection divine, je gagnai, sans etre inquiet^, la ville 


de Jassy en Moldavie, faisant partie de l'empire que gouvemait mon 
oncle. La, reflechissant sur ma situation, j'accusai souvent le destin. 
En peu de terns j'appris la langue moldavienne, seul avantage que je 
retirais de mon sejour. Je me mis en route pour Constantinople, pousse 
par la vengeance, et formant des projets imaginaires, batailles, et vic- 
toires; la tete pleine de ces reves je cheminais, et de cette maniere je me 
trouvai lance au milieu d'une nation etrangere, quoique ce fut ma patrie; 
des moeurs et des manieres toutes nouvelles pour moi ; et lorsque j'etais 
a etudier ce nouveau pays, la guerre eclata avec la Kussie dans les 
annees 1828 et 1829. Je n'y comprenais rien, croyant qu'il etait de 
mon devoir de prendre parti contre les agresseurs de mon pays. Je vis 
alors l'armee des Turcs, lions de courage, honnete par nature, mais com- 
mandes par des generaux aussi ignorans que des agneaux, sans en pos- 
seder la douceur, qui, dans leur vanite, se croyaient nes pour gouverner. 
Je ne pouvais que les plaindre et pleurer sur mon pays, et sur le mal- 
heureux resultat qui eut lieu a Adrianople, et je le considerai comme 
un chatiment inflige par la providence a mon oncle le Sultan Mahmout. 
Je me rendis alors au tombeau revere de mon legitime empereur, mon 
pere bien-aime, oii je versai les pleurs filiales, et ensuite je vis son 
assassin place dans des circonstances les plus critiques, et ce tableau 
horrible rappellant l'affreuse tragedie dans laquelle mon auguste pere 
avait perdu la vie, mes sens s'egarerent, et je ne revai plus que ven- 
geance ; mais bien malheureux est l'liomme qui en fait son idole. 
Neanmoins me trouvant dans mon pays natal, j'apercus l'activite qu'il 
mettait a le civiliser et a en reformer les abus; j'approuvai ces principes ; 
mais malheureusement il ne pouvait communiquer a d'autres ce qu'il 
ne connaissait pas lui-meme, comme la suite l'a demontre ; ses idees 
etaient nobles et genereuses, mais il ignorait sur quelles bases il fallait 
les fonder. Je ne satu^ais exprimer les combats qui s'elevaient en moi : 
d'un cote brulant de vengeance, et de l'autre retenu par la prudence et 
l'amour de mon pays, qui devait §tre sauve, mais non pas remue par des 
revolutions, me firent prendre la resolution de le ha'ir, mais de ne pas 
l'arreter dans la voie de refbrme qu'il avait en vue, et plutot le seconder 
comme empereur de ma patrie adoree. Pour ce faire, il etait n^cessaire 
de connaitre mieux notre emjaire, et je me rendis en Asie pour examiner 
de quoi est composee cette grand e nation ; et apres avoir satisfait ma 
curiosite sur ce point, je revins a la capitale dans l'intention d'etre utile 
a mon pays. II fallait connaitre les elemens du gouvernement ; je fis 
la connaissance de tous les amis de mon pere, de ceux qui correspondaient 
avec ma mere sublime, pour qui j'avait des lettres d'elle, et qui en con- 
science sont devenu mes vrais amis, et qui me sont encore ; en suite je 


fis la connaissance de Eeis Effendi et de l'interprete de la Sublime Porte : 
ils devinrent mes vrais amis; et me confiant a leur amitie, je decouvris a 
ce dernier la plaie que j'avais dans le cceur, mon nom, ma naissance, et 
quelles etaient mes projets. Le brave hornme, honnete Mussulman, parut 
frappe de la foudre, et apres un moment de reflexion, il s'exprima ainsi, 
les yeux baignes de larmes : " Prince, ayez confiance en Dieu, mais 
jamais dans les homines. Cachez bien voti'e origine imperiale, et suivez 
vos intentions pacifique^s; aimez votre pays, et Dieu vous sera en aide. 
Quant a moi, je vous suis devoue jusqu'a mon dernier moment ; mais 
n'oubliez pas que votre vie est en danger, que vous devez la conserver 
pour votre pays ; ainsi, que la prudence vous guide, et que Dieu vous 
protege." J'ai suivi ses conseils ; et en peu de terns je fis beaucoup 
d'amis ; et Hosref Pacha, alors g^neralissime, qui a cette epoque igno- 
rait mon origine, me confia le commandement d'un regiment de cavalerie 
qu'on devait former a Aldana. Arrive la, je m'occupai de recruter les 
soldats; et lorsque j'eus le complement, je recus Fordre de les discipliaer 
pour l'infanterie, ce que je fis avec le plus grand zele. Je contractai la 
un engagement d'amitie fraternelle avec Hagi Ali Bey, gouverneur de la 
place, et fils du fameux Hassan Pacha d'Adana. H. Ali Bey avait sous 
ses ordres environ 19,000 hommes de cavalerie, les plus braves, je crois, 
du monde entier, et entierement a sa disposition et a la mienne. Ce fut 
le moment le plus propice pour venger la mort de mon pere ; mais ayant 
deja resolu de servir mon pays en assistant et participant a la reform e 
dont il avait besoin, je renoncai a inquieter mon oncle dans ses projets. 
Quelques tems apres, comme j'avais un gout prononcee pour la cavalerie, 
je demandai la permission de me rendre a Constantinople, afin de faire un 
^change et de passer de Tinfanterie dans la cavalerie ; et en ayant recu l'auto- 
risation, je me rendis a la capitale. Independamment de mes appartemens 
du Seraskier, je pris un logement particulier a Pera, afin de me trouver 
en rapport avec les Europeens, et apprendre le Francais. Peu de tems 
apres les etrangers vinrent a moi, m'appellant Moszinski, a ma grande 
surprise ; et quoique je declinasse l'honneur que Ton me faisait, mes 
devices furent inutiles ; et bientot, en depit de moi-meme, tout Pera 
m'appella de ce nom, me felicitant de ce que j'etais si bien avec le gou- 
vernement turc, et dont le motif m'a occasionne des persecutions de la 
Eussie (motif imaginaire). 

Un jour, en mon absence, la grande incendie de Pera eut lieu ; et lors- 
que, comme tout le monde, je fus pour sauver ce que je possedais, 
j'arrivai au moment ou. tout etait en cendre. Pres de-la j'aper^s une 
femme grecque, seule et sans assistance. Le feu avait deja gagne sa 
maison ; son denuement excita ma compassion ; et avec Tassistance de mes 



gens, je sauvais sa vie et ses objets les plus precietvx ; car ses propres 
domestiques l'avaient abandonnee a perir, pour se livrer au pillage de sa 
maison. Apres avoir mis en surete ce qui avait £te" sauve dans le mai- 
son de Monsieur Black, qui est batie en pierre, je conduisit cette dame, 
encore toute effrayee, dans une maison eloignee de Tincendie ; la je lui 
demandai ses clefs pour aller chercher ses bijoux, argent, et papiers, 
parceque je considerais prudent quelle les eut en sa possession, dans la 
crainte que dans une confusion semblable ils ne fussent perdus. Je 
m'apercus qu'effrayee ; elle craignait de se confier a un etranger ; cepen- 
dant les larmes aux yeux, et avec cette delicatesse feminine, elle me les 
remis. Je la quittai, et me dirigeai de suite vers la maison de M. Black ; 
mais heureusement pour elle je rencontrai par liasard en chemin des gens 
inconnus, qui emportaient ses malles, quils avaient enlevee dans la con~ 
fusion du moment; et quoique je n'en fussent pas precisement certain, 
jarretai les frippons, et ouvrit les malles avec les clefs quelle m'avait 
remises. Jen sortis les bijoux et papiers, et mis le reste en surete dans 
la maison de M. Bersolesy ; je retournai de suite aupres de l'affligee 
Mariola (elle s'appellait ainsi), et lui lemis ses bijoux et papiers, qu'elle 
avait era perdus, et que le liasard seul m'avait fait decouvrir. Mariola, 
etonnee d'une semblable chance et de l'honnetete, comme elle le disait, 
d'un etranger, me remercia de la maniere la plus gracieuse m'exprimant 
sa reconnaissance, et me disant qu'il n^tait pas possible que je fusse 
un des Chretiens du pays ; car la probite et la generosite que j'avais 
montree etaient bien rare chez eux. Et pourtant, je considerais que je 
n'avais fait que mon devoir. Je donnai alors Fordre a mes gens de lui 
procurer une maison a Arnaut Kivy, comme elle le desirait ; et apres 
avoir fait transporter ce qui avait ^te" sauve de Fincendie, je l'accom- 
pagnai dans la maison qu'on avait preparee pour sa reception ; mais 
a peine arrivee, ses pleurs commencerent a, couler abondamment. Je 
lui en demandai la cause ; et -elle me repondit, avec cette delicatesse qui 
n'appartient qua, une dame de distinction, que desormais elle ne pouvait 
plus gouter le bonheur, et que sa reputation se trouvait compromise de 
ce que je l'avais accompagnee, ce qm £tait contraire a leurs usages. 
Ces pleurs me causerent une vive emotion, et quelque chose meme de 
plus tendre ; et etourdie, comme un jeune homme que j'etais, pour la 
mettre a, l'abri de la calomnie d'une societe grecque et injuste, j'offris de 
Tepouser (vu que la loi mussulman permet a lhomme d'epouser une 
femme de quelle que religion qu'elle soil) ; et Mariola me repondit qu'elle 
acceptait volontiers une pareille destinee, quoique je ne fusse pas Grec. 
Mariola etait le plus eher objet de mon coeur. 

Un jour Hosref Pacha m'apprit que la revolution faisait des pro- 


gres rapides en Pologne, et que l'arrn^e russe avait ete battue plusieurs 
fois. II me demanda si j'avais voyage eu Pologne, et me fit beaucoup 
de questions sur cette brave nation; et entr'autres, si j'en connaissais la 
langue; et l'ayant satisfait sur tous ces points, il jugea a propos de 
m'envoyer personnellement en Pologne. On me permettra de garder le 
silence sur l'objet de ma mission. D'apres ses ordres je me mis en 
voyage, et arrivai a Belgrade, porteur de depeches adressees par Hosref 
Pacha a Hussein Pacha, gouverneur de cette ville, qui ecrivit de suite 
a Vienne pour obtenir que la quarantaine fut reduite, s'il £tait possible. 
Cela lui fut accorde; mais nialheureusement j'appris que les Pusses 
etaient entres dans Varsovie, et que le gouvernement polonais n'existait 
plus; et quoique Turc, je plaignis alors bien sincerement cette brave et 
noble nation; mais pour ne pas exciter des soupcons, je me rendis a 
Vienne avec l'intention de passer par Trieste pour me rendre a, Con- 
stantinople. Apres avoir recu pendant plusieurs jours les plus grands 
honneurs de sa majeste et de la noblesse de Vienne, je fus arrete" avec 
toute ma suite (comme il est mentionne dans le journal, le Messager des 
Chambres du 27 Janvier, 1832); et lorsqu'on m'interrogea, je ne eras pas 
convenable de repondre a leurs questions sur l'objet de ma mission, et 
je m'appercus, par leur conduite et leurs questions insidieuses, qu'ils 
me prenaient pour un noble Polonais, et je fus des lors oblige de conve- 
nir que je l'etais, puisqu'on inassurait que sans cet aveu rien ne pouvait 
me faire recouvrir ma liberty ; et il ne me fut pas difficile de confirmer 
cette qualite, puisque je connaissais la langue, et je n'hesitai pas a ceder 
a leur opinion, afin d'eviter leurs soupcons. lis me creerent une famille, 
pere, mere, freres, et soeurs, et une parente" considerable; ajoutant a cela 
des domaines et d'autres richesses, qui, disait-on, m'appartenaient en 
Pologne. Je regrettais seulement que ce fut ideal ; mais tout a coup un 
estafette, porteur de depeches qui me concernaient, et arrivant de Con- 
stantinople, vint aneantir ma nouvelle famille et mes proprietes. Vers 
minuit je fus mand6 par le Prince de Metternich ; et a la fin de cette 
entrevue il me dit que j'etais libre, et que l'empereur, ainsi que lui 
merae, regrettaient beaucoup l'erreur qui avait et6 commise a mon 
egard, m'accablant de complimens, et me disant qui j'etais libre de con- 
tinuer mon voyage, et que sa majeste" l'EmjDereur d'Autriche se rappelle- 
rait toujours de moi avec plaisir. Je leur oflfris mes remercimens, mal- 
gr^ qu'ils fussent plutot dus a l'estafette. Quittant Vienne, je passai par 
Trieste, et arrivai a Constantinople. Le matin meme de mon arrived, 
Namyk Pacha, alors Narnyk Bey, m'invita a me rendre chez le Seras- 
kier, qui, disait-il, desirait me voir de suite. Je m'y rendis aussitot; et 
apres des politesses ceremonieuses, je fus conduit en prison, ou plutot 


dans un cachot afTreux. Je ne pouvais comprendre ni la conduite infame 
du Seraskier, ni quelle pouvait etre la cause de mon emprisonnement ; 
car n'etant pas d'un naturel mechant, je ne pouvais pas soupconner 
l'interprete de la Sublime Porte, qui connaissait mon origine, de m'avoir 
tralii. Mais la j'etais injuste; et croyant que je devais partager le sort in- 
fortune d'un pere cheri, je murmurai contre lui qui m'avait cree pour me 
faire terminer mes jours d'une maniere aussi cruelle dans cette horrible 
prison. Vingt fois par jour on m'annoncait que la mort m'attendait; 
et avec tout mon courage, j'etais quelques fois abattu et craintif. Je 
ne pouvais compter sur aucune assistance — un miracle seul pouvait 
me sauver; et ma conscience ne me reprocliant aucun crime, ni action 
dishonorable, me faisait esperer un meilleur avenir, car j'etais libre, 
quoique prisonnier ; tant il est vrai qu'une conscience pure franchit les 
murs epais du plus noir donjon. Un jour accable de desespoir, les fideles 
domestiques de Hosref Pacha, son Selichtar Aga et un Armenien 
Marderaki, dignes instruments d'un tel maitre et de leur nature vils et 
envieux du bien d'autrui, s'apercurent que je possedais des diamans, 
ceux qui avaient appartenus a ma mere bien aimee ; ils les convoiterent, 
et sans plus de facon me proposerent de leur dormer trois brillans pour 
prix de ma liberte" ; et quoiqu'il me fut bien penible de me defaire de 
ces reliques de ma tendre m&re, j'aurais sacrifie la moitie de mon 
existence pour sauver l'autre, car je ne pourrais depeindre les tortures 
que j'endurais dans cette affreuse prison. Je leur donnai done les trois 
brillans et de l'argent, et les deux miserables me dirent que e'etait tout 
pour le Pacha lui-meme, et que par consequent je pouvais compter sur 
ma liberte. Je voulus bien le croire; mais e'etait en vain que j'esp£- 
rais d'etre libre, car les hypocrites m'avaient trahis, et je continuai a 
demeurer prisonnier sans espoir. Par leurs ordres ma captivite fut 
rendue plus mal; et craignant unjour qu'ils vinrent s'emparer des deux 
brillans qui me restaient, et des papiers ecris de la main de mon auguste 
mere, j'adoptai un moyen pour les sauver. Ce fut de les faire entrer 
dans une bouteille, que j'enfouis a, plus de trois pieds de profondeur dans 
ma prison ; ou ils sont encore, car je ne pouvais pas les reprendre sans 
creer des soupcons qui eussent amene des resultats facheux. 

Un jour un Grec ivre fut amene dans la prison pour une dette de 
quarante-neuf piastres ; et me voyant, se mit a parler Grec, en me de- 
mandant ce qu'un gentilhomme comme moi pouvait faire dans un lieu 
semblable. " Quel crime," dit-il, " avez-vous pu commettre ?" Je lui 
repondit que le crime imaginaire poiu- lequel j'etais detenu me couterait 
la vie. " Grand Dieu !" s'ecria cet homme ivre, " payez ma dette, 
seigneur, et vous ne perirez pas." D£sirant fahe une bonne action, je 


payai la modique somme pour laquelle il etait arrete. II s'en dornrit; 
et a son reveil, " Allons, monsieur," me dit-il, " moi, et cinquante pali- 
caris, que j'ai a mes ordres, nous vous delivrerons cette nuit." Je 
n'attachais aucune croyance a ce que me disait cet homme ; mais il me 
vint a l'idee de le faire servir d'instrument a mon projet. J'ecrivis 
en langue grecque a l'auibassadeur de France, le suppliant de sauver 
ma vie. Je la remis a cet homme, qui fort heureusement la delivra 
fidelement. Le ministre charge d'affaires de France, M. le Baron de 
Varen, fit aussitot tout ce qui dependait de lui, et par des moyens que 
je ne connais pas, il me procura en peu de jours ma liberte. Je 
dois certainement ma vie a ce noble Francais. Pendant mon empri- 
sonnement, les Russes, qui ne negligeaient rien pour me persecuter, les 
Grecs et les Patriarches avaient reussi a me separer pour jamais de 
ma bien-aimee Mariola, sous le pretexte qu'^tant ne Grecque, elle ne 
pouvait e^pouser un homme qui ne professait pas la meme religion. 
Brulant de rage contre Hosref Pacha, et tous les eVenemens dont j'avais 
£te victime, je partit pour l'Egypte, ou j'entrai au service de Mehemet 
Ali, et recus le grade de general instructeur et inspecteur de toute la 
cavalerie, et peu apres aide-de-camp d'Ibrahim Pasha, ainsi qu'il en est 
fait mention au No. 1 de la lieuue Britannique pour le mois de Janvier 
1834. Cependant je regrettais de servir sous un homme qui faisait la 
guerre a mon oncle, c'est-a-dire a ma famille et a mes interets. J'obtins la 
permission de venir en Europe pour y retablir ma sante; mais je ne 
retournai que pour ne pas agir contre les interets de ma famille et de 
mon pays. Depuis, pour mon instruction, j'ai parcouru PEurope et 
l'Amerique; mais par tout j'ai ete en but aux persecutions de la Sainte 
Alliance, dont tous les calculs etaient deroutes parcequelle ne pouvait 
d^couvrir mon origine ni l'objet de mes voyages. J'ai etudie les langues 
anglaises et fran9aises, et j'ai resolu de servir ma patrie sous l'incog- 
nito. Plusieui's fois, sous un deguisement, je me rendis a Constantinople, 
et je finis comme auparavant par entrer au service militaire. Par les 
ordres de sa majeste mon oncle, et par rinterni(kliaire de son Excellence 
Rescind Pacha, ministre des affaires etrangeres, je fut norniue" comman- 
dant des troupes de Silistrie, composees d'infanterie, cavalerie, et artil- 
lerie; et de plus je fus charge d'etablir une colonie dans les fameuses 
plaines de Dobrige Ovasse. Mais je ni'apercus en Silistrie, aussi bien 
que dans les provinces que j'avais traversers, qu'il existait la plus 
grande confusion et les abus les plus crians dans les administrations 
civiles et militaires, ainsi que dans tout le systeme gouvernemental, et 
que la gangrene de ces abus avait mine et detruit le bonheur du peuple 
et le pouvoir du souverain ; car ceux qui gouvernaient en son nom, 


enfle" d'orgueil, et agissant plutot comme ennemi du peuple que dans 
son intgret, etait en general des hommes sans education et de l'ori- 
gine la plus basse, pratiquant dans leur ignorance des cruautes in- 
ouies, croyant par-la decevoir leur souverain, ou ceux qui venaient 
le repr^senter. Lorsque je decouvris un systeme aussi pernicieux, qui 
devait amener la mine de l'empire et de ma niaison, mon coeur declare" 
ne put le voir et le tolerer plus longtems. Je pris la resolution de me 
rendre a Constantinople, pour exposer a sa majeste mon oncle le mal 
qui existait, et l'aider de mes conseils pour y apporter un remede ; et 
quoique je fusse assez heureux pour gagner la faveur du Sultan et des 
principaux personnages, cependant je ne pus parvenir a leur faire adopter 
les moyens que je proposais en faveur de ma patrie bien aimee, en 
tachant de leur faire abandonner les principes pernicieux sur lesquels ils 
fondaient la base du gouvernement, et les changer pour un systeme paci- 
fique, qui fut favorable a la civilisation. Mais tous mes efforts furent 
vains, de sorte que, desesperant de reussir, et fatigue d'une lutte sembla- 
ble, je pris le parti enfin de faire connaitre mon origine a sa majeste 
mon oncle, et de reprendre de ses mains les renes du gouvernement, 
dont il ne savait pas diriger la marche, et par ce moyen sauver ma pa- 
trie et Fhonneur de ma race. Dans cette intention je quittai Constanti- 
nople, pour me rendre en Europe, d'ou je fis connaitre a sa majeste 
et mon origine et mes intentions pour le bonheur de la nation ; mais 
la mort, qui ne respecte aucun etre, nous l'a enleve ; et j'espere qu'il sera 
plus heureux dans les regions celestes qu'il ne le fut sur la terre, ou 
sa vie £tait abreuvee de douleurs; et je remercie la Providence de 
m'avoir preserve" l'honneur, en me sauvant de la tache d'etre la cause 
de quelque catastrophe, quelque coupable qu'il fut a mes yeux. 


From the moment that almighty God created in heaven the star 
which was to mark my existence, and since the day of my birth till I 
was eleven years of age, still a child, I knew nothing, I had seen nothing, 
except the tears of my much-beloved and ever-honoured mother, who, 
possessing a heavenly soul in the midst of continual grief, had only been 
able to teach me to love her and to participate in her sorrows. I also 
learned (without having ever seen him) that my well-beloved emperor 
and father had been assassinated by his own brother, who thereby im- 
printed on the forehead of my uncle a stain of blood which nothing can 
ever wipe off during his life, and which will darken his memory when 
he shall have joined his ancestors in eternity. I also learned that, at the 
time of the massacre of the innocent ladies of the harem, that almighty 


Providence which had granted me being, had used the instrumentality 
of the very hand of one of the assassins to save the life of my tender 
mother; a barbarous assassin, who evinced sentiments of generosity and 
humanity superior to those of an uncle whose hands were imbrued with 
blood; an emperor by force, but in truth an assassin, who bathed him- 
self in the blood of his own family. From this time, although a child, 
my young heart experienced all the anguish suggested by such a tragedy ; 
and referring to my poor father, whom my eyes had never had the 
happiness of seeing, but whom my heart could imagine, I detested the 
horrible action of my uncle. As a child I participated in the griefs of 
my royal mother, Avho was the object of my most devoted affection in 
my infancy, of my respect and love in my adolescence, and my only 
consolation in my manhood. But alas ! a little while after this, the grief 
which consumed her terminated the life of this august lady, and her soul 
flew, as I believe and hope firmly, to the regions of eternal happiness. She 
left to me by right of inheritance the rights of an imperial prince, — a 
title which divine poAver gave me, and which no human power can con- 
test with me, and of which I cannot be deprived without a crime ; but 
at the same time she bequeathed to me profound grief and pain, the 
bitterness of which no human power can soften. She left me also a 
superficial covering Avhom no one but myself could tear ; she left me 
a feeling of vengeance of which I alone can know the depth ; she left 
me diamonds, proofs of the imperial munificence of her august spouse 
the sultan and her lover ; she left me papers written with her own 
august hand; — add to this, she confided me to the care, prudence, and 
protection of Joaniza, a man of about seventy years of age, Avho had out- 
liA r ed his wife and children ; a person devoted and faithful in the service 
of my mother, and grateful for the kindness and beneficence she had 
bestoAved on him during her life. She recommended him to take me to 
Constantinople, being careful not to allow either my name or my birth 
to be known ; to give me an Ottoman education as brilliant as possible ; 
and when I had attained my majority, to declare openly my rights, and 
induce me to assert them. Thus it Avas that the fondest of mothers died 
in hopes, which, however, were not realised ; for " man proposes, and 
God disposes." The honest Ottoman, faithful executor of the orders of 
his benefactress, endeavoured to take me to Constantinople, regardless 
of his own infirmities or his advanced age. Soon after the death of my 
mother we left Caffa, a town in the Cz'imea, where her holy imperial 
remains now repose. We arrived at Odessa, with the intention of pro- 
ceeding to the capital Avhere my ancestors had reigned ; but we were 
detained on our voyage by the arbitrary government of Russia, which 


allows no subject to pass the frontier ; and this in spite of the old Joaniza 
being descended from a family of Moldavia, and having become a sub- 
ject of Eussia in consequence of a residence of several years in that 
empire, where justice is unknown. After having been detained three 
years in this city, the good old man terminated his career ; and I remained, 
at the age of fifteen, isolated, without protection and without a single 
friend. I then first felt the full force of the deplorable situation in which 
I found myself placed, I recalled to mind the last words of my noble 
mother, which the good old man often used to repeat to me ; and it was 
then that vengeance really took possession of my heart ; and having laid 
my plans, I implored with tears the protection only of God, and placing 
all my confidence in him, I called prudence and courage to my aid, a n 
left the city accompanied by a Greek named Maoris, who was proceed- 
ing by way of Trieste to the Morea, as he said, to serve his country. 
Arrived at Bulta, the cunning Jews discovered that the relations exist- 
ing between me and my companion were somewhat mysterious, for hav- 
ing no passport I counted on his prudence ; but although I purchased 
the goodwill of these Jews at a dear price, the wretches did not the less 
follow the suggestions of their evil dispositions to duplicity ; which com- 
ing to my knowledge, I left the city and my companion, and reached 
Mozilow on the Dniester alone. There I Avas pretty quiet, and did every 
thing in my power to gain the friendship of every one, and to learn 
all I coidd. There I learned a little Polish ; and thence I went to 
Lozensk, where I obtained by chance a Greek document of Elefthery, 
a kind of passport, which enabled me, at an after period, to travel in 
Eussia in disguise, and to be admitted into the best society of that empire. 
I was even enabled to study its strength and its politics, its laws, and 
the weakness of its resources ; in a word, I could correctly understand 
its government. I saw there the powerful enemy of my country, and 
consequently of my heart. At last I left Eussia for Poland, where I 
found that warlike people, so brave and so generous, with its brilliant 
army. From that time I began to attach myself to the theory and the 
tactics of their army, and reached my eighteenth year knowing perfectly 
the astute politics of Eussia ; and penetrated with the sufferings which 
my native country endured in consequence of the revolt of the Greeks, 
I was compelled to leave Poland in consequence of suspicions I had 
caused in the police ; and I passed into Gallicia with the intention of pro- 
ceeding into Moldavia, and thence to the capital. of my ancestors; but at 
Lembergh I was asked in the hotel at which I put up whence I came ; 
and not wishing to satisfy them on this point, or rather fearing the 
Eussian government, I answered, that I came from Moldavia, without 


thinking of the consequences that might result therefrom. When I 
was asked where I had performed quarantine, I stammered and replied 
" No where." This answer astonished every body, and they told me that 
I should be hung for having evaded this precautionary measure. This 
I easily understood; but being unwilling to be treated as guilty without 
having committed any crime, I left the town, and, under the wing of 
Divine Providence, I reached without impediment the town of Jassay in 
Moldavia, which "forms a part of the empire governed by my uncle. 
There, reflecting on my situation, I often lamented my fate. In a short 
time I learnt the Moldavian language, the only advantage I obtained by 
my stay here. I started for Constantinople, impelled by vengeance, and 
forming imaginary projects of battles and victories. With my head full 
of these dreams, I journeyed, and thus I found myself launched in the 
midst of a nation strange to me, although in the country of my birth. 
With manners and customs all new to me, and whilst I was studying 
this new country, the war broke out with Eussia in the years 1828 and 
1829. I Avas unconscious of every thing, and thought it my duty to take 
part against the aggressors of my country. 

I then saw the army of the Turks — lions in courage, honest by 
nature, but commanded by generals as ignorant as lambs, without pos- 
sessing the softness of the latter, who, in their vanity, thought them- 
selves born to govern. I could but pity them, and weep over my coun- 
try, and over the unhappy results which took place at Adrianople, and 
which I considered as a punishment inflicted by Providence on my uncle, 
the Sultan Mahmood. It was then that I visited the tomb of my revered 
and legitimate emperor, my well-beloved parent, and shed filial tears ; 
and seeing his assassin placed in such critical circumstances, this hor- 
rible portrait recalling to mind the dreadful tragedy in which my father 
had lost his life, I lost my senses, and I dreamt of nothing but ven- 
geance. But unhappy is the individual who makes an idol of this pas- 
sion. Finding myself in my native country, I could not help being 
witness of the activity that my uncle employed in civilising it, and in 
reforming existing abuses, and . approved of his good intentions; but 
unfortunately he could not communicate to others that with which he 
was himself unacquainted — as the sequel shewed: his -ideas were noble 
and generous; but he was ignorant of the basis on which to found them. 
I cannot express the tumult of my emotions. I burned with vengeance, 
but was withheld by prudence and the love of my country, which I 
thought I ought to save, but not disturb by revolution; so I decided 
that my hatred of the man should not induce me to impede him in the 
path of reform which he had taken, but that I would rather second 


him as the emperor of my adored country. To do this, it was neces- 
sary to be better acquainted with our empire ; and I passed into Asia to 
examine the materials of which this great nation is composed ; and having 
satisfied my curiosity on this point, I returned to the capital, with the 
intention of being useful to my country. It was requisite to be ac- 
quainted with the elements of the government. I made the acquaint- 
ance of all the friends of my father, as also of those who corresponded 
with my noble mother, to whom I had letters from her, and who be- 
came my real friends, and who are still so. Afterwards I made the 
acquaintance of the Reis EfFendi, and the interpreter of the Sublime 
Porte. They became my real friends; 'and trusting to their friendship, 
I confided to the latter my secret, my name, my birth, and what were 
my projects. 

The good man — an honest Mussulman — was struck with astonish- 
ment, and after a little reflection, he expressed himself in the following 
terms, his eyes wet with tears: "Prince, trust in God, but never in 
men. Conceal your imperial origin, and follow your pacific intentions ; 
love your country, and God will help you. As for me, I shall be de- 
voted to you to my last moment; but do not forget that your life is in 
danger, and that it is your duty to preserve it for your country; may 
prudence therefore guide you, and may God protect you." I followed 
his advice, and made a great many friends in a short time. 

Hosref Pasha, who was then general-in-chiefi and who was at that 
time ignorant of my origin, confided to me the command of a regiment 
of cavalry that was to be formed at Adana. Arrived at this place, I 
occupied myself in recruiting for soldiers ; and when I had the number 
required, I received the order to train them as infantry, which I did 
with the greatest zeal. I contracted here a fraternal friendship with 
Hagi Ali Bey, governor of the place, and son of the famous Hassan 
Pasha of Adana. 

Hagi Bey had under him about 19,000 horsemen, the bravest, I 
think, in the world, and entirely at his disposal and at mine. This was 
the most propitious moment for revenging the death of my father; but 
having already resolved upon serving my country in assisting and par- 
ticipating in the reform that it required, I persisted in my resolution of 
not disturbing my uncle in his projects. Some time after, as I had a de- 
cided taste for the cavalry service, I asked permission to go to Constan- 
tinople, in order to make an exchange, and pass from the infantry to the 
cavalry; and having received the authorisation I had requested, I re- 
turned to the capital. 

Besides the apartments at the Seraskier's, I took private lodgings at 


Pera, in order to find myself in connexion with Europeans, and to learn 
French. A little while after, people came to me, and to my great sur- 
prise, they called me Moszinski; and although I declined the honour 
done me, all I could say to the contrary was useless; and soon, in spite 
of myself, all Pera called me by this name, complimenting me on being 
so well with the Turkish government, and which motive occasioned me 
persecutions by Russia ; but the motive for this was quite imaginary. 

One day in my absence, the great fire at Pera took place; and when, 
like every one else, I went to save my effects, I arrived and found every 
thing reduced to cinders. Near to the place I perceived a Greek 
woman alone and unassisted. The fire had already reached her house ; 
her unprotected state excited my compassion ; and with the assistance of 
my servants, I saved her life and her most valuable effects; her own 
servants had abandoned her to her fate in order to pillage the house. 
After I had put in safety what we had saved in the house of Mr. Black, 
which is of stone, I led this lady, still much frightened, to a house at a 
distance from the conflagration. I there asked her for her keys, in order 
to go and bring her her jewels, money, and papers, because I thought it 
prudent she should have them in her possession, for fear that in such 
confusion they might be lost. I perceived that she was frightened, and 
feared to trust a stranger. She, however, with tears in her eyes, and a 
feminine grace, consigned them to me. I left her, and proceeded im-- 
mediately to the house of Mr. Black ; but fortunately for her, I met some 
strangers who were carrying away her trunks, which they had stolen in 
the confusion ; and although I was not certain of the fact, I stopped the 
rascals, and opened the trunks with the keys she had given me. I took 
out from them her jewels and papers, and placed the rest of the things 
in safety at the house of Mr. Bersolesy. I then returned to the afflicted 
Mariora (for that was her name), and consigned to her her jewels and 
papers, which she had thought lost, and which chance alone had made 
me discover. Mariora, surprised at such an incident, and pleased with 
the honesty, as she said, of a stranger, thanked me in the most gra- 
cious manner, expressing her gratitude, and saying that it was impossible 
that I could be one of the Christians of the country, for the probity and 
generosity I had evinced was very rare among them. And yet I thought 
I had only done my duty. I then ordered my own servants to procure 
a house in Arnaut Kivy, as she desired; and having caused what Avas 
saved from the fire to be taken there, I accompanied her to the house 
which had been prepared for her reception; but scarce had we reached 
it when her tears began to flow again. I asked her the cause of her 
grief; and she answered me with that delicacy which appertains only to 


a lady of distinction, that henceforth she could no longer taste of happi- 
ness, as her reputation had been compromised by my having accom- 
panied her, which was contrary to their usages. Her tears caused me 
great emotion, and even a more tender feeling; and like a giddy, foolish 
young man as I was, in order to protect her from the calumnies of the 
Greeks, I offered to marry her (as the Mussulman law permits a man to 
marry a woman of whatever religion she may be) ; Mariora replied that 
she accepted willingly such a destiny, even though I was not a Greek. 
Mariora was the dearest object of my heart. 

One day Hosref Pasha informed me that the revolution in Poland 
was making progress, and that the Russian army had been beaten 
several times. He asked me if I had travelled in Poland, and ques- 
tioned me particularly regarding this brave nation, and whether I knew 
the language. Having satisfied him on all points, he thought proper 
to send me to Poland. I must be allowed to preserve silence upon the 
object of my mission. According to his orders, I started for Belgrade 
with letters addressed by Hosref Pasha to Hussein Pasha, governor of 
that town, who immediately wrote to Vienna to obtain permission to 
have the quarantine shortened for me if possible. This was granted ; 
but unfortunately I heard that the Russians had entered Warsaw, and 
that the Polish government existed no more ; and although a Turk 
myself, I pitied sincerely that brave and noble nation ; but in order not 
to excite suspicions, I proceeded to Vienna with the intention of passing 
on to Trieste, and thence to Constantinople. After having received 
during several days the greatest marks of favour from his majesty the 
Emperor of Austria and the nobles of Vienna, I was arrested, with all 
my suite (as is mentioned in the journal le Messager des Chambres, 
under date of the 27th Jan. 1832) ; and when I was questioned, I did 
not think proper to answer their questions on the subject of my mission, 
and I perceived by their conduct and their insidious queries that they 
took me for a noble Pole, and I was obliged to grant that I was so, 
because I was assured that without such an avowal nothing could make 
me recover my liberty. It was not difficult for me to confirm this 
disguise, as I knew the language, and did not hesitate to encourage 
them in their opinion in order to avoid further suspicions. They 
created for me in their imagination a family — father, mother, brothers, 
and sisters, and a large circle of relations, and added to this domains 
and other riches, which they said belonged to me in Poland. I was 
sorry that all this was only ideal ; when all at once an estafette arrived 
with dispatches regarding me from Constantinople, just in time to 
annihilate- my newly acquired family and property. About twelve 


o'clock at night I was sent for by Prince Mettemich; and at the end 
of my conference with him, he told me that I was free, and that the 
Emperor, as well as himself, regretted extremely the error that had 
been committed regarding me ; he loaded me with compliments, and 
said that I was free to prosecute my journey, and that his majesty the 
Emperor of Austria would always think of me with pleasure. I offered 
them my thanks, which were due rather to the estafette. Leaving 
Vienna, I passed by way of Trieste to Constantinople. The same 
morning of my arrival Namick Pasha, then Namick Bey, invited me to 
go to the Seraskier, who, he said, wished to see me immediately. I 
went to him at once, and after much ceremonious politeness I was taken 
to prison, or rather to a horrible dungeon. I could not understand 
either the infamous conduct of the Seraskier or what could be the cause, 
of my imprisonment; not being of a Avicked character myself, I could 
only suspect that the interpreter of the Sublime Porte (who knew my 
story) had betrayed me. But here I was unjust. Believing that I was 
destined to suffer the same fate as my unfortunate father, I murnrared 
against Him who had created me in order to make me terminate my 
days in such a cruel manner in this horrible prison. Twenty times a 
day a proximate death was announced to me, and with all my courage, 
I was at times cast down and fearful. I could reckon on no assistance ; 
a miracle only could save me ; and my conscience reproaching me with 
no crime nor dishonourable action, made me hope for a happier future ; 
for I was free although a prisoner; so true is it that a pure conscience 
cannot be restrained by the thick walls of the darkest dungeon. One 
day, overwhelmed with despair, the faithful servants of Hosref Pasha, 
his Selichtar Aga and an Armenian Marderake, worthy instruments of 
such a master and of their vile nature, envious of the goods of their 
neighbour, perceived that I possessed diamonds, the same which had 
belonged to my beloved mother. As they coveted their possession, they, 
without further ceremony, proposed to me to give them these brilliants 
as a price for my liberty ; and although it was very painful for me to 
deprive myself of these relics of my dear mother, I would have sacri- 
ficed the half of my existence to save the other half, for I could not 
describe the tortures I endured in this dreadful prison. I therefore 
gave them three diamonds and some money, and these two wretches 
told me that it was all for the pasha himself, and that consequently I 
could count on my liberty. I believed them ; but it was vain for me 
to hope for liberty, for these hypocrites had deceived me, and I re- 
mained a prisoner without hope. By their order my captivity was 
rendered more insufferable ; and fearing one day that they intended to 


take possession of the 'two other diamonds that remained with me, and 
of papers written by my august mother, I adopted a plan for saving 
these. This was to put them into a bottle, which I buried at a depth 
of upwards of three feet in my prison, where they have ever since re- 
mained ; for I could not take them up again without creating suspicions 
that would have led to disagreeable consequences. 

One day a drunken Greek was brought into prison for a debt of 
forty- nine piastres ; and seeing me, he began to speak in his language, 
asking me what a gentleman like me could have to do in such a place. 
" What crime," said he, " can you have committed?" I answered him 
that the imaginary crime for which I was detained would cost me my 
life. " Heavens !" exclaimed this desperate man ; " pay my debt, sir, 
and you shall not perish." Anxious to do a good action, I paid the 
small sums for which he had been arrested. After this he fell asleep ; 
and on awaking, he said: " Well, sir, I and fifty palicaris, whom I 
have at my orders, will come to-night and deliver you." I put no 
faith in what this man said; but it came into my mind to make him 
instrumental to my project. I wrote in the Greek language to the 
French ambassador, beseeching him to save my life ; and I then gave 
him the letter, which he fortunately delivered. The French charge 
d'affaires, M. le Baron de Varen, immediately did all that depended on 
him, and by means with which I am unacquainted he obtained in a few 
days my liberty. I certainly owe my life to this noble Frenchman. 
During my imprisonment, the Russians, who neglected nothing to per- 
secute me, and the Greeks and the Patriarchs, had succeeded in separat- 
ing me for ever from my beloved Mariora, under the pretext that, being 
born a Greek, she could not marry a man who did not profess the same 
religion. Burning with rage against Hosref Pasha, and against all the 
events to which I had been a victim, I left for Egypt, and entered into 
the service of Mahmed Ali ; and I received the grade of general instruc- 
tor and inspector of all the cavalry, and a little while after of aide-de- 
camp to Ibrahim Pasha, as is mentioned in No. 1 of the Revue Britan- 
nique for the month of January, 1834. But it grieved me to serve 
under a man who was making war against my uncle, that is, against 
my family and my interests ; so I obtained permission to come to Europe 
for my health, and did not return to act against the interests of my 
family and of my country. Since then I have travelled in Europe and 
America for my instruction; but every where I have been subjected to 
the persecutions of the Holy Alliance, whose calculations w r ere foiled be- 
cause they could not discover my origin, nor the object of my travels. 
I have studied the English and French languages ; and I resolved to serve 


my country under an incognito. I have several times been to Constan- 
tinople in disguise, and finished as before by entering into the military 
service. By order of his majesty my uncle, and by means of his Ex- 
cellency Reschid Pasha, minister for foreign affairs, I was named com- 
mander of the troops in Silistria, composed of infantry, cavalry, and 
artillery ; and further, I was charged with the order to establish a colony 
in the famous plains of Dobrige Ovass. But I perceived that in Silis- 
tria, as well as in the provinces that I had traversed, there existed the 
greatest confusion and the most striking abuses in the civil and mili- 
tary administrations, as well as in all the system of government, and that 
the gangrene had undermined and destroyed the happiness of the people 
and the power of the sovereign ; for those who governed in his name, 
inflated with pride, acted more like the enemies of the people than as 
their protectors; and were, generally speaking, men without education, 
and of the lowest classes, practising, in their ignorance, the most un- 
heard-of cruelties, and believing that they would thereby deceive their 
sovereign, or those who came to represent him. When I discovered 
such a pernicious system, which must have led to the ruin of the em- 
pire and of my family, my heart, torn by such sights, could no longer 
tolerate them. I resolved to go to Constantinople in order to expose the 
evil to his majesty my uncle, and to assist him with my advice in re- 
medying such a state of things. But although I was fortunate enough 
to gain the favour of the Sultan, and of the principal personages of the 
government, I could not succeed in making them adopt the means that 
I proposed in favour of my beloved country, by seeking to make them 
abandon the pernicious principles on which they based the foundation 
of their government, and to change them for a pacific system, that might 
be favourable to civilisation. All my efforts were so futile, that de- 
spairing of success, and fatigued with the struggle, I decided at last on 
making known my origin to his majesty my uncle, and to take from his 
hands the reins of government, which he did not know how to direct, 
and thus to save my country and the honour of my race. With this 
intention I left Constantinople. To this effect I passed into Europe, 
whence I made known to his majesty my origin and my intentions for 
the happiness of the nation ; but death, which spares no one, took him 
from us ; and I trust that he will be happier in the celestial regions than 
he was on earth, where his life was steeped in sorrow ; and I thank Pro- 
vidence for having preserved my honour by saving me from the shame 
<jf being the cause of any catastrophe, however culpable he might have 
been in my eyes.* 

* Long after I had written that which relates to the " Turkish pretender," in the 



Agli Eccellentissimi Ambasciatori delle ittustre Potenze Cristiane della 
Europa presso la Corte di sua Maesta il Be delle due Sicilie. 

Eccellentissimi Signori, — Quantunqtie la penna sia debole a descri- 
vere il mio penoso destino, spero pero, che il loro scelto giudizio, dono 
felice dei sapienti rappresentanti, sapra intendercie la sostanza. 

Io 1' infelice Principe Imperiale Aclimed Nadir, nato nelle amarezze 
e le stragi del 1808, in cui fu vittima mio augusto e assai compianto 
padre, eono stato da lungo tempo perseguito e sospetto, parte per aver 
celato l'origine mio onde sconcertare i progetti dei malvaggi e degli 

body of the work, and since my return to England, a friend has pointed out to me 
that this mysterious personage has already been introduced to my countrymen by 
Miss Isabella Romer, in a paper entitled "Some Account of the Turkish Pretender," 
published in Colburn's New Monthly Magazine, No. 233, for May 1840 ; and I avail my- 
self of the opportunity thus afforded to give some further details of the impressions re- 
ceived of so strange a character by that clever and accomplished traveller and authoress. 

"If 'travellers see strange sights ' in the course of their wanderings, it is quite as 
natural a consequence that they should also meet with very strange people. In my 
late tour in the East, it happened that I came in contact with more than one personage 
of that description ; and as their names have since come before the public through 
newspaper renown, I feel that I am not guilty of any breach of good-feeling in making 
use of them in the present instance. 

" Since the death of Sultan Mahmoud, and during the last few months, I have fre- 
quently seen allusions made in the newspapers to a personage who had lately appeared 
at Malta, and had excited great curiosity and a certain degree of interest in the public 
mind there, from the romantic character under which he had presented himself to the 
authorities of that place — no less a one than that of rightful heir to the sabre of Othman, 
and pretender to the Turkish throne ! The story upon which he grounds his claims 
to such high destinies is, that when Sultan Mustapha (the brother and predecessor of 
the late Sultan Mahmoud) was deposed and murdered after a brief reign of a few 
months, a general massacre followed of the ladies of the imperial harem, as the natural 
consequence of such an event ; the bowstring and the sack did their dreadful duty, 
and the waves of the Bosphorus closed over the unresisting victims. One sultana, 
however, who was enceinte at the time, contrived by some wonderful means to escape 
the fate of her companions, and in due time became the mother of a son, whom she 
brought up in the strictest privacy. That boy was Nadir Bey, the person in question 
— so at least runs the story which he is represented to have told at Malta of his birth 
and parentage ; and I have heard that many persons there fully believed in its truth, 
and that some even have been found sufficiently confiding to advance him large sums 
of money to assist in the furtherance of his designs. 

"It chanced that on my retnrn from Constantinople to Vienna, in 1838, this 
identical Nadir Achmet Bey (as he then styled himself) was one of my fellow-pas- 
sengers on board the Austrian steamer in which I crossed the Black Sea ; and he just 
remained long enough with us to create universal astonishment at his acquirements, 
and to intriguer every one on board most completely as to who or what he could be ; 


interessati, e parte per amor della patria e dei niiei ben amati parenti 
imperiali ; locche spero non essere delitto in me. 

Appena credei il momento propizio ai miei interessi, lasciai il servizio 
militare di mio zio il fii Sultano Malimud II. ; il quale regnava allora, 
ed arrivando in Europa, feci noto la mia nascita, ed il mio diritto al 
trono. Questo passo non mi giovo purito, attesa la repentina morte del 
Imperatore mio zio. Da quel momento avvissato dai miei amiei, che 
l'attuale Imperatore mio cugino, profittando della mia lontananza, si era 
impadroiiito del impero, ed in seguito per mia somma disgrazia, ed al 
suo poco onore, ha cercato con ogni mezzo di screditarmi in faccia al 

for it seemed to be unanimously decided that he must be any thing but that which he 
represented himself. I, of course, shared in the general curiosity ; and several pages 
of my journal were consequently devoted to especial mention of his sayings and doings, 
and the various speculations to which his presence gave rise among the passengers of 
the Ferdinando Primo. He came on board in the Golden Horn, accompanied by one 
of the Armenian bankers of the court, at the precise moment I did, and a very few 
minutes before the paddles were set hi motion, and that we dropped down the Bos,- 
phorus to take in more passengers at Therapia and £imikdere\ His companion re- 
mained with him to the last moment, and then returned in his caique to Seraglio 
Point ; while Nadir Bey, left to himself, paced the deck alone for a short time, appa- 
rently in deep thought. 

" He was dressed in the Turkish uniform, which had been adopted by the Sultan 
and his officials throughout the empire, namely the Fez cap and blue military sur tout ; 
but his countenance and bearing were so unlike an Osmanli, his clothes bo much better 
made, his firm step and military carriage so different from the shuffling lounging gait . 
of every Turk I had ever before seen, that I at once concluded he must be one of the 
numerous German military instructors then resident at Pera, whom the Sultan had 
induced to enter his service, in order that they might orj anise hi army according to 
European tactics. In short, nothing about him trahissoit It Tan-, except his beard,. 
which was a genuine Oriental one. 

" We had scarcely cleared the Golden Horn, and the various passengers sci 
in groups about the deck were admiring the gorgeous appearance produced by the 
innumerable domes and minarets of Stamboul steeped in the golden light of an eastern 
morn, and rising proudly above the groves of solemn cypresses which are intersper led 
among the buildings, and form so picturesque a characteristic of all Oriental citieE — 
when Nadir Bey approached the English party of which I formed one. and with the 
ease and politeness of high breeding, quite divested of forwardness, addressed us in 
very good English, spoken without hesitation, but with a foreign accent. He ex- 
pressed great surprise that an English woman should have trusted herself among the 
barbarous Turks ! And when I eagerly vindicated their national character from the 
aspersions which I conceived a prejudiced stranger to be unworthily casting upon it, ho 
thanked me for the partial view I had taken of his country-people, and to the great sur- 
prise of our little group, announced himself to be an Asiatic Turk, a native of Caramania. 

" ' But where,' he was asked, ' did you learn English ? From your manner of speak - 
ing it, you must have passed some years in England, and have applied yourself to it at 
a very early age.' ' No,' he answered, ' I studied it in my own country, and not until 
I was twenty-two years of age ' (he appeared then to be scarcely thirty). ' I 
never was in England before last year, when I passed four months there with our 
ambassador, Beschid Pacha; my life has been passed in Turkey, and if my several 
absences from it were put together, they would not amount in all to a year and a half,' 



mondo, impiegando da per tutto spie per sorvegliarmi, e numerosi 
assassini per trucidarmi, io per evitargii un tal delitto, ho viaggiato 
incognito snl continente dell' Europa, reptitata essere civilizzata, ospitale, 
ed iimana, onde trovarvi asilo e sicurezza. Ho trovato in vece una 
contintia ed incompreensibile persecuzione. 

Per involarmi a qualunqne ricerche, condiscesi adottarmi nonie 
plebeo, ch' ad ogni ora tradiva il mio sangne ed il mio aspetto ; cagio- 
nando vieppiu sospetti e per conseguenza rigori maggiori. 

Lasciando nelle mani d'Iddio il mio destino, io sperava di trovare 
pace ed asilo nel regno felice di sna Maesta il Re delle due Sicilie ; 

"Re spoke with great delight of the short stjourhe had made in England, dis- 
coursed with considerable shrewdness upon the peculiarities he had remarked in the 
social structure there, and admired the perfection to which education has been brought. 

" Nadir Bey was led by easy transitions to speak of public affairs, and his hearers 
soon found that he had made himself master of the politics of Em-ope, and had espe- 
cially given his attention to fathoming the intricacies and double-dealing of Russian 
diplomacy, of which he spoke in a strain of the bitterest invective. 

"But Nadir Bey presently took occasion to tell us that he was only going as far as 
Varna in the steamer, and that there horses and attendants awaited to take him by 
land to Silistria, where he had business to transact from the Porte with the pacha of 
that place. 

" Some of the passengers having joined our group who did not understand English, 
the conversation was then carried on in French and Italian, and we found that Nadir 
was still more conversant with those languages than with the English, speaking each 
with the fluency and purity of a native of France or Italy. But his great triumph was re- 
served for the hour of dinner, and by the time that repast was concluded, nobody knew 
what to make of him, but every one agreed in declaring that he could not be a Turk. 

" In the first place, before he seated himself at table, he took off his Fez cap (no 
Osmanli ever uncovers his head), and displayed a chevelure of luxuriant chestnut-curls, 
instead of the Moslem shaven crown, and the single tuft of hah, by which Azrael, the 
angel of death, is to draw up every true believer into Paradise. Then he sat upon his 
chair like any Christian, ate with a knife and fork instead of his fingers, called for a 
bottle of champagne, and, in short, did every thing that a Turk does not do. 

"There happened to be among the cabin-passengers the natives of so many dif- 
ferent nations, that a Babel-like confusion of tongues prevailed during dinner ; but 
Nadir Bey, to the general surprise, appeared to possess a key to all ; he conversed 
with each man in his own language, and by general admission proved himself to be as 
great a proficient in German, Greek, Russian, Polish, Hungarian, Wallachian, and 
Sclavaque, as he had already done in English, French, and Italian. Besides these, he 
assured us that he understood Persian and Arabic perfectly (the learned tongues of the 
Turks), which, with Turkish, made thirteen languages with which he was conversant. 
In short, he appeared to be a reduced copy of that Colossus of linguists, Cardinal 
Mezzofanti. Such acquirements — prodigious in a European savant — in a Turk ap- 
peared miraculous ! Every body was emerveille by them, and his vanity was evidently 
gratified by the effect he had produced, although he did not suffer himself to be elated 
by it into any unbecoming excitement of spirits. 

" In short, when we rose from table, half the company were raving about him, and 
the other half tearing him to pieces. 

" The Englishmen united in pronouncing him to be a ' wonderful fellow, whoever 
he might be,' but inclined to fancy him an agent of Russia, sent purposely on board 


stato pacifico e neatro negli affari dell' Oriente ; proponendonii di vivervi 
quietamente ; ma anclie quest' ultimo progetto, pare aver recato offesa 
alle Potenze Eurtvpee, le quali me lo negano in questo momento, proba- 
bilmente colla loro influenza. 

Emminentissimi Signori, additemi vi prego qual delitto in me tanto 
v'offende ? Di tutta la mia vita qual fatto ha potuto dar ombra o 
offendere qualunque Potenza Europea ? JS T essuna. Per cui dopo esservi 
persuasi del mal inteso, vi prego cessare di perseguitarmi, ma anzi sten- 
dere l'ospitalita dei vostri sovrani di cui siete gli onorevoli rappresen- 
tanti, ad un prence la cui sola colpa sta nell' essere infelice. Pure non 

the steamer to jaufiler himself with the various strangers he met there, and to gather 
and turn to account the opinions that escaped from them in the flow of conversation, 
unchecked by the suspicion that ' a chiel was near them taking notes.' 

" As for myself, I knew not what to make of him. Certainly he was unlike every 
Osmanli I had ever before had any communication with, for that race are proverbially 
slow of speech, and emit their sentences and their ideas at such long intervals from 
each other, ruminating so long upon tho answers they receive to them, that I always 
fancied they must fear that a mental indiyestiou would be the consequence of attempting 
to get on faster. Now this man possessed fluency of language, and a flow of ideas 
which I had no where seen in the East. 

" But, after all, of what consequence could it be to any one there ic/tal the stranger 
really was ? And I checked in myself an approach to that which I have always con- 
demned in others, and which is but too much the way of the world ; namely, a desire 
to cry down whatever baffles our penetration, and to attribute bad motives to that 
which is withheld from our confidence ; and with perfect indifference as to whether 
Nadir Bey were Moslem or Christian, spy or statesman, renegade or Osmanli, and a 
Ml recognition that whichever of these might bo his real character, his talents must 
remain unquestionable, I proceeded to take my coffee upon deck, where he very soon 
joined our party. 

' • We spoke of Sultan Mahmoud and of his accomplishments, his talent as a versifier 
(for the sultan was accounted one of the most eminent poets in the empire), and the 
grace and eloquence which he lavished upon his hattischeriffs, which were always 
written by himself. His highness was also said to be a good musician, and had com- 
posed several charming ballads. Nadir Bey insisted upon tho high moral qualities 
of the sultan, his justice, moderation, and humanity — his unwillingness to spill human 

"Nadir Bey's admiration of the Sultan amounted to enthusiasm ; but he admitted 
that circumstances rendered it difficult for him to be an impartial judge, and that he 
could see no imperfections in one who had bestowed upon himself so many signal 
proofs of favour and esteem. He then told us that the Sultan had just presented him 
with sixty leagues of territory, extending from the banks of the Danube to the foot of 
the Balkan mountains in Bulgaria, and that he was then on his way to take possession 
of it. I asked him if any government was attached to this large grant of land, but ho 
answered, none — that he was not a pacha — that his civil rank was that of Bey (or 
prince) — his military rank that of general of artillery, and that he had formerly been 
aide-de-camp to the celebrated Hussein Pacha, and as such had served under him in 
the Syrian campaign of 1832. In that capacity he had been sent by Hussein to Lady 
Hester Stanhope, to assure her of his protection, and to place a guard at her disposal ; 
he had passed a day and night in the mountain residence of the noble recluse ; and on 


voglio credere le Potenze Europee capaci direttamente o indirettamente 
di voler spingermi verso il coltello pronto a troncare la mia testa. 

Tutti i sospetti clie hanno potuto dar motivo sul conto mio, sono 
immaginarii ; e le credo essere i seguenti : l'lnghilterra mi crede segre- 
tamente alleato alia Russia, la Russia mi crede unito colla Francia, e la 
Francia coll' Inghilterra ; 1' Austria poi pud pensare cli' io sia con 
tutt' e tre. Questa diffidenza mi cagiona 1' inimicizia individuale di ogni 
Potenza, reducendosi poi ad una persecuzione generale. 

In mia difFesa lio il piacere cli dire, clie sono sin' oggl libero di ogni 
obligazione, non avendo mai avuto impegno politico con cpialunque 

his return was asked by Hussein, whether he wished to marry her, in which case he 
(the Pacha) would summon her to bestow her hand upon him, never dreaming that the 
eccentric and high-minded old lady could offer any objection to such an arrangement. 

" Neither Nadir Bey or his auditors appeared to grow weary of each other, and 
night came on before the conversazione broke up. 

" The next morning we anchored off Varna, and the accomplished Turk, taking 
leave of us, went on shore there. 

" Nothing particular happened during the first few days of our passage up the 
Danube ; but at Silistria, where we anchored for some hours, we were, to our great 
surprise, rejoined by Nadir Bey, who had taken what we supposed to be a final leave 
of us several days before at Varna. He came to the place of embarkation on horse- 
back, surrounded by the Pacha of Silistria's attendants on foot, and followed by a 
servant of his own, holding on his wrist a splendid tame falcon. The master, the man, 
and the bird were the only individuals of the party, however, who were to be our 
fellow-passengers, and the pleasant recollections of the early part of our voyage across 
the Black Sea led every one on board to give them a most cordial welcome. 

" Nadir Bey told us that he should go as far as Rustchuck with us, whore the busi- 
ness of taking possession of his territory would require his presence for some days, and 
that chemin fa hard he should have an opportunity of shewing us that part of his new 
acquisition which lay upon the Bulgarian side of the Danube between Silistria and 
Rustchuck, and where he proposed to build several villages. He was, if possible, more 
agreeable than he had previously shewn himself, and up to the hour of dinner, nothing 
could surpass the harmony that reigned throughout the whole party." 

Miss Romer concludes : 

" Nadir Bey disembarked at Rustchuck, and we saw no more of him. The next 
time I heard his name alluded to was more than a year afterwards, when, in a letter 
from Constantinople, it was stated that the public attention there had lately been 
occupied with the sudden disappearance of that mysterious personage Nadir Bey, who, 
after contriving to make himself master of all the secrets of Turkish policy, had fled, 
no one knew whither. By some ho was supposed to be a spy of Mehemot Ali's — by 
others, a Polish renegade, secretly employed in the interests of Russia — that he under- 
stood almost every European language ; but no one had ever ascertained to what nation 
he belonged. 

" I forgot to mention that, on the preceding day, when every body was compli- 
menting him on his proficiency in English, one of the gentlemen inquired whether he 
wrote the language as well as he spoke it ? and upon his replying in the affirmative, I 
requested he woidd give me his autograph in English and in Turkish, to add to my 
collection. The gentleman already alluded to furnished him with a pencil and a fly- 
leaf from his note-book, and in five minutes Nadir Bey presented me with his signature, 


Potenza Europea ; nemmeno ho offerto, ne progettato, ne mai cercato 
tale alleanza ; dichiaro alio stesso tempo che se rni fosse anche stata 
offerta, non avrei mai osato accettarla; bramando arrivare al mio trono, 
col solo ajuto di Dio, col voler dei miei popoli e col sacro diritto mio. 
Nel corso dei miei viaggi in Europa, non mi sono giammai permesso di 
offendere o criticare i governi, le societa e costumi dei Cristiani ; non 
cercando, in quelli che ho fatto nel mio esilio, altro ch' istruirmi. In 
Africa ero per rivedere i miei amici, onde ottenerne una assistenza pecu- 
niaria per il mio sostegno ; non avendo nessnna speranza, ne diritto di 
ottenerlo dalla generosita dei Regnanti Cristiani. 

In fine posso asserir loro colla sincerita di un Turco, che ho sempre 
rispettato e rispetto le legge e la societa di ogni nazione ; ne mai ho pro- 
ferito parole pregiudiziose ad esse come si puo rilevare dai fatti che 
offre la mia vita. 

Essendomi spiegato coll' integrita che da me si deve, mi rimetto alia 
ospitalita e discrezione dei Re Europee ; pregando i loro onorevoli rap- 
presentanti, se la generosita Cristiana puo stendersi sin ad un Musul- 
mano, di prendere in considerazione il mio stato pericoloso e inter- 
cederc unitamente presso la sua Maesta il Re delle due Sicilie ; onde mi 
venga accordata quella tolleranza c quel asilo, da me chiesta come 
sommo favore.* 


To the most illustrious Ambassadors of the Christian Powers of Europe at 
the Court of his Majesty the King of the two Sicilies. 

Most illustrious Gentlemen, — Although my pen may be weak in 
describing my painful position, I hope that your judicious judgments, 
the happy gift of wise representatives, will discern the real truth. 

I, the unhappy imperial Prince Ahmed Nadir, born in the revolu- 
tions of 1808, to which my august and much-lamented father Avas a 
victim, have been for a long time persecuted and suspected, partly for 
having concealed my origin in order to disconcert the projects of wicked 

preceded by fom - lines in English verso, in which not a single fault of grammar, ortho- 
graphy, or metre was to be detected. The oriental metaphors they contained were 
evidence of their originality, and as they were, of course, very complimentary, I shall 
not here insert them ; but I have preserved them as a literary curiosity, and a relic 
which may hereafter acquire additional interest, should the extraordinary personage 
who wrote them succeed in establishing the claims to which he now pretends, and be- 
come known to the world, not as a clever adventurer, but as the rightful ' Sultan of 
the Ottoman Sultans, and Master of tho Two Lands and the Two Seas.' I J aris, 
February 1st, 1840." 

* The above is without date, but was probably written in 1844. The mistakes that 
occur are such as may be excused in a foreigner. 


and designing men, and partly for my love of my country and of my 
mucli-re spec ted parents, which I trust is not a crime in me. 

As soon as I thought the time propitious to my interests, T left the 
military service of my uncle, Sultan Mahmud II., who was then reigning, 
and arriving in Europe, I made known my birth and my right to the 
throne. This step profited me nothing, in consequence of the sudden 
death of my uncle the emperor. From this moment I was informed 
by my friends that the present emperor, my cousin, profiting by my 
absence, had taken possession of the empire ; and subsequently he has, 
to his disgrace and my misfortune, endeavoured by every way to dis- 
credit me in the face of the world, employing every where spies to 
watch me and assassins to murder me ; and in order to save him from 
such a crime, I have travelled incognito on the continent of Europe, 
which bears the reputation of being civilised, hospitable, and humane, 
seeking an asylum and security, instead of which I have met with con- 
tinued and incomprehensible persecutions. 

In order to screen myself from every requisition, I condescended to 
adopt a plebeian name, which my appearance and my blood belied at 
every instant, and thus caused suspicions, and consequently greater 

Leaving in the hands of God my future destiny, I had hoped to 
have found peace and an asylum in the happy kingdom of his Majesty 
the King of the two Sicilies — a pacific state, and neutral in the affairs of 
the Levant. I proposed to myself to live quietly ; but even this last 
project appears to have given offence to the European powers, who 
deny it to me at this moment probably with their iniiuence. 

Illustrious Sirs, point out to me, I pray you, what crime in me 
offends you. In all my life Avhat deed can have given umbrage or 
offended any European power ? None tchatever. Therefore, after 
having been convinced of the existence of a misunderstanding, I beg 
you will cease to persecute me, and, on the contrary, extend the hospi- 
tality of the sovereigns whose honourable representatives you are, to a 
prince whose only fault is that of being unfortunate. I will not believe 
that the European powers are capable, directly or indirectly, of desiring 
to push me towards the knife which is ready to cut off my head. 

All suspicions that may have originated on my account are ima- 
ginary, and I believe them to be the following : England thinks me 
secretly allied with Russia ; Russia believes me united to France, and 
France with England ; Austria may imagine that I side with all three. 
This mistrust in me causes me the animosity of each of the powers; and 
hence all unite in one common persecution. 


In my own defence I have much pleasure in declaring that I am to 
this day free from any obligation, never having had any political engage- 
ment with any European power, nor have I ever offered, projected, or 
sought any such alliance ; I also declare that, if it had been offered me, 
I shoidd not have dared to have accepted it, being desirous to reach 
my throne by the assistance only of God, by the will of my people, and 
by my sacred right. In the course of my travels in Europe I have 
never permitted myself to offend or criticise the governments, the social 
state, or the customs of Christians, having only sought my own instruc- 
tion during my peregrinations in my exile. I had passed into Africa 
to visit my friends and obtain pecuniary assistance for my subsistence, 
having no hope or right to obtain it from the generosity of reigning 
Christian powers. 

In short, I can assure you, with the sincerity of a Turk, that I have 
ever respected, and do respect, the laws and customs of every nation, nor 
have I ever expressed a single word prejudicial to them, as may be 
learned by the facts that are evinced by my whole life. 

Having explained myself with the integrity due by me, I remit my- 
self to the discretion and hospitality of the kings of Europe, praying their 
honourable representatives (if Christian generosity may be extended to 
a Mussulman) to take into consideration my dangerous position, and 
conjointly intercede with ELM. the King of the two Sicilies, in order 
thai that toleration and asylum may be accorded to me which I beg as 
the highest favour. 

— >$ijfe£5 Sftfc _«r>7- 









The subjoined documents are given partly as illustrative of the manners 
and peculiarities of the country, partly of the evils of an administration 
of provinces at a distance from the central seat of government, and 
which were formerly in a retrograde, rather than a progressive state of 
civilisation. They are also introduced with a view to shew the differ- 
ence that is already manifest between the present comparatively pro- 
sperous and promising condition of the Turkish empire, and the anarchy 
and misrule of bygone times. The first in the list — the translation of 
a, copy of a buyurdi published on the occasion of the Turks resuming 
the government of Syria, after the expulsion of the Egyptians — strik- 
ingly attests that the intentions of the Porte are most excellent, and 
might bear still better fruit than they do, were those intentions strictly 
attended to and carried out. 


Translation of a copy of a bvyurdi from Muhammed Izzet Pasha, Com- 
mander-in-chief at Bayrut, to the Mutsellim of Lattakiyah, obtained 
by the Russian consul at Bayrut, accompanied by a letter from him, 
and presented by the Greek Bishop cd Lattakiyah. 

Most honourable of Cadis, present judge of Lattakiyah, Effendi! may 
you be promoted ! Most praised of the honourable learned, authorised 
to give decisions, Mufti Effendi, may your knowledge increase ! 
Shoot of the odoriferous tree, fringe of Hashem's tiara, constant scribe 
of the nobles ! and you, esteemed and praised, chosen in the service of 
the Sublime Porte, Kapuj Bashi, Mutsellim of Lattakiyah, Haznadar, 


Muhammad Aga, may you be ever respected ! and you, equally hon- 
oured, learned clergy and nobles, and all citizens, may your knowledge 
and fame increase ! and all subjects in Lattakiyah resident, Muhani- 
madans and Christians : know by these presents — 

That, through the great zeal of his Highness the Sultan, proceeding 
from his benevolence to do all in his power to give peace and tranquil- 
lity to his subjects, under the shadow and tutelage of his Highness, 
among whom there are subjects of the Porte of the Greek persuasion, 
and others of other Christian denominations, who are either residents or 
sojourners in the Ottoman dominions; that all of these may partake of 
the charity of the Porte, in all manner of peace, and happiness, and 
tranquillity, and that all tyranny and oppression may be prevented in 
every possible way, this is in very deed the demand and desire of the 
Sultan, whom God preserve and protect : 

Therefore, it has devolved upon me, in very truth, to seek and 
inquire whether they be really in felicity, because they are subjects and 
slaves of the Sublime Porte, — " For like unto us are they, and like 
them are we."* Such is the Sultan's pleasure: therefore it behoves all 
who are under his excellent authority, to defend their women and pro- 
perty the same as our women and property, and to prevent all manner 
of evil ; and therefore Ave cannot cease asking and sending spies, going 
and coming, concerning the existence of our Christian rayas, f if they be 
truly in confidence and real tranquillity or not ? But at the same time 
I have heard from some persons of veracity, going and coming, that 
some Turks of Lattakiyah ill-treat and annoy some of our Christian 
rayas, and for this reason these Christian rayas are not enjoying their 
wished-for tranquillity. We have been very much astonished that this 
should happen on the part of our Turkish rayas; and we know not in 
what manner, or in what way, they dare to ill-treat them, which is con- 
trary to the intentions of the Sublime Porte, and contrary to our own ; 
and for this they deserve condign punishment. Therefore was it neces- 
sary that we should write this circular to you all, to enjoin — 

1st. We command our said Mutsellim, on the receipt of this, to call a 
general assembly, and to publish openly, that it may be known to all, 
both the great and the little, this wish of the Sublime Porte, and that 

* I have not seen the original, but should rather think this is a translation of a 
part of the Koran quotation, wherein is said, "so were you before until God had 
compassion on you, &c." 

I quote from memory. 

t Raya in Turkey means a subject. 


all may be well restrained from falling in the least tittle contrary to this, 
and refrain from any thing that may be hurtful to any of our Christian 
rayas ; and you, be you ever watchful in this command, with all vigil- 
ance, and both in private and public have overseers and spies ; and 
whatever is proved to have been done by any one in the least annoying, 
or injurious, or hurtful, to another, do you immediately punish the 
same without pardon. And because, with all our heart, we desire the 
protection of our Christian rayas, and their tranquillity, and to prevent 
all manner of evil and abuse, from wherever it be, from henceforth if 
we hear of any ill-treatment, and you refrain from executing due pun- 
ishment on the party offending, we shall not listen to your excuses hi 
any way. There is no need of warning and commanding you further. 

And we inform all, of every degree, who may be subjects of his 
Highness the Sultan, whom God protect and prosper, that it is necessary 
you all hie you to your several occupations, and gain your livelihoods, 
and refrain from all abuse and ill-usage, because this is contrary to the 
will of the Sultan and our own. And he who occupies himself with 
his own affairs will ever find his happiness therein; but woe to him 
who commits such abuses. He will find his punishment without mercy. 
And God says, " You have all a shepherd, and of every shepherd the 
sheep are demanded." Such is the will of his Highness the Sultan. 
Therefore pay the greatest attention, for we have now warned you, and 
have commanded you. For God says, " This is just;" and he will con- 
duct you in the right way. And it is with this intent Ave have now 
written you this buyurdi, from the divan of the Commander-in-chief, 
that on its arrival, when you have understood it, you may act in con- 
formity, and not contrary, but execute it to the letter, without the 
smallest deviation. 

23 Ramadan, 1256. (5 November, 1841.) 


Extract of a letter from J. Barker, Esq., dated Aleppo, hth Sept. 1804. 

" Insurrection in Lattakiyah — Proceedings of Ali Aga Ibn Kustum. 

" Insurrections are become so common in the Turkish empire that 
a relation of such events are twice-told tales to which it is hard to 
draw attention. So much is said of Pa swan Ughlu, Tarsanik Ughlu, 
Kutchuk Ali Ughlu, in every part of the Grand Signor's dominions, 
that a more circumstantial account of the rebels of Syria can scarcely 
fail to be interesting. 


" Let us ran over cursorily the principal events that have taken place 
since the death of Jizzar Pasha, of Acre. 

" While Jizzar lived, his power, added to that of Ibrahim Pasha, not 
only maintained order in the principal cities of Syria, Damascus, and 
Aleppo, hut in a great measure controlled petty rebels. Damascus and 
the country round it was kept in subjection by the same chief ; and 
Aleppo, with its neighbouring towns, while governed by Ibrahim 
Pasha, was maintained in the most orderly and submissive subordi- 

" But on the demise of Jizzar, Ibrahim Pasha not being able to suc- 
ceed to his authority in Damascus, and in the absence of Ibrahim Pasha 
from Aleppo, his son Mahmud Pasha could scarcely hold the reins of 
government, until the Porte had time to hear of the changes taken place, 
and invest him with regular authority. 

" While the father was endeavouring in vain to establish his autho- 
rity in Damascus, the son was, on the third day after being proclaimed 
Pasha of Aleppo, driven out of the city by a general insurrection of the 
people. Ibrahim retired to Saida, near Acre, with 3000 or 4000 troops, 
which were, in the very improbable event of the Porte's not coming 
to an accommodation with Ismail Pasha for the government of Acre, 
to act in concert with the Capitan Pasha against that place, and the son 
was at a village near Kill is, with 1000 or 2000 men skirmishing with the 
Kurds of that district, and endeavouring, hitherto in vain, to enter the 
latter place, which is little better than a village,* and over which his 
jurisdiction extends as Pasha of Aleppo. 

" This general relaxation of all government has naturally annihilated 
trade, by exciting just alarms for the security of property; and every 
one is contemplating with anxiety the daily events that pass in rapid 
succession, to rob him of the feeble hopes of seeing once again return 
past days of tranquillity and comparative happiness. 

" The Europeans established in these parts have hitherto been mere 
spectators of tyrannical oppression, because, as there is no hope of the 
authors of it receiving any punishment adequate to the enormity of their 
crimes, the example of that impunity must operate most perniciously on 
the minds of the people of Aleppo. 

" The occurrence alluded to is as follows : — On the 31st of July last, 
there arrived at Lattakiyah, from Constantinople, a new governor, ap- 
pointed for that place, "with 200 men in his suite. He had scarcely 
taken possession of the government, when the old governor invited the 
Governor of Jisr al Shughul, named Ali Aga Ibn Rustum, to assist him 
* Killis is now a goodly town, with bazaars, barracks, and numerous mosques;. 


in deposing the new one. AH Aga willingly obeyed the call ; took with 
him about 400 men, chiefly Arnauts ; and, on the first day of his enter- 
ing Lattakiyah. put the new governor in chains, and set up the old one 
in his room. 

"But perceiving soon after that nothing was to be got out of a Turk- 
ish Mutsellim, Avho had only been ten days in the enjoyment of the 
emoluments of his post, he released the imprisoned governor, and turning 
the tables on the other, who had invited him to come to his assistance, 
threw him into prison, and required from him a hundred pwses.* As 
far as the 24th August, the most excruciating torments had only ex- 
torted from him forty purses. He probably possesses no more. 

11 Ali Aga then proceeded to levy a contribution on the town, which 
he was desirous of fixing at 1500 purses; but after every art to mitigate 
his rapacity had been exhausted, he still persists in demanding 500 
purses. This sum, although enormous, relative, to the slender means of 
the inhabitants of Lattakiyah, was, under the dread of greater evils, col- 
lected in part, and laid at his feet; but it had no other effect than that 
of increasing his avidity, and he returned to his original demand of 
1500 purses, as the price on which he consented to quit the town, 
threatening that if his demand was not immediately complied with, he 
would give up the place to be plundered by his troops. 

" It now, of course, became evident that nothing less than the sack of 
the town could satiate the rapacity of this brutal horde of robbers ; and 
from that moment no one thought of any thing but the means of flying 
from the scenes of horror that might naturally be expected to ensue; 
biit only a few had been fortunate, enough to escape, when Ali Aga's 
troops drew a cordon round the town, proceeded immediately to pillage 
the houses of the fugitives, and to throw into prison individually such 
of the remaining inhabitants as it was supposed, if put to the sufferance 
of torture, and in dread of losing their fives, Avould produce money. 

" In this general persecution it was, that Ali Aga quartered six men at 
the house of each of the Europeans in the place, who consist only of Mr. 
Nicholas Ducci, British and Imperial agent; Mons. Geoffroy, French 
commissary; and a Sig. Vidal, Dutch vice-consul, which latter found 
means to run away, but was laid hold of, and, it is said, thrown into 
prison at a place called Jibali, between Lattakiyah and Tripoli. 

" The business of these six ruffians was, to intimidate, by brutal usage, 
and by repeated threats of murder, the masters of the houses in which 

* A purse contains 500 p., and the piastre was then worth 15 p. to 11. ; ergo 
33?.=one purse of those days. 


they were lodged, and thereby extort from them, first a contribution of 
3000 piastres from M. Geoffroy, and 1500 piastres from Mr. Ducci. 

" The dread of the execution of the threats with which these demands 
were accompanied, and the hope that they would finish there, induced 
them at length to comply; but, unfortunately, these persecutions were 
continued, and up to the 24th past, M. Geoffroy had been compelled, at 
different times, to disburse 11,000 piastres, and Mr. Ducci 2000 piastres. 

"The advices of that date state that the outrages committed by the 
troops went on increasing in atrocity; that they had pillaged all the 
warehouses, had plundered several Christians' houses, and ravished 
their women; and that the tortures which those who were hi the pri- 
sons were suffering were so great as to endanger their lives. 

" The history of Ali Aga Ibn Rustum is succinctly thus : — His ances- 
tors have been, for a century past, in possession of the chief considera- 
tion in the town of Jisr Shughul, about two days' journey distant from 
Aleppo, on the road to Lattakiyah, and thereby kept the government of 
the place and its vicinity in the hands of the head of their own family 
in spite of the Pashas of Aleppo, at whose pleasure they ought by right 
to hold it, 

"This family had lately, by feuds and other causes, considerably 
declined in riches and power, and was reduced to three individuals 
of note — Cassim, Hussain, and Ali, the hero of this narrative, when 
Ibrahim Pasha, of Aleppo, about five years ago, formed the design of 
subduing them. He invited Ali Aga, then a mere lad of eighteen, to 
Aleppo. He debauched him with prostitutes, and encouraged him in 
the use of spirituous liquors, a vice that never fails to render a Turk the 
most abandoned of human creatures. He at length obtained for him, 
on the passage of the grand vizir through Aleppo, in 1802, an Impe- 
rial command as Aga of Jisr Shughul, on his bond for paying 200 
purses, when he should have dispossessed his two elder cousins of the 
government. Ali soon succeeded in murdering both his relations; and, 
on his assuming the government, Ibrahim Pasha, not finding him so 
submissive as he had hoped to render him, sent first his son, Mahmud 
Bey (now Pasha), and afterwards his Kenya, with 3000 men, agains 
him, but Avas both times repulsed with loss and disgrace. 

" Ali Aga's means were, however, little adequate to the support of 
troops necessary for his defence in these contests ; and six months ago, 
on a chief of 200 or 300 Arnauts quitting his service, he was obliged to 
put his son into the Arnauts' hands as a pawn for arrears of pay due to 
him. He then picked a quarrel with Jiwallik Bakir Aga, Mutsellim of 
Antioch, and went against that town, in hopes of being aide to redeem 


his child by the plunder thereof. He, however, failed in that enter- 
prise; but the grand caravan of pilgrims to Mecca happening to pass 
on their return to Constantinople, while he lay before Antioch, he ob- 
tained a considerable booty by avanizing them. He then pillaged 
Seleucia, modern Suedia, and most of the villages lying between Idlib 
and the coast, some of which he entirely laid waste. But what is parti- 
cularly worthy of remark, as affording a just idea of the impoverished 
state of the country, is, that the fruits of all these ravages, and of those 
which he is now committing at Lattakiyah, are not only insufficient to 
enable him to raise the sum for Avhich his son is in pawn, but even 
unequal to the maintenance and pay of the 400 troops now in his ser- 
vice (8th September). Direct advices from Lattakiyah were, a few days 
ago, received here up to the 30th August, at which time the persecu- 
tions suffered by Mons. Geoffroy and Mr. Ducci were carried on to the 
most horrible excess. The first was tormented to produce 100 purses 
more, and the other fifty : sums quite beyond their means. 

u We had, however, yesterday the happiness to learn that Ali Aga 
had been defeated by another rebel, called Mukadim Adra,* inhabiting 
the mountains of Kastravan. This mountain chief was at the head of 
a numerous armed peasantry, which forced Ali Aga to fly the place ; but 
on his endeavouring to escape, he was taken and carried back in chains 
to Lattakiyah. 

" There is little doubt of the facts ; but details are wanting to inform 
us of the fate of the inhabitants of Lattakiyah during the contest." 


To give an idea of the then unsettled state of the Turkish govern- 
ment, I subjoin an extract of a letter, dated Antioch, 1 September 1805, 
written by John Barker, Esq. : 

" You have herewith a copy of a recent letter, from which you will 
see the very precarious situation of Europeans in this revolted province 
of the Grand Seignior's nominal dominions. The existence of this 
empire is really a phenomenon in politics, which produces novel circum- 
stances and new matter for reflection that confound the observer who is 
accustomed to compare living events with the successions of causes and 
effects in the revolutions recorded in the annals of past times. The 
Turkish empire, like the fable of Muhammad's coffin, suspended between 
powers of equal attraction, while sustained by the jealousy of the great 

* Mukadim Adra was a respectable man, and chief of the Fellah, or Ansayriis, who 
are very powerful and numerous in those parts. 


states of Europe, may be compared to a beautiful captive in the hands 
of a band of independent Barbaiy robbers, who every night retires to 
rest trembling at the thought of an instant assault from some ardent 
bandit, and every morning awakes in astonishment that another sun has 
risen to behold her safety. Her fond imagination ascribes the mira- 
culous security to the interposition of Providence ; and I have been 
triumphantly told by a Turk that the truth of the Muhammadan re- 
ligion obtained an infallible evidence from the supernatural existence 
of the Ottoman Empire. ' I challenge you, -who are a Christian and a 
consul,' said he, ' to produce me another example, ancient or modern, 
where a people, long after their power of repelling aggression had 
ceased, has not only been suffered to continue in the list of independent 
nations, but whose government is, like ours, assiduously courted, feasted, 
and flattered, by the ambassadors of all the powerful nations of Europe.' 

" There is no part of Syria or Palestine at this time governed by a 
man in complete subordination to the Porte except the town of Acre, 
with a very small district round it, which was delivered to Snlaiman 
Pasha by the troops, who betrayed Ismail Pasha, the successor of 
Jizzar ; but you know that from Acre itself a very trifling revenue can 
be drawn, and that without the power which Jizzar possessed of render- 
ing the Druses tributary, a Pasha of that place can find little scope for 

" Abu Marrak Pasha, whom I described in my last letter as occu- 
pied in laying waste Palestine, is an Arab of a most atrocious cha- 
racter, who, while the Grand Vizier was in Egypt, was appointed to 
the government of Jaffa ; but having been prevented taking possession 
by Jizzar, he came to Aleppo in the year 1801, and from thence wftfi 
sent to govern one and successively another of the cities of Mesopo- 
tamia, which were then in arms to resist the entrance of a Pasha who 
should attempt to establish the authority of the Porte by force. He 
was, however, admitted, with only a few chiukadars in his suite, and 
after remaining some time, apparently content with a nominal authority 
and the daily amusement of playing the gent, he formed and executed 
the bold design of murdering, with his own hand, while lulled in the 
security of a festival, almost all the chiefs of the popular faction ;* 

* This is by no means an unusual occurrence ; and we see such constantly reported 
in the annals of Turkish history: note the destruction of the Janissaries at Aleppo, 
and of the Mamelukes in Egypt, &c. The facility with which these coiijis de main are 
executed proceeds from tho discord of the chiefs among each other, and from the 
people being kept down by fear and not by love or interest. The chiefs are not the 
head of a party, but have seized the government by means of extortion, cruelty, and 


■whereby lie struck such terror into the rest of the inhabitants, that they 
immediately submitted to be reduced literally to sell the ragged carpet 
which served them for bedding, in order to satisfy, or rather to feed, for 
nothing could satiate his cruel rapacity. By this glorious exploit he 
was soon distinguished by the Vizier as an excellent instrument to 
be employed in cases where the humanity of other pashas had broken 
through the black cloud of their oppression — who had paused in the 
direful work of desolation. 

" I saw Abu Marrak again last year in his passage from Meso- 
jDotamia to Mecca, the ostensible place of his destination ; but as that 
appointment had been forced upon him by the intrigues of his and his 
patron's enemies as a kind of exile, he proceeded no further than Jaffa, 
where last winter he played the Porte a notable trick. The Porte had 
sent him 300 purses by a Kapuji Bashi, who had orders to transmit to 
him only a few at a time and by degrees, as he might see himself that 
they had been actually appropriated to the defraying of expenses neces- 
sary for the prosecution of his journey to Mecca. With the first and 
second payments he purchased such articles as satisfied the Kapuji of his 
intention to proceed to his pashalik ; but Abu Marrak quickly dis- 
covering his impatience to touch the whole 150,000 piastres, and the 
officer of the Porte endeavouring to retract, the pasha seized the Khazny 
at once, and thereby put an end to all further dispute. I saw the Kapuji 
in his passage through Antioch, on his return to Constantinople with this 
melancholy story, and he had, of course, a great deal to say on the sub- 
ject. Since that time Abu Marrak had reared the standard of open re- 
bellion at Jaffa, and the Porte has ordered the other pashas of Syria to 
send his head to Constantinople. 

" These pashas are, Ibrahim Pasha, his son Mahmud Pasha, Ab- 
dallah Pasha, Sulaiman Pasha, and Abdin Pasha (of two tails). A few 
words on each will give you an idea of the present state of Syria. 

" Ibrahim Pasha and his son. The first mentioned is a native of 
Aleppo, who, from the low station of a farrier, has raised himself 
to the possession of a considerable revenue (while the city was 
governed by him or his son) of two or three millions of piastres ; 
but these tenures, without their possessing the advantage of their be- 
longing to the Pasha, would probably not yield a tenth part of that 
sum. Ibrahim Pasha was lately Pasha of Damascus ; that is, during 
two years of his residence there, he has collected the mild, not to say 
insignificant dues of the miri, spent from his private purse a consider- 
able sum of money in conveying the pilgrims (such as they were) to 
Mecca, and chose to sit out the term of his government a qruet spectator 


of the praetorian rule of the janissaries over that city, doubtless because 
he had no personal interest in subduing them equal to the expense of an 
endeavour to effect it ; and yoii know the Porte, like the superior of the 
Propaganda Fide in sending out its missionaries, never accompanies 
its benedictions with any adequate means of their obtaining their ends. 
' There,' says the Grand Vizier on the nomination of Abdallah Pasha, 
successor to Ibrahim Pasha, ' there's a firman for you, with a flaming 
cipher of his Imperial Majesty the King of Kings, the distributor of all 
the crowns in the universe ; go, and with the magic of this despoil the 
janissaries of Damascus of the fruits of their long-continued extortions .' 
And this said to whom ? to a man who has scarcely the means of pro- 
viding a regular supply of rice and butter for the subsistence of half 
a dozen raggamuffin chiuhadars. 

" Ibrahim Pasha is now appointed to the government of Diyarbakir ; 
but he, as well as his son Mahmud Pasha, who is named for Tripoli, 
know much better than to waste their means in the unprofitable and 
probably unsuccessful enterprise of reducing those towns to subjection; 
and both are encamped, with one or two thousand men, at a village 
about ten leagues from Aleppo, where they have too great an interest 
to abandon easily the hope of being reinstated in its government. 

" Meanwhile, however, the janissaries of that ill-fated city are fatten- 
ing in the clover of supreme dominion, and quaffing its usual sweets, 
and full gratification of revenge, avarice, pride, lust, and ambition, 
which are displayed in assassinations, in general monopoly, in contempt 
of all constituted authorities, — mutsellims, cadis, muftis, custom-officers, 
and consuls, — in the violation of female and male chastity; in the 
view of the chiefs towards a more perfect and undivided authority. 
From this sketch of a picture of Aleppo, your sympathetic mind Avill 
readily fill up the dark colours of the present and future miseries of its 
unhappy inhabitants ; yet sure I am that, great as these sufferings are, the 
free voice of the 'people would not be in favour of a change for the govern- 
ment of a pasha! 

" There remains, therefore, only Sulaiman Pasha from whom the 
Porte can expect the head of Abu Marrak. I understand that he is 
besieging Jaffa, but I do not know with what prospect of success. 
The general idea is that Abu Marrak will not be subdued.* 

* Abu Marrak, after having been defeated by Sulaiman Pasha, retired to Aleppo, 
where he had previously married the daughter of Ibrahim Pasha. An order from 
Constantinople coming for his head, he concealed himself in an ambar, a large box for 
containing provisions of barley. He was seized and strangled by the successor of Ibra- 
him Pasha, his father-in-law. 



" As to Abdin Pasha, you "will judge from the following account of 
his proceedings what good may be expected from him. After the death 
of Ali Aga Ibn Rustum, about this time last year, the mutsellim of the 
Porte, who had cut off that rebel, was beheaded in his turn, a few days 
afterwards, by one Abderrahman Effendi, who had been in usurped pos- 
session of the government of Lattakiyah several years previous to the 
taking of that town by IbnEustum. This self- erected governor enjoyed 
the fruits of that assassination only till May last, about which period 
a certain Ahmed Pasha, a man of weight, and even of humanity and 
justice, inhabiting Karamania, was sent to quell a rebellion in Cyprus, 
where he quickly re-established order and tranquillity, and afterwards 
sent his brother, Abdin Pasha, with about 1000 men against Latta- 
kiyah. On his approach, all those who had assisted Abderrahman 
Effendi in oppressing the people immediately fled to the mountains of 
Kastrawan, and left him to be seized by the oppressed, who joyfully 
remitted the tyrant into the hands of their deliverer. But I have now 
to relate what is the usual course of similar events in these parts, that 
the Lattakiyans soon had reason to exclaim, in agonies of distress, 
1 Kurban din Abdarrahman Effendi !' ' Kurban Ah Aga !' a strong ex- 
pression of regret at the disadvantageous change in their situation. 

" The foul fame of Abdin Pasha's bad government reached Constan- 
tinople almost as soon as the head of the rebel whom he had subdued ; 
and Ibn Chiakal Hussain, an independent man of some consideration and 
power, of Turkman origin, although now stationary with his tribe, 
which has converted its black tents into a few small villages in the 
neighbourhood of Lattakiyah, was named to supersede him in the 
government of that place, and Abdin Pasha was ordered to proceed to 
Jidda. But such arrangements not proving agreeable to the latter, a 
conflict ensued between the Turkman and the Karamanian, which has 
now lasted three months in bloodless skirmishes. Meanwhile, however, 
the work of oppression and devastation is going on to the pitch that the 
place is literally depopulated of men; and consequently none of the 
necessaries of life, not even bread or grain, is to be had there. 

" Many of the fugitives, among whom are all the Franks, with only 
the clothes on their backs, for they ran away on foot, are come here to 
claim the compassion and assistance of the people of Antioch ; and the 
crew of a vessel under Ionian colours, of which the rudder had been 
taken off by the pasha a few days ago, put to sea in their long boat, 
leaving the ship, with the cargo, to take care of itself. 

" M. Ducci, who kept a register of daily occurrences at Lattakiyah 
subsequent to the pasha's entry, qualifies the 18th May with the em- 


phatic words of ' a bloody day.' He relates tlaat, on the preceding 
evening, a corps of 300 Aruauts, a remnant of the followers of Ali Aga, 
who had been driven out of the town on their master's death, seeking 
an opportunity of revenge, presented themselves to Abdin Pasha, and 
offered their services; which being declined, an altercation ensued, that 
ended by their chief firing his pistol at the breast of the pasha, and the 
instant slaughter of 150 Arnauts, whose heads, says M. Ducci, I counted 
at the gate of the tower, and whose blood ran in streams down the 
gutters. The rest retired into a ruined seraglio, where they kept the 
enemy at bay but a short time, and in flying were so closely pursued 
that very few could have escaped with their lives. 

" I must now close with a description of Abdin Pasha's person and 
character, many of the extraordinary features of which I shall suppress, 
because, whatever may be my credit for veracity with you, were I to 
relate all that has been told me concerning him, or indeed such part as 
I believe, it would form a picture of depravity which, thank God, an 
Englishman has no opportunity of contemplating, and consequently 
could not regard in any other light than a caricature. 

" Abdiu Pasha is a native of Karamania, a short, thick-set, brown 
man, who seldom shaves his head or changes his dirty clothes, never 
pares his nails, or uses water in any act of cleanliness. He keeps his 
breast bare, being afflicted with an asthma, from the paroxysms of 
which he feels relief by lying on his stomach, and in continual motion ; 
he seldom sits upright, but strikes terror into all who approach him, by 
transacting business while spitting, scratching, and rubbing his body,, 
and rolling on a dirty carpet, which, as well as his clothes and hands, 
are generally besmeared with blood. His asthmatic convulsions and 
perpetual perturbation have established a belief that he is constantly 
labouring to expel a live pig which is in his stomach. He is his own 
executioner, and few nights have passed daring his stay at Lattakiyah in 
which his long yatagan has not been imbrued in the bowels of some of 
his own men, whom he sacrifices on the slightest causes of disgust ; yet 
such an ascendency has he acquired over the minds of his followers, 
that they patiently see their comrades daily butchered, and obey the 
orders of their chief with scrupulous exactness. Their numbers^ are, 
however, from a thousand reduced by the yatagan of the pasha and by 
desertion to about four hundred. Night and day his faithful aqua- 
vita bottle never quits him, and although he is almost 'continually 
taking a small dose, he never loses the use of his faculties, and'business 
goes on with regularity and despatch. He scarcely ever sleeps, and is 
very often changing place, which he does on horseback, and contrary to 


the custom of pashas, at great speed. He frequently takes the diver- 
sion of the jarid or javelin throwing, and one day amused himself and 
his troops by forcing the Dutch consul, a very corpulent young man 
and no jockey, to mount a restive horse, and take his part in the sport, 
in which he w T as of course literally the butt of the company, to the no 
small satisfaction of all beholders. 

" One good feature in this extraordinary character must not, however, 
be suppressed by the candid historian : he has ever himself respected, and 
forces his adherents to entertain an unbounded respect for the asylum 
of the harem. This fortunate sentiment, from his addiction to the un- 
natural vice of his country, he must owe to early prejudices of educa- 
tion. The Christian fugitives with whom I have conversed, attribute it 
to the special bounty of the Virgin Mary, as it afforded them in their 
distress the resource of flying and leaving the female part of their 
•families, without apprehension, behind them. I have since learned that 
die families of all his men are in the power of his brother. 

"P.S. The crop of corn in the province of Nedjd having, as is 
reported, this year generally failed, flying parties of Wahabis of 1000 
men, more or less, have appeared within a few leagues of Bassora, Bag- 
dad, Aleppo, and Damascus, and again made their enterprises the sub- 
ject of discourse and apprehension to the people of this country. 

" The corps that approached Aleppo a few days ago, probably not 
more than GOO men, drove the tribe Muwali, which may be considered 
.-as the vanguard of that city, to within five miles of its walls, after 
having carried away the greatest part of the hitter's property in corn, 
-cattle, tents, &C. And on the back of this disagreeable information 
has just reached us the intelligence that Seood or Siwad, chief of the 
Wahabis, after a long siege, took Medina by famine. The fact is not 
doubted, but the exact date of that disastrous event is unknown, and 
the particulars are likewise involved in great obscurity. It is said 
that the first step Siwad took after entering the Holy City was to de- 
molish all the buildings consecrated to religious uses, not sparing the 
•tomb of the prophet himself ; that he prohibited smoking, as a profane 
-practice ; and issued a proclamation, Avhich is represented to import as 
^follows : 

" ' If you can find better than me do not follow me. If your Sul- 
tan shotdd send you armies to war with me, and can vanquish me, 
while you sustain yourselves in rebellion against my authority, well 
and good ; but for the present, I have vanquished you, and therefore I 
mow appoint a man to rule over you in my name. As for myself I 
shall go far from you ; but I will send you ullimas (doctors in divinity) 


to • instruct you in Moslemism, because you are ignorant of the true 
faith.' " 

The following bears date 1814, and is also from the pen of Mr. J. 
Barker, our consul in Aleppo at that time. 

Early in 1814 the consular agents received an order from their 
respective superiors, ordering them in strong terms " not to interfere 
with the internal affairs of the country, and to refrain particularly from 
giving protection to the persons belonging to the party which, for some 
time, had been engaged in a rebellious opposition to the regular govern- 
ment of the provinces." 

" Aleppo, Jan. 19th, 18U. 

" On the 18th January, at a very early hour, the dragomans of all the 
European agents were summoned to appear in Mehkamy. They found 
already assembled in the hall of justice the ayans,* who, as well as the 
interpreters, had been sent for to take cognisance of the contents of a 
firman, enjoining the former to aid the pasha in bringing to justice 
such of the janissaries as had committed crimes with impunity during 
the rebellion of the Aujak,"j" and declaring that the Franks must not inter- 
fere with any regulations tending to further the grand object of the re- 
formation of that corps, but strictly conform in all things to the tenour 
of the capitulations. 

" After the reading of the firman, a buyurdi was published, addressed 
to the cadi, enjoining him to summon into his presence all the janissa- 
ries in the service of the Europeans, in order that they might be ex- 
amined, and dismissed or arrested, according to the report that should 
be made of their conduct for ten years past, founded on the testimony of 
the ayans of the city. 

" On the return of the dragomans from the Mehkamy, I suggested to 
my colleagues that, without refusing our compliance with the summons, 
we should endeavour to defer it till the next day; and this with a view 
to gain the time necessary to soften by presents the ayans, who, being 
notoriously the bitter enemies of the janissaries, no reasonable hope 
could be entertained of their testimony proving favourable; but my 
opinion was overruled: the summons of the cadi was immediately com- 
plied with by all the consuls; and six, about half the number of the 
janissaries that appeared in Mehkamy, who were unable to pass the 
ordeal, were conveyed thence into the prison of the Sardar. Of these 

* Primates of the country. 

f Quarter of the town occupied by tho janissaries. 


were the two English janissaries ; the others, one French, two Spanish, 
and one Danish. 

"To-day (19th Jan. 1814) Ave have been obliged to have recourse to 
the means abovementioned ; that is, to endeavour to procure the favour- 
able testimony of the ayans, after they had already caused the arres- 
tation of the janissaries; but as, fortunately, in the corrupted mass of 
Turkish affairs, men generally sacrifice their personal resentment to 
their private interests, the ayans left a door open for negociation, by 
saying only, for those whom they did not befriend, that they had not an 
adequate knowledge of their conduct to be able to answer for its recti- 
tude. They have now all promised us their good offices for the release 
of our janissaries, and it is hoped that, by using the pretence of having 
made subsequent inquiries into the characters of the janissaries in ar- 
rest, they may still be able to establish their innocence. In the mean- 
time 1 have thought it proper to-day to present a note to the Pasha 
on the subject, in order to give my testimony of their good conduct, 
and to inform him that their long and faithful services naturally im- 
pose on me the duty of interceding with his excellency for their pardon 
and release. 

" Their family has, in fact, been for three generations in the British 
service at Aleppo ; and they, men in the middle of life, are burdened 
with seven or eight children. My intercession in their behalf cannot, 
. therefore, I hope, be construed into an infraction of the duty of a pub- 
lic agent.* 

" Although zeal for the good government of Aleppo is the ostensible 
pretext of the Pasha's conduct towards these few insignificant indivi- 
duals of the Aujak, the principal reason icas, no doubt, a desire of humili- 
ating and degrading the Franks; a disposition which, I am sorry to say, 
I have invariably found in every species of Turkish authorities, when 
they have not been softened by the usual douceur of presents. In the 
present case the Pasha has been indisposed against the Europeans of 
Aleppo, not only by their total neglect of paying him the customary 
compliments- on his arrival, but likewise by the improper conduct of 
several of the Jew merchants under French and Austrian protection."}" 

* This phrase shews how strict must have been the orders of the ambassadors to 
force the consuls to the barbarity of giving up to the Turks individuals in their employ, 
which is without precedent in the East ; where the persons employed by the consuls 
are by custom considered sacred, as much as Europeans themselves ; otherwise what 
chance would there be of finding faithful servants, if they were to be exposed to be 
traduced by the jealous intrigues of their enemies ? 

T The Pashas appointed to rule in Aleppo had, since the increase of the power of 
the janissaries, been held in the greatest contempt. Many came and went without 
■daring to undertake any part of the office allotted them. They were completely at 


" On the approach of the Pasha to Aleppo, the janissaries and others 
had secreted property in most of the Frank warehouses. The simple 
act of receiving those effects coidd not reasonably be considered as indi- 
cating an improper intercourse "with rebels, because the Europeans were 
in circumstances that would have made a refusal a dangerous experi- 
ment; but when the Pasha had seized the principal chiefs, and the 
whole power of the corps was thereby destroyed, it was clearly the duty 
of every individual in Aleppo to endeavour to be the first to make a 
public declaration of all the property belonging to janissaries that was 
in his possession. Instead of which, there were those, unfortunately, who 
not only waited till they were called upon, but who discovered so much 
reluctance to part with their deposits, that the Pasha was forced, in or- 
der to obtain them, to find collateral proofs of their existence. It is 
much to be regretted that the Pasha did not found his complaint against 
the consuls upon specific facts, as in that case the individuals accused 
would, of course, have been heard in their own justification; but he fore- 
saw that, by making it a general accusation, each ambassador woidd 
flatter himself that the person under his immediate jurisdiction was 
not the object of the Pasha's displeasure, and be therefore inclined to 
consent to put into his hands what undoubtedly the Pasha considered 
as a formal authorisation to seize all the janissaries in our service. It 
may, indeed, be said that the Pasha, without the letters of the ambas- 
sadors, had it, at any time, in his power to order the cadi to summon 
the janissaries to the Mehkamy, to punish, imprison, or kill them at his 
pleasure. But as he did not take that step until armed against the 
consuls, it is unfair to presume it would never have been taken at all, 
if the letters had not been granted him. There is no law to prevent his 
seizing, without even the insignificant forms of Turkish justice, a great 
number of individuals of the Aujak, who have procured prot< ction in the 
service of the a yam, but he has hitherto respected a protection notori- 
ously acquired by money; while the consideration due to Europeans has 
not been a sufficient safeguard for persons under similar circumstances 
of proscription, but who had much more legitimate claims on us for 
protection. Independently of direct infraction of our capitulations, 
Ave are therefore naturally inclined to view with a jealous eye every 
thing that tends to impair that kind of conventional consideration or 

the niercy of the janissaries, who made them a certain fixed allowance, or refused to 
recognise them, just as it suited them ; and in one instance a M. Popolani, who had 
formed the acquaintance of one of the miserable individuals sent as pasha by the 
Porte, was hailed from the neighbouring house, and entreated to supply him with 
something to eat ; the allotted meal not having been furnished that day by those ap- 
pointed to feed the great man ! 


respect, which is. in fact, the only solid basis of the security of our 
uid propv 

?po, Jan. 27th. 1SU. 

'•Ahmed Pasha, one of my janissaries, was last night strangled, with 
Ebn Tubal, the French janissary. The other four are still in prison : 
but it is supposed their friends will succeed in obtaining their n 
with money. The distinction that has been made between the punish- 
ments of these two men and the others naturally implies in them a 
:er degree of guilt: and although I do not consider myself res}- dhi- 
ble for the good behaviour of my janissarit-s. it is necessary to say that 
I do not believe Ahmed Pasha i _ y of any crime ol a nature to 
warrant the forfeiture of life. During the prosperity of the Aujak. T he 

- :nore insolent in his usual deportment towards the": 
than the generality of his comrades : and it is that imprudence, joined 
to the reputation of possessing forty purses, which has brought him to 
his untimely end. 

•• The French janissarv was preciselv in similar circumstances ; all the 
others are known to] nes ray little propertv. 

u Ahmed has been in the British service from his childhood, and till 
six years ago his conduct was as correct as that of Turkish ser 

y is. A :\.-'. '.. :..-'..-■;.- '. '....-/.: i-_:: :i_ _ . ". ■ • iii 
of Ahmed Aga, first chief of the janissaries of Aleppo, and insensibly 
became one of his confidential servants, — a lucrative situation "which 
placed him in circumstances very ill-suited to the nature of his old Jem- 
ploy. The transaction of the complicated and disreputable business'of a 
janissary chief was obviously incompatible with the duty of attending 
at my door. I therefore made, at different times, every effort in my 
- rr to dismiss him, but without effect; for besides what I had to 
fear from his personal resentment, a request in his behalf from Ahmed 
his new master, a to me a peremptory command : so that he 
continued to be nominally in my K9 bile the duty was performed 

by bis brother, Abbud Pasha, a foolish, insignificant fellow. 

•• Ujon the approach of Jalal iddeen Pasha (Chiapan Ughlu), he be- 
came more officious with me, and sought by degrees to disengage him- 
self from the service of Ahmed Aga. 

•• The contest between the Aujak and the Pasha remained for some 
time of a very doubtful issue, when, of course, it would have I ee- 

:*i an ever prudent to discharge a protege of Ahmed Aga. I was 
:Lv_ at Lattakiyah, and had every thing to apprehend from the conse- 
quences of his resentment, directed towards Hojiya Xasri Hawa, the per- 

HISTORICAL doccme: 345 

son left in charge of my affairs in Aleppo. At length the Pasha got 
into his power, and in one day executed, all the chiefs of the Aujak, 
when the whole corps was in an instant dissolved. The large cap and 
white sash that distinguished them were no longer any where to be seen. 
The most conspicuous or most guilty fled in disguise; and the rest, 
more confident in their innocence, or in their resources, threw them- 
selves at the feet of their enemies, the grandees of the town, who, 
during the reign of the janissaries, had sunk into poverty and contempt. 
Ahmed was one of those who preferred to run all risks to bearing the 
certain evils of perpetual banishment. He was soon after thrown into 
prison by Hadji Effendi, an ay an, for an ancient disputed claim upon 
him of 2500 piastres. He remained ten days in prison, in butt of his 
enemies, who, not appearing to accuse him, he flattered himself that 
he had found means to appease them. When I arrived at Aleppo, I 
found him duly furnished with a taskary of the Pasha, recognising him 
as a janissary in the British service; which document he had procured 
for himself and his brother, when taskaras were given to the other 
Frank janissaries. Having no special ground of complaint against 
him, and considering the situation of his pregnant wife and four helpless 
children, his long services and present misfortune, I thought it would 
have been an unbecoming and ungenerous act to give him up to the 
rapacity of the Pasha. 

•• In public these unfortunate men have not been accnsed of any 
specific misdemeanour. After their arrestation in the Mehkamy, they 
were conveyed to the sardar's house: then removed to the Castle; and 
thence to execution. In hopes of propitiating the Pasha, I paid him, 
on the 23d instant, a visit of ceremony. I have endeavoured to pro- 
cure the intercession and good offices of most of the people of weight in 
the city; and the consciousness of having strenuously employed every 
means in my power is the only consolation I can receive in this very 
disagreeable busin 

" On the 28th January, the one Danish, and the two Spanish janissa- 
ries were yesterday evening liberated for about 8000 piastres. This 
morning the Pasha has sent me my janissary Abbud, saying that he 
made me a present of him !" 

"Aleppo, Jan. 30th, 1SU. 

u On the 20th instant the Pasha made known to the consuls his wish 
that they should assemble the people under their protection, in order 
to compel them to make a public declaration of any property they 
might have belonging to janissaries, dead, living, or absconded. This 


step was calculated to give considerable uneasiness, because, as most 
of the Franks had long ago remitted to the Pasha all the effects that 
bad been confided to their custody by the janissaries, it was appre- 
hended that the Pasha meant to follow it up by some more violent 

" Myself, the Austrian, Russian, and Danish consuls instantly replied, 
that we had nothing in our possession belonging to janissaries ; but the 
French consul having a great number of persons under his protection, 
judged it necessary to convene a general assembly on the occasion. 
After which, he sent his first dragoman, M. Simion, to the Pasha with 
a copy of the jjroces verbal. When this paper was put into the pasha's 
hands, he did not deign to look at it, but said angrily, " What credit 
would you have me give to your declarations, after having found pro- 
perty in the hands of the Franks, which they had previously denied 
possessing? This affair must be examined before the cadi, when I shall 
bring credible witness to prove that there is still property of the rebels 
in the hands of the Franks, and execute in consequence the orders of 
the Porte." The dragoman had been charged at the same time to com- 
plain that in the preceding days, a French doctor, without having given 
any provocation, had been beaten with his own cane by a soldier; and 
that another Frank (also a French subject) had received a box on the 
car ; to which the Pasha replied, that if the dragoman could point out 
the persons who had committed these insults, he would order their 
chastisement. The dragornan said that such a designation was impos- 
sible; and then very imprudently suggested that a public crier should 
be ordered to proclaim in the city that the Franks must not be molested. 
The Pasha of course refused to comply with so ridiculous a request, 
when some altercation ensuing, the dragoman says the Pasha insinuated 
that, if the exigency required it, he weald as soon hang him, or any 
other Frank, as a rajah (Turkish subject). 

" Ten days have now elapsed without the Franks having been sum- 
moned to appear in Mehkamy,* or the Pasha's having taken any further 
step in the business of the secreted property of the janissaries ; and I am 
inclined to think, that if the Franks conduct themselves with prudence 
und temper, the Pasha may yet be induced to act towards them with 

" It is, however, fair to state, that a few days ago the Arnaut who 
had insulted the doctor was apprehended while sitting in the public ba- 
zaar with the gold-headed cane in his hand, without his having received 

* It is contrary to all established custom that a European should be compelled to 
appear at a Turkish tribunal. 


any chastisement at all. Besides which circumstance, another French 
subject has just been insulted in sport, but narroAvly escaped a very 
serious injur)'. While out riding, he was met by a party of Dalli-Bash 
playing at the jarid; one of them galloped up to him, and when within 
five yards, threw a jarid with all his force, which pierced the gentle- 
man's hat, and rebounded over a garden-wall.* 

" I must also add, that yesterday the Franks were also concerned in 
a most extraordinary public measure, which touches more or less every 
man in the city. The Pasha having promulgated a command for the 
reduction of the currency of coins to the standard of the capital, he 
fancied that he coidd likewise regulate and fix the prices of all the com- 
modities that are sold in the shops and warehouses. Strange as it may 
appear, the execution of this project was attempted. Yesterday a great 
crowd of people assembled in the Mehkamy; and among shoemakers, 
smiths, Bagdad merchants, petty shopkeepers, manufacturers, &c. &c, 
there were the house-brokers of the Europeans, who were severally 
interrogated about the prices at which they vended cochineal, sugar, 
cloths, red caps, coral, &c, and gravely informed that his excellency the 
Pasha had ordered that the prices of all their wares should be regulated 
and fixed! And what is still more ridiculous, it was proposed to limit 
also the profit of every article as it passed from hand to hand, which 
was wisely settled by the deputy cadi, the person who presided at this 
grave assembly, at one para per piastre. -j- 

" On which a facetious shopkeeper disturbed the solemnity of the 
proceeding, by saving, ' Why, look ye, gentlemen, nothing can be fairer; 
for my part, I am quite satisfied with the arrangement. I usually sell 
for five piastres. I shall have earned an ample daily provision for my- 
self and family.' 

" After three or four hours sitting without much progress being made 
in business, the session was prorogued till to-morrow; but it is pro- 
bable that enough has been already done to prove the impracticability of 
the undertaking. 

" This measure is the more extraordinary, as the Pasha has had suffi- 
cient time to see the bad effects of his maximum on the necessaries of 
life ; for by fixing their prices three months ago, there is now an alarm- 

* The instances of insults to Europeans, wherein some were much injured, went 
on increasing, until Ibrahim Pasha took possession of Syria. To this prince Europeans 
owe all the little respect accorded them to this day by the people of the country ; 
still, at his time in Damascus, and to this day in Hamma, Christians are not allowed 
to ride in the streets ! 

+ Forty paras make one piastre. 


ing scarcity in the chief articles of meat, butter, bread, and barley, as 
well as a want of all other provisions. 

"If the other price-limiting speculation should be carried into effect, 
it will be seen that it was conceived with a view to throw obstacles 
in the way of trade, for the sole purpose of compelling the different 
branches of industry to unite in a contribution to purchase relief ! 

" The object, as far as it regards the Franks, will, however, I trust, 
completely fail, as on this ground we are well aimed by the express 
tenor of our capitulations." * 

Translation of a petition in Turkish from the Chiefs of the Trades and the 
Poor in Antioch, to Mr. John Barker. 

O friend of the nation, and zealous in befriending the poor, the 
honoured Mr. Barker ! 

We,f the population of this town, the literate and illiterate class, 
the chiefs of the villages, and the chiefs of the trades, in a body, have 
previously sent four petitions to the Pasha at Aleppo, borne by persons 
bare-footed and bare-headed, having been weighed down by the tyranny 
of Halif Aga (the former mutsellim), praying that he might be removed 
from power; and his highness listened to our complaints, and placed 
Shakir Bey, colonel of the sbahis,| in his place. From that day Ave have 
enjoyed tranquillity. But we have now learnt of a certainty, that Halif 
Aga has petitioned his highness to the effect that he might send to this 
town [orders to the Bey], and have fifteen of the chiefs of the trades 
put in chains and brought to Aleppo, in order that, after having done 
so, the said Haji Halif Aga may be reinstated in the mutsellimlick. 

Since we have a certainty of this, and also that these individuals 
are not guilty of any crime, but that this proceeds from the enmity of 
Haji Halif Aga, which is as clear to all as the sun in the heavens, we, 

* It was only very lately (1847), that the Pasha of Adana pretended to prohibit the 
Europeans from selling any thing whatever in deta il ; but on what he founded his 
pretensions I cannot say. The European shops in Tarsus and Adana had been closed, 
and complaints sent to Constantinople, with what chance of obtaining success no one 
can tell ; and in Aleppo seventy persons under European protection, some of whom 
had been for thirty years in the service of various consulates, were seized and put in 
prison until they paid the Karage, a personal tax on the Christian subjects of the 
Grand Seigneur, from which all protected have hitherto been exempted. Later, the 
French ambassador obtained an order of the Porte to the Pasha of Adana to desist 
from such ridiculous pretensions. 

f The persons who presented the petition belong all to the Muhammadan class of 
the population. 

+ The sbahis are the Sultan's irregular cavalry, of whom a troop is quartered at 


your servants, the poor, humbly state — firstly, that we Avill not have 
Haji Halif Aga return to Antioch [that is, as mutsellim] ; and secondly, 
that these persons should be sent in chains to Aleppo, shall never be 
with our consent; and in order that there may not be a revolution in 
the town, we have been in a body to Mr. Michail Adib, the English 
consular agent in this town, and have laid before him our case. To 
which he answered, " I have a superior, to whom I Avill write, and in- 
form of the facts of the case; and please God, Mr. Barker will cause the 
affair to be properly represented." And we agreed to this advice of Mr. 
Michail, and we have sent in this petition, that you may take what 
measures you think fit for our tranquillity. (Signed as above.) 

Postscript. — honoured sir, — 

Mr. Michail Adib has written on the subject to the present mutsel- 
lim and the council [to ask] why this injustice should be committed ? 
and they ansAvered, " We have no knowledge of it." Upon which Mr. 
Michail begged that a written document be given to these [fifteen] in- 
dividuals as a guarantee, which they refused. Mr. Michail then went 
to them [the mutsellim and council] and procured the paper; but for 
all this, we, your humble servants, are still in fear, and pray you will 
strengthen us, because Ave do not Avish to make disturbances, but that 
justice shoidd be done [to us], and Ave have [for this purpose] fallen at 
the feet of the British government, and pray it may protect us from 
oppression. (Signed as aboA'e.) 

Dated Rubi Ahir 19, 1257. [June 8th, 1341.] 


Badir Khan Bey belonged to the chief family Avhich has been at the 
head of the Kurds of Kurdistan Proper for many years, and AAdiose per- 
sons are considered by their tribe to be almost sacred. It is problema- 
tical Avhether Badir Khan Bey is the actual head of the family; be this as 
it may, by his bravery, and the assistance he afforded the Porte, he AA r as 
about seA'en years ago raised to the chief command ; and he contm'ed to 
subdue to his authority, under the sanction of the Porte, a district con- 
taining 4000 villages, for Avhich he contributed to the Turkish govern- 
ment a sum of 1000 purses annually; nor has he ever failed in his en- 
gagement, so that the Porte had really no cause of complaint ; for as to 
his persecution of the Christians, according to the conscience of most of 
the great men at Constantinople, Badir Khan Bey cannot be blamed for 
thus promoting the cause of his religion. 


During the time that he governed in Kurdistan, Badir Khan con- 
trived to amass a very large sum of money, great part of which he 
buried, and caused the persons who had been employed in building up 
the place where the treasure was concealed to be killed, that the secret 
of the spot might remain with him alone. 

Badir Khan calculated upon rallying 40,000 followers to his standard 
when he first refused to give up his authority. But when the troops 
of Osman Pasha approached Jizirah, Iziddin Shir, a lad of seA-enteen, 
the son of Mirsirdin,* had been entrusted with one of the passes into 
Kurdistan, Bughaz Kalaasi, and he broke his trust by openly making 
jiro testations to the Pasha of Musvd, that he was determined not to fight. 
On this, three-fourths of the Kurds abandoned Badir Khan, and he 
found the 'numbers of his followers reduced first to 12,000, and after- 
wards to a few hundred men, his immediate dependents. The Turks 
all admit, that if it had not been for this treachery, the army of the 
Porte would not have been in sufficient force to conquer the Kurd chief. 

When Osman Pasha reached Jizirah, he found that the boats of the 
bridge over the Tigris had been destroyed, to interrupt communication ; 
and he ordered these to be repaired, and crossed with his whole army, 
encamping on the other side (where Ave since pitched our tent). Here 
he was joined by Iziddin Shir, Avho had been to Musnl, where the Pasha 
had given him a nishan or honorary decoration, and had treated him 
with great kindness, naming him governor of Kurdistan, in the place of 
Badir Khan. 

There is a road direct north, at about tA\ r o hours ride from Jizirah ; 
but as it passes through precipitous hills, the army might have been 
attacked in those passes at a disadA T antage, so Osman Pasha preferred 
folloAving the course of the stream along a avoocI, which Avinds AA'ith the 
river, north-A\ r est, for an hour, Avhere they encamped in an open place 
among some olive-trees. Badir Khan, seeing himself betrayed by his 
cousin, Iziddin Shir, and fearing that he would lead the Turks through 
the defile, which was held by his younger brother, Mansur Bey,| he re- 
solved on attacking them, with the hopes of throwing disorder into their 
ranks before they could enter the gorge. The Turkish army consisted of 

* Who had killed his predecessor and brother-in-law, Sayid Bey, and taken the 
reins of government for a short while previous to the aggrandisement of Badir Khan. 

•f To shew the spirit of fanaticism still reigning in these parts, I will only state a 
fact I lately learned at Musul. Mansur Bey and his brother had pressed into their 
service some horses from Musul to Jizirah to carry then- effects ; these horses belonged 
to a Christian, who followed them to bring back the animals ; but they were refused to 
him unless he would consent to turn Turk ; on his complaining, Mansur made him open 
his mouth, and thrust a jarid down his throat. The poor man is now in Musul, and has 
lost the power of speech. 


12,000 regular infantry and cavalry, and G000 to 8000 irregulars. Badir 
Khan's troops amounted to only 12,000, the rest being in the mountains, 
and many siding with Iziddin Shir, others maintaining neutrality. 
"With these Badir Khan surrounded the army at night and kept up a 
heavy fire till morning, but he killed only twelve men and wounded 
sixty. - The people of Jizirah, who were Kurds, and, at heart, on the 
side of Badir Khan, pretend that the Pasha cansed the bodies of the 
soldiers to be sown up in sacks and thrown into the river, that the 
number of the killed should not be known. They also say that one 
Kurd was so brave, that he actually came up to the cannon to stop it 
with stones directly after it had been fired off, and that he gave the 
salam to the soldiers as he did this; on which he was shot by a subor- 
dinate officer; but that, collecting his remaining strength, he stabbed 
the Turk to the heart, on which the colonel of the regiment came for- 
ward and cut the Kurd down with his sword. They also say that the 
Kurds succeeded in carrying off four guns, which they were, however, 
obliged to abandon in their flight the next morning. As soon as day 
broke, the Turks, who had returned the fire without moving from their 
place, charged the Kurds and routed them. The Kurds then retired 
by the pass near Finik (ancient Phoenicia), where is an old castle, be- 
sides several more modern and rudely constructed forts, which have 
been destroyed since the subjection of Badir Khan, together with seve- 
ral others held by him in the mountains. Iziddin Shir conducted the 
army through the other pass held by his brother, where there is a castle 
built by his father, in which there is a little spring of brackish water, 
and which is now garrisoned by twenty Arnauts. This castle is inge- 
niously situated, commanding a pass through which runs a stream 
which ilows into the Tigris. It is at a sufficient height to render i! 
difficult of access, and still not too high to give effect to cannon defend- 
ing the entrance of the pass. Opposite to it was another fortification, 
which the Pasha has pulled down. This pass is one hour to the east 
of the place of engagement, and through it the army made their way (< 
Dar Gul, or the Monastery Lake, two and a half hours further on.* 

The army went in four days from Dar Gul to Avrack, and there 
Badir Khan made his last stand with some two or three hundred men 
Avho remained faithful to him. There was some hard fighting at this spot, 
which was well situated to resist the attacks of the army; but at the end 
of forty-eight hours, Badir Khan surrendered on his own terms. 

Now, if it had ever been the intention of the Porte to bring him to 
condign punishment, there was not the least necessity for their allowing 
* An "hour" may be computed to be about 3i miles at most. 


him all lie demanded; but the fact is, the Porte had been compelled 
against its will to make Avar upon him at the special desire, and in 
accordance with the reiterated demand, of the British ambassador. At 
all events, Badir Khan having proceeded to Constantinople, he there 
pleaded his own cause so effectually, that he has been allowed to retire 
and live peaceably at Canclia. 

An account of the horrible atrocities committed by this savage 
upon the defenceless Nestorians will be found in Layard's Nineveh and 
its Remains, vol. i. p. 173 et seq., and at p. 239 a brief account of the 
capture of Badir Khan ; corroborating, however, the more minute details 
here given, inasmuch as Layard says, " The Turkish ministers had 
more than suspected that Osman Pasha had reasons of his own for 
granting these terms." 

The Story of Fahel, Chief of the Arabs of the Zor, or Forest District of 
the Euphrates ; as related by John Barker, Esq. Dated, Aleppo, 
20th May, 1823. 

The Pasha of Aleppo, without having any cause of complaint, but 
incited merely by the hope of plunder, was induced to make a grand 
expedition against Fahel, an ancient chief of the tribes of sedentary 
Arabs who inhabit the Zor, or forest on the banks of the Euphrates. 
With this view he despatched the mutsellim (governor) of Ivillis, with 
four field-pieces, 2000 Turkish soldiers, and half that number of armed 
peasants, to which force was added 1000 Arabs of the tribe Haddidin, 
whom he had engaged to act as auxiliaries. This formidable army was 
calculated to strike terror into the heart of the old patriarch, the fame 
of whose riches was greater than his power. 

Fahel prudently sought to avert the impending danger by an offer 
of a large sum of money ; but that mark of submission and fear served 
only to stimulate the Pasha's covetousness the more. The latter was 
already in imagination possessed of the golden hoards of Fahel, when 
his army was suddenly enveloped, attacked, and dispersed, leaving in 
the hands of the victors the four cannons and the mutsellim, whose life 
was spared in the manner related to me by a peasant, who was one of 
the musketeers. 

" It was not," said he, " the affair of a long summer's day — of an hour 
— of half- an-h our. It was over in a shorter space of time than I have 
employed to relate it. The first discharge of the artillery killed five of 
our own men. The cannoneers had hardly time to reload before they 


were surrounded, having the mutsellim in the midst of them, and were 
forced to use their swords and pistols. They made an obstinate resist- 
ance ; but they all fell by the lances of the Fahel, except the mutsellim, 
whose life was preserved by one of the sons of the chief, who was seen 
flying in every direction, exclaiming, " No quarter to the Ruam !* but 
spare the peasant, for he has been brought here against his will." 

The auxiliary Arabs abandoned camp and baggage, and saved them- 
selves by flight ; but a woman was left behind. On the enemy coming 
up to the empty tents, she was recognised and accosted by a man, who 
said to her : " Sister, what are you doing here ?" "I am in labour," 
she replied. " Then thou art the booty that God has assigned me," said 
the Arab, and respectfully retired to a short distance. There he waited 
patiently till the woman was delivered. The mother having nothing 
that could serve to swaddle the infant, he tore off the skirt of his 
tattered under-garment to cover it. 

He then assisted his " sister " to mount his mare, and with the halter 
in his hand, and words of comfort and urbanity in his conversation, he 
journeyed on many a weary league in the traces of the fugitive tribe, 
which he overtook, and restored the woman and the babe to their 
family. He was introduced to the chief; and the next day, with the 
view of effecting a reconciliation, he prevailed upon him to accompany 
him to the tents of the victorious Fahel. 

The old man upbraided him gently with having sided with the 
Osmanlis. He replied, with dignity, " O Fahel ! I am a Haddidin. 
Can you think me capable of uniting in a sincere friendship with those 
Osmanli dogs ? Between you and me there is an honourable warfare. 
We fight for the goods of this world ; but the Ruam are not restrained 
by the sacred laws of the Arabs. They respect not the chastity of the 
women. They will slay a brave man whom they have had the chance 
to unhorse ; and, with still greater baseness, stoop to take away his 
sandals and his water-bottle, and expose him to perish in the desert !" 

" Thou art a brave fellow," said Fahel, " and shalt hereafter be 
esteemed amongst my dearest friends." 

The interview between the rival chiefs had scarcely terminated, 
when the naked and trembling mutsellim was conducted into the tent. 
Fahel rose at his entrance. He was immediately furnished with a proper 
suit of apparel, and after receiving the assurance of safety, and the cere- 
monies of the pipe and the coffee being over, he was presented with a 
cake of unleavened coarse Arab bread. The mutsellim broke it, turned 

* Ruam is the plural of Rumi, and is a name the Arabs give to Turkish soldiers 
without distinction, whether thoy are from Rumilia (Turkey in Europe) or not. 

A A 


it over and over in his mouth, and after fruitless efforts to swallow it, 
declared he could not eat it. 

" What ! " exclaimed Fahel, sternly ; " you cannot eat our bread ! 
Yet this it is which your master envies us the possession of." 

When this Lacedaemonian rebuke had made its due impression on 
the mutsellim, he was regaled with the choicest viands that could be 
procured, and continued to be treated with respect and even kindness 
in his captivity. 

In the anguish of defeat the Pasha declared his resolution to be 
revenged. He made some vain demonstrations to raise another army; 
but was soon after called away to the command of a distant province. 
Meantime, instead of a prison, the mutsellim had enjoyed in the Zor 
an asylum against the fury of his master, who sought to wash out his 
own disgrace in the blood of the unhappy lieutenant. 

He was at length dismissed with the honourable gifts of vests and 
horses, and many other tokens of the hospitality and munificence of the 

The new Pasha prudently accepted from Fahel the customary tribute 
for the privilege of selling to the people of Aleppo the surplus of his 
corn, his sheep, and his butter. 

In this little picture of living Arab manners it will be seen that the 
victorious chief rose from his seat on a distinguished captive being led 
into his presence ; but that mark of civility he shews to the meanest 
individual, whether Muhammadan, Jew, or Christian. So very distinct 
are Fahel's manners from those of the Turk in authority, that he never 
suffers his hand or his vest to be kissed except by women and children. 
He even always himself carries the water- vessel for his ablutions, deem- 
ing it impious in a being subject to the wants of nature to exact from a 
fellow-creature so degrading a service. The sentiment of this religious 
respect for the dignity of a human being is not peculiar to Fahel. It 
was displayed by Dr. Johnson, when he himself bought oysters with 
which he fed his superannuated cat. But the virtue that distinguished 
a modern British philosopher is so common in Arabia as to attract no 
attention among a people we please to call barbarians. 

burckhardt's account of cilicia. 355 


burckhardt's account of cilicia. 

Mr. Lewis Burckhardt, the celebrated traveller, had a wonderful power 
of describing even what he saw but casually ; witness his description 
of Palmyra, where he was only permitted to remain a couple of hours, 
and which he barely traversed on horseback ; and yet he gives a plan of 
the city, and an admirable account of its ruins and edifices. On his 
first going to the East, he proceeded to reside at Aleppo, in order to 
prepare himself for being enabled to pass for a Mussulman. 

On his way he touched at Tarsus ; and his account of this place is 
so graphic, that we think we cannot do better than insert an extract, to- 
gether with his relation of his first landing at Suedia, and the difficulties 
he experienced at Antioch on his first assuming the native costume. 

" After we had left Satalia, we sailed for three days along the coast 
of Caramania, and kept our course constantly ten leagues distant from 
the shore. The chain of snowy mountains seems to continue in a direc- 
tion parallel with the shore. At the foot of these mountains I observed 
every evening thunder-clouds and lightning. During our stay in the 
port of Satalia we were twice refreshed by heavy showers, though it 
was now the season when it very seldom rains in other parts of the 
Levant. I suppose that the vicinity of the snowy mountains, which 
rapidly condense the copious vapours arising from the heated earth, 
give rise to these clouds. On the 26th, late at night, we anchored in 
the roads of Mersin, a collection of villages so called, situated to the 
west of Tarsus, about fourteen miles distant from it. The next morning 
some of us went with the Tripoline on shore, where we found a party 
of about twenty Turkmans encamped under and around a single tent ; 
they were selling grain, with which the buyers loaded several camels. 
After a short parley, the chief of the party led us to his village, about 
two miles distant. We remained there the whole day in the chief's 
house, couched upon carpets, which were spread upon a terrace shel- 
tered from the sun by the shade of two large midberry-trees. We 
returned to our ship in the evening, and spent the next four days in 
the same manner with these hospitable people. 

"An aga is at the head of this Turkman tribe ; he commands about 


twenty-five villages, over each of which he appoints a chief to collect 
the revenue, which is equally divided between the chief and the aga. 
Many of these chiefs are Greeks, Avho, by their long residence with the 
Turkmans, have completely adopted their manners. Their dress is the 
same, excepting the red cap, which the Greeks do not wear ; and but 
for that mark it would be impossible for a stranger to distinguish them 
from their masters. The Turkmans are continually moving about on 
horseback from one village to another; they are tolerably well mounted 
and well armed, each with a gun, two pistols, a poniard, and a sabre. 
They never go but armed ; but it seems to be chiefly from ostentation, 
for thev live at peace with the inhabitants of the neighbouring villages, 
have nothing to fear from straggling Arab tribes, and have no oppor- 
tunity of attacking travellers or caravans, which never pass this way. 
Thev occupy the whole plain, which extends in length from Cape 
Bajarre to beyond Tarsus ; its breadth extends from the sea to the 
lowest ridge of the mountains of Caramania, and varies from four to 
five or ten miles. This plain, at least as much as I saw of it in my 
way to Tarsus, is for the greater part sown with barley and wheat ; 
where it is left uncultivated, numerous herds of buffalos and fine cattle 
feed upon the wild grass. "Wild capers grow in great abundance. I 
found in several rivulets sinall tortoises ; and amongst the ruins of de- 
serted houses Ave got here and there sight of a zerboa. The Tripoline 
having made his purchase of grain from the aga, the latter sent on board 
our ship three fat sheep in earnest of his engagements. In six days the 
ship was to begin loading. The Tripoline being at leisure during this 
time, I persuaded him to go with me to Tarsus, in search of a further 
conveyance for me by sea or land ; one of the other Tripolines was like- 
wise desirous of looking out for a passage for Beirout : the excursion 
was therefore soon agreed upon. "We formed a small caravan, and set 
out on horseback on the morning of the 30th. The road from our 
anchoring place to Tarsus crosses the above-mentioned plain in an 
easterly direction : Ave passed several small rivulets which empty them- 
selves into the sea, and which, to judge from the size of their beds, sAvell 
in the rainy season to considerable torrents. "We had ridden about an 
hour, when I saw, at half an hour's distance to the north of our route, 
the ruins of a large castle, upon a hill of a regular shape in the plain : 
half an hour further toAvards Tarsus, at an equal distance from our road, 
upon a second tumulus, were ruins resembling the former ; a third insu- 
lated hillock, close to Avhich we passed midway of our route, was over- 
grown Avith grass, Avithout any ruins or traces of them. I did not see 
in the Avhole plain any other elevations of ground but the three just 

burckharbt".- aooouht of cilicia. 357 

mentioned. Xot far from the first ruins stands in the plain an insulated 
column. Large groups of trees shew from afar the site of Tarsus. We 
passed a small river before we entered the town, larger than those we 
had met on the road. The western outer gate of the town, through 
which we entered, is of ancient structure : it is a fine arch, the interior 
vault of which is in perfect preservation: on the outside are some remains 
of a sculptured frieze. I did not see anv inscriptions. To the right and 
left of this gateway are seen the ancient ruined walls of the city, which 
extended in this direction further than the town at present does. From 
the outer gateway,* it is about four hundred paces to the modern entrance 
of the citv : the intermediate ground is filled up by a burying-ground 
on one side of the road, and several gardens with some miserable huts 
on the other. "We led our horses to the khan of the muleteers, and went 
ourselves to the khan of the merchants, where we found tolerable accom- 
modation, the brother of the Tripoline being known here. Our room 
was soon filled with all the foreign merchants who lived in the khan, 
and the principal town merchants; we sold to them a few silk handker- 
chiefs and coarse cambric, and were plagued with their company for the 
whole remaining part of the day. The foreign merchants were a party of 
Kahines (Kahiriues '<), several Aleppines, and some Constantinopolitans. 
In the evening the alley at the gate of the khan was transformed into a 
dark coffee-room, where everv body went to smoke a pipe. .V- we were 
strangers, we were greeted at our entrance with the usual politeness of 
Orientals towards travellers : ' Peace be with you : you are welcome 
among us; how are you? God send you a happy evening," &c Arc. were 
compliments which every one whom we approached addressed to us. 
We were treated by several merchants with pipes, coffee, ice-water, and 
bour, which latter drink is water mixed with the juice of liquorice. The 
ice is brought from the mountains three days' journey distant, at the 
price of three piastres for about five pounds. A tolerable singer sung 
some Turkish airs, and accompanied himself upon a sort of mandoline. 
Many questions were addressed to me about my person and affairs : my 
neighbour- the Tripoline took the trouble of answering them to the i 
faction of the company. ' Allah Kerim P ' God is great !* was their 
usual exclamation at hearing that I came from so far. We retired rather 
late ; for my part I had been much entertained with the party. We 
went to sleep before the door of our room upon a covered terrace built 
of wood, which runs along the interior circuit of the khan. Before sun- 
rise every body was up: some of the merchants descended into the court- 

* It wbs to the east of this gateway alluded to by Mr. Burckhardt that the terra- 
cottas were found. — W. B. B. 


yard to perform at the fountain the ablutions which are prescribed to 
the Mussulman after his night's rest. But in this part of their religious 
rites, as well as in the performance of their daily prayers, I observed 
much indifference amongst the plurality of the Turks I saw here, as 
well as of those with whom I travelled afterwards from Suedieh to Aleppo. 
Amongst the latter were many who, during eight days, did not pray 
once; even two Hadjis, who had performed the Mecca pilgrimage, were 
of that number. Some would pray once, others twice a day, before sun- 
rise and after sunset ; only three or four of the caravan were strict in 
regularly chanting the three daily prayers, to which number the Koran 
limits the duty of travellers ; but I did not find that more respect or 
deference was paid to them than to the others. 

" We remained in the khan that morning, and quitted the town at 
noon to return to our ship, leaving the Tripoline behind to settle our 
affairs. The little I saw of Tarsus did not allow me to estimate its 
extent ; the streets through which I passed were all built of wood, and 
badly; some well-furnished bazaars, and a large and handsome mosque 
in the vicinity of the khan, make up the whole register of curiosities 
which I am able to relate of Tarsus. Upon several maps Tarsus is 
marked as a sea-town : this is incorrect ; the sea is above three miles 
distant from it. On our return home, we started in a S.W. direction, and 
passed, after two hours and a half's march, Casal (Cazan or Caisanlu), a 
large village half a mile distant from the sea-shore, called the Port of 
Tarsus, because vessels freighted for Tarsus usually come to anchor in 
its neighbourhood. From thence turning towards the west, we arrived 
at our ship at the end of two hours. The merchants of Tarsus trade 
principally with the Syrian coast and Cyprus : Imperial ships arrive there 
from time to time to load grain. The land-trade is of very little conse- 
quence, as the caravans from Smyrna arrive very seldom. There is no 
land-communication at all between Tarsus and Aleppo, which is at ten 
journeys (caravan travelling) distant from it. The road has been ren- 
dered unsafe, especially in later times, by the depredations of Kutshuk 
Ali, a savage rebel, who has established himself in the mountains to the 
north of Alexandretta. Tarsus is governed by an aga, who, I have 
reason to believe, is almost independent. The French have an agent 
there, who is a rich Greek merchant. 

" On the following day the Tripoline rejoined us ; he had taken, to 
my great satisfaction, a passage for me on board a Greek sailing-boat 
from Tripoli of Syria.* That vessel was at anchor at Casal, and accord- 

* This Tripoli is distinguished from the city of which my fellow-traveller is a native 
by the appellation of Tarabolaus fel Shark, or Tripoli of the East. 

burckhardt's account of cilicia. 359 

ing to its master's affirmation was bound for Latikia, which was exactly 
the place where I wished to land. I left our ship on the second of July ; 
in taking leave of the Tripoline I took off my sash, a sort of red cam- 
bric shawl, of Glasgow manufacture, which he had always much admired, 
thinking it to be Indian stuff, and presented it to him as a keepsake or 
reward for his good services. He immediately unloosened his turban, 
and twisted the shawl in its stead round his head, making me many pro- 
fessions of friendship, and assuring me of his hospitality if ever the 
chance of mercantile pursuits should again engage me to visit the Medi- 
terranean, and perhaps Tripoli in Barbary. The time I hope may come 
when I shall be enabled to put his assurances to the test. (I think I 
forgot to mention that the Tripoline was much skilled in languages, 
which enabled me freely to converse with him ; besides his native Arabic 
tongue, he spoke Turkish, Greek, and Italian.) The vessel on board of 
which I now embarked was an open boat with three masts, about thirty- 
five feet long and nine broad, much resembling the representation of the 
germs of the Nile, which Bruce and other travellers have given. These 
vessels are -very common on the Syrian coast, where they are called 
Shacktur. I had engaged to pay for my passage twenty-five piastres 
at my arrival in Latikia ; but Avas no sooner with my baggage on board, 
than the master informed me that he meant to proceed to Antakia 
(Antiochia), not to Latikia, and that I was at liberty to return to my 
own ship if I did not choose to go his way. I thus found myself duped 
a second time, though I had most distinctly agreed for my passage to 
Latikia. However, there being no other conveyance to the coast of 
Syria at hand, I resolved to remain on board. I was afraid of being 
kept in these parts until after the return of my old ship for Malta, when 
I should have nobody to recommend me to those in whose company I 
might continue my way ; I knew, moreover, that there was a brisk inter- 
course between Antakia and Aleppo. There had not been for some time 
any opportunity from Tarsus to the opposite coast. A crowd of passen- 
gers came therefore on board. I counted fifty-six men and women lying 
upon deck, besides six sailors, and six horses in the ship's hold. We had 
each just as much space allowed as the body covered, and remained in 
this state two nights and one day. In general the passage is performed 
within the twenty-four hours. 

" On the morning of the 5th we entered the bay of Suedieh, which 
is formed on one side by the promontory called Has Khanzir, on the 
other by another projecting rocky mountain (Eas Bassit); both are the 
extremities of chains of barren rocks, which I conceive to be the remotest 
branches of the Libanus. These mountains come down to the water's 


edge on both sides of the bay; in the bottom of it, where the Orontes, 
now called Aasi, empties itself into the sea, begins a level country of four 
or five miles in width and length. It is to the whole of this tract of level 
land, which contains several villages, that the name of Suedieh is ap- 
plied, though that appellation is also given sometimes exclusively to 
the port. 

" The wind being favourable, we entered the river, and anchored, 
after half an hour's sailing through its sinuosities, at Mina, the port of 
Antakia, Avhere the ship was laid close to the shore, Avhere the elevated 
banks of the river form a kind of quay. Mina is a miserable village 
built close to the river's right bank, consisting of about seven or eight 
houses, the best of which serves as a place of residence to the aga, whom 
the aga of Antakia appoints to receive the duties upon exports and im- 
ports. Higher up than Mina the Aasi is not navigated ; the navigation 
is rendered impracticable by rocks, though there is plenty of water. 
Here, at the last stage of its course, it is a fine slow- flowing river, much 
about the size of the Thames beyond Richmond Bridge ; its Avaters are 
muddy, and this being the case in the month of June, three or four 
months after the rainy season, I suppose they can hardly be clear dur- 
ing any other part of the year. 

"Arrived at Suedieh, I found myself very uncomfortably situated. 
I had lost my friend the Tripoline, and though he had warmly recom- 
mended me to the master of the Shacktur, yet I found the crew of the 
vessel to be thievous and treacherous. They spread the rumour amongst 
the people of Suedieh that I was a Frank ; and as the ship was immediately 
to return to Tarsus, I expected to find myself completely at the mercy 
of the inhabitants, amongst whom, as well as amongst the crew, there 
was nobody who understood the Italian, or, as they called it, the Latin 
tongue. I remained on board the ship that day and the following; and 
was bargaining for a horse and mules to take me to Antakia, when, to 
my great satisfaction, a caravan from Aleppo came down to the coast 
with Indian goods ; I soon got acquainted with the muleteers, and made 
my bargain with one of them for the whole journey from Suedieh to 
Aleppo. He first asked fifty piastres per kantar (about five hundred 
pounds English weight). I got him down to thirty, and was afterwards 
informed at Aleppo that I should not have paid more than twenty- 
five. It is a great point gained by travellers in these countries if they 
can make with their mule or camel-drivers the usual bargain of the 
country. If the muleteer overcharges them, he makes a boast of it 
wherever he goes ; the traveller is immediately known to be a person 
little conversant with the customs of the country, and he may be sure 


to be dealt with accordingly in every respect, wherever the mule-driver 
accompanies him. I was helping the servants to distribute my baggage 
into mules' loads, and to tie it round with cords, when the aga sent for 
me. I found him smoking his pipe in a miserable room, surrounded by 
his people : entering the room, I pulled off my slippers and sat down 
on the floor before him. I shall here remark that it is a custom most 
strictly adhered to never to sit down upon a carpet or even a mat, and 
in presence of a man of rank, not even upon the bare floor, without pull- 
ing off the slippers ; and if a person has but one pair on his feet, which 
is the Moggrebyn and the Greek fashion, he must sit down bare- 

" After I had drunk a dish of coffee, I asked the aga what his plea- 
sure was; he answered me by making a sign with his thumb and fore- 
finger, like a person counting money, I had several chests for the British 
consul at Aleppo with me, and had also marked my own baggage with 
the consul's name, thinking by these means to prevent its being examined. 
He asked me what the chests contained ; I expressed my ignorance about 
it, telling him only that I thought there was a sort of Frank drink (beer) 
and some eatables which I had been charged with at Malta for the consul 
on my way home. He sent one of his people to look over their contents ; 
a bottle of beer had been broken in loading, the man tasted it by putting 
his finger into the liquor, and found it abominably bitter: such was his 
report to the aga. As a sample of the eatables, he produced a potato 
which he had taken out of one of the barrels, and that noble root excited 
a general laughter in the room : ' It is well worth while,' they said, ' to 
send such stuff to such a distance.' The aga tasted of the raw potato, and 
spitting it out again, swore at the Frank's stomach, which could bear 
such food. The other ti-unks were now left unexamined ; and I was 
asked fifteen piastres for the permission to depart with them. I gave 
him ten piastres, and received from him a sort of receipt for that money, 
because I told him that without it the consul would never believe that 
I had really paid down the money as duty upon his effects. The aga was 
very high in his expressions, talking of his grandeur, how little he cared 
about the sultan, and still less for any consul, &c. He laughed a great 
deal at my Arabic, which certainly was hardly intelligible ; but he did 
not much trouble himself with questions about my affairs, his mind 
seeming now solely taken up by the hope of extorting money from the 
Aleppine merchants ; and so I left him; and soon afterwards, about an 
hour before sunset, departed from Suedieh with part of the caravan, the 
rest intending to pass the night there. The road from Suedieh to An- 
takia crosses the plain for about one hour's distance. On the right runs, 


in a deep bed, a branch of the Aasi, and forms in this place several 
islands ; on your left extends the well-cultivated plain of Suedieh. 

" As we approached the mountains which enclose the plain on the 
western side, we passed several extensive and regularly-planted orchards 
belonging to the aga of Antakia. The road now lay through lanes 
thickly overhung on both sides with shrubs, and I was entering a coun- 
try famous for the beauties of its landscape scenery, when the sun shed 
its last rays. We continued our way in the dark for about one hour 
and a half longer, and halted near a rivulet at the entrance of the hills, 
where men and horses were fed : we remained there till about two hours 
after midnight. 

" From thence the road leads over a mountainous and rocky ground 
abounding with trees and springs. At the break of day we passed a 
village and a considerable rivulet flowing towards our right; one hour's 
march further another rivulet ; the country then opens, and the traveller 
finds himself upon the ridge of a high plain (Carachaiain), encompassed 
by the two before-mentioned chains of mountains, from which he descends 
into the valley which the Aasi waters, and where he finds Antakia very 
picturesquely situated, near the foot of the southern chain of mountains, 
surrounded with gardens and well-sown fields. It was yet early in the 
morning when we passed the river and entered the town ; a strong-built 
bridge leads over the river immediately into the town -gate. I was 
stopped at the gate and asked for one of the two pistols which I wore 
in my girdle; I had told the people of the caravan that they belonged 
to the English consul. My muleteer assured me that the pistol would 
be restored; I therefore gave it up voluntarily, well convinced it woidd 
have been forced from me against my will. The aga's man brought it 
back in the evening; I was asked two piastres for the returning of it; they 
had taken the flint, and the powder from the pan. Arrived at Antakia, 
the muleteer led his mules to the khan of the muleteers ; I might have 
gone to the khan of the merchants, but having nobody to accompany me 
and introduce me there, I preferred staying with the muleteers, whose 
way of living I also wished to see. The khan is a large courtyard built 
in a triangular shape: the basis of the triangle is distributed on both 
sides of the entrance-door into small dark cells, which serve as maga- 
zines for the goods and as places to cook in. On another side are the 
stables ; and the whole length of the third side is taken up by a terrace 
built of stone, about four feet elevated from the ground, and eight feet 
broad, where the muleteers eat, sleep, and pray, that side of the khan 
being built in the direction of Mecca. In the midst of the yard is a large 
water-basin, which affords diink to men and beasts indiscriminately. 

burckhardt's account of CILICIA. 363 

" My entrance into the khan excited considerable curiosity, and the 
little cell I took possession of was soon beset by troublesome inquirers, 
who imanimously declared that I was a Frank come to the country for 
evil purposes. I had nobody to take my part except my muleteer, 
whose remonstrances in my behalf were soon lost in the general cry of 
djaour (infidel) raised by the other inhabitants of the khan, and by the 
town's-people who came to visit their friends. 

" Whenever I could get any of them to listen to me for half an hour, 
I found means to appease them ; but the town's-people did not even con- 
descend to speak to me, and I evidently saw that their plan was to make 
religion a pretext for practising an avanie upon me. My property fortu- 
nately was mixed with that of the consul ; a spare shirt and a carpet 
constituted my whole baggage ; besides a pocket-purse, containing the 
money necessary for my daily expenses, I had about twenty sequins 
hidden upon me. The aga of Antakia sent his dragoman to get some- 
thing out of me. This was a wretched Frank, who pretended to be a 
Frenchman, but whom I should rather suppose to be a Piedmontese. I 
pretended complete ignorance of the French language ; he therefore 
asked me in Italian minutely about my affairs, and how I could attempt 
to travel home without any money or goods to defray the expenses of 
the journey. I answered that I hoped the consul, in remuneration of my 
having carefully watched his effects, would pay the expense of a camel 
from Aleppo to Bagdad, and that at the latter place I was sure of finding 
friends to facilitate my further journey. When the man saw that nothing 
in my manners betrayed my Frank origin, he made a last trial, and 
pulling my beard a little with his hand, asked me familiarly ' Why I 
had let such a thing grow ?' I answered him with a blow upon his 
face, to convince the by- standing Turks how deeply I resented the re- 
ceived insult ; and the laugh now turned against the poor dragoman, 
who did not trouble me any further. I am at a loss to state how far I 
succeeded in sustaining my assumed character; I thought that the major 
part of the caravan people were gained over to my side, but the town's- 
people were constant in their imprecations against me. I had been 
flattered with an immediate departure for Aleppo, but the caravan was 
detained four days in the khan. During the whole time of our stay, I 
spent the daytime in the cell of the goods, amusing myself with cooking 
our victuals ; the town's-people, though often assembled before the door 
of the room, never entered it; in the evening the gates of the khan were 
shut, and I then went to sleep with the muleteers upon the terrace. 

" I was relieved from this unpleasant situation on the 10th, when it 
was decided that the caravan should depart. The muleteers began pre- 


paring for their departure by dividing the whole court into squares of 
different sizes, by means of ropes, at the end of which iron wedges are 
fastened, which are driven into the earth up to their heads; each mule- 
teer takes one of these squares proportionate in size to the number of 
his beasts, and loads them in it. Though the ropes are little more than 
one inch above ground, the animals never move out of the square assigned 
to them, and thus great order prevailed in the khan, though it was dark 
when we loaded, and the whole coiirt crowded with beasts and bales. At 
halting-places, when the beasts are fed, the same ropes are extended in 
front of them to prevent their getting amongst the baggage. 

" I cannot say much of Antakia, having seen nothing of it but the 
streets through which I entered. It looks like a neat town, at least in 
comparison to Tarsus : living is only half as dear as it is in Aleppo. 
This circumstance, joined to the beauty of the surrounding country, and 
the proximity of the sea, would make it a desirable place for Franks to 
live in, were it not for the fanaticism of its inhabitants, who pride them- 
selves upon being descendants from the Osmanlis the conquerors of Syria. 
Last year at a tumult raised at Suedieh, these Osmanlis murdered the 
Greek aga (Barhoom Kehya, grandfather of Jusif Saba) of Suedieh, with 
his whole family, and a young French physician, who had come to his 
house to cure his son. The aga of Antakia is appointed by the Grand 
Signior, and is independent of any pasha. 

" We marched the whole night of the 10th over a plain country, and 
reached early the next morning Hamsie, a village situated at nine hours 
march from Antakia, on the right bank of the Orontes. We passed 
the river in a ferry-boat : its banks on both sides are about forty feet 
high at this place; its breadth is near fifty yards; the depth no where 
more than five feet. On a little eminence a few hundred paces from 
the ground on the river's side where we encamped, rises a spring of 
excellent water ; my companions, however, drank of the muddy water 
of the Orontes in preference to taking the trouble of filling their flasks 
at the spring. One of the merchants had a tent with him, under the 
shade of which we passed the whole day. In the evening the village 
youths kindled a large fire, and amused themselves with music and 
dancing. The next day we passed a chain of calcareous mountains 
planted here and there with olives; on the top of one of these mountains 
lives a custom-house officer, who exacted a toll from each individual, as 
it was said, in the name of the Grand Signior. The descent on the 
eastern side is steep, but the mules walked with the greatest firmness. 
In the valley into which we descended lies the town of Ermenaz, wa- 
tered by several streams. Though small, it is one of the best towns in 


this part of Syria ; its gardens are cultivated with great care, and its in- 
habitants are industrious, because they are out of the immediate reach of 
rapacious pashas and janissaries. They work a glass manufacture which 
supplies Aleppo. The olives of the country round Aleppo are, next to 
those of Tripoli, the best in Syria; its grapes are likewise much esteemed. 
As we rode by, I saw lying on the right-hand side of the road near the 
town, a broken ancient column of about four feet in diameter ; and I 
was told afterwards in Aleppo that many like remains of antiquity are 
to be met with in the neighbourhood of Ermenaz. At half an hour's dis- 
tance from this latter place we again began to mount, and the path became 
difficult and tiresome for the beasts, from the number of detached rocks 
with which it is overspread. After nearly eight hours' march (meaning 
the whole day's work) we descended into the eastern plain of Syria, and 
encamped at the foot of the mountains, round a large tree in the vicinity 
of a copious spring. Whenever the beasts were unloaded, it was with 
much difficulty that I could prevent my luggage from being thrown upon 
the ground. The caravan people in this country, and I should suppose 
every where else in the East, are accustomed to loads of bales of goods 
which do not receive any injury from letting them fall to the ground. 
The loads on each side of the beast are tied together over its back by a 
cord. Arrived at the halting-place, the first thing the muleteer does is 
to go from mule to mule to unloosen that cord ; the loads then fall to the 
ground. This mode of unloading, and the great carelessness of these 
people, render the transport of many European commodities utterly im- 
practicable, without their being accompanied by a servant sent along 
with them, for the express purpose of taking off the loads. A Frank 
merchant of Aleppo received some years ago a load of Venetian looking- 
glasses which were all dashed to pieces. Provided the chests which con- 
tain the merchandise be entire, the muleteer thinks himself free from 
responsibility. We were joined in the evening by some other travellers, 
whose curiosity led them to new inquiries about my person and affairs. 
None of my companions had till now found out any thing which could 
have directly inculpated myself; they, however, kept a strict watch over 
all my motions : being obliged at night to go aside, two of the travellers 
last arrived followed me unseen, and pretended afterwai'ds to have ob- 
served some irregularities in the ablutions necessary to be performed on 
such occasions ; in consequence of which, I was told that I was ' Haram,' 
or in a forbidden unclean state; and notwithstanding every thing I said 
to defend and excuse myself, I found that from that time I had lost the 
good opinion of all my companions. We marched the next day .six 
hours, and halted at Mart Mesrin, a village belonging to Ibrahim Pasha, 


who, in the time of Djezar, was Pasha of Aleppo, afterwards Pasha of 
Damascus, and who lives now in disgrace and poverty at this place, the 
whole appearance of which makes it probable that in a few years hence 
it will be deserted by its inhabitants. The wide-extended plain over 
which we marched this day consists almost throughout of a fertile soil, 
but without any trees, and in most places uncultivated, but where a 
number of ruined and deserted villages indicate that many parts of it 
must have formerly been cultivated. Having been much plagued dur- 
ing this whole day by my fellow-travellers, and in the evening also by 
the peasants, who had collected round the caravan, I swore that I would 
not eat any more with any of them. This declaration being somewhat 
in the Arab style, they were startled at it; and my muleteer especially 
much pressed me to rejoin their mess; I assured him that I would rather 
eat nothing and starve than have any further friendly dealings with men 
who professed themselves my friends one day, and proved my enemies 
the next (it should be observed that this was the last stage of our jour- 
ney ; I therefore did not run great risk in making good my words). The 
tract of country over which we passed on the following day was similar 
in appearance to that which we had seen on the preceding. The num- 
ber of deserted and ruined villages increased the nearer we approached 
Aleppo. We had marched about eight hours when we discerned the 
castle of Aleppo, at the sight of which the armed horsemen of the caravan 
set off at a gallop, and repeatedly fired off their guns; the merchants put 
themselves ahead of the caravan; and after one hour's march further 
we entered the town. All merchandises coming to Aleppo must be 
taken to the custom-house khan; they are weighed there to deter- 
mine the amount of the sum due to the muleteer for freight, and a duty 
must be paid for them to the Grand Signior, which, together with the 
taxation-money of the Christians and Jews, is the only branch of revenue 
which the janissaries, the present masters of the town, still allow the 
Porte to retain. The English consular house is in that very khan. 

" I was now arrived at Aleppo in a shape which entirely left it to 
my option either to continue in my disguise or to avow my European 
origin. After a long conversation on that subject with Mr. Barker, I 
was convinced that it would better answer the purpose of my stay in 
Aleppo to choose the latter, and my reasons for it were the following : 
At the time I left England and Malta, I imagined that the intercourse 
between Cairo and Aleppo was frequent, and that it might easily happen 
that Cairine merchants might see me here and recognise me afterwards 
at home, or that travelling Aleppines who knew me here might after- 
wards see me again in Egypt. The departure of the Syrian pilgrim 

burckhardt's account of cilicia. 367 

caravan to Mecca not having taken place for the last three years, has 
almost annihilated the commercial intercourse overland between the two 
countries. At the meeting of the Syrian and African caravan near 
Mecca, Egyptian merchants used formerly to join the former and return 
with them to Damascus and Aleppo, and vice versa. At present the 
little commerce carried on between Cairo and Aleppo is entirely in the 
hands of a few Turkish and Greek houses at Tripoli, Latikia, and Alex- 
andria, and the Egyptian merchants themselves never come to Aleppo. 
Had I continued in my disguise, and continued to live exclusively amongst 
the Turks, opportunities would have frequently happened to put the vera- 
city of my story to the test. East Indians come from time to time to 
Aleppo with the Bagdad caravan, and many of the Bagdad and Bassorah 
merchants established at Aleppo have been in India. My person would 
have been infinitely more noticed than it now is, if taking a shop in the 
bazaar, as I first intended, I should have exposed myself to the curiosity 
of the whole town ; I should have entirely foregone the instruction to 
be derived from books and masters skilled in the language; and, more- 
over, I have no doubt that the French consul residing here would have 
heard of my arrival and have done every thing to put my pursuits in a 
dubious light. These are the reasons which convinced me that, for the 
present time, it was more advisable to appear in a shape which would 
preclude the intrusion of curious inquirers, and afford more facility to 
my studies. I continue my name of Ibrahim, and pass in my Turkish 
dress unnoticed in the crowds of the street and the bazaars. The consul 
receives me at his house as a travelling country merchant of his ; and 
as it frequently happens that people coming into the Levant change 
their names, nobody wonders at my being called with an oriental name. 
I had first my doubts whether my fellow caravan travellers might not 
be over-inquisitive here ; but such of them as I have since met greeted 
me without further questions, and the government of the city is now 
such, that a man picking a quarrel with me about what I might have 
told him at Antakia, would only expose himself to be fined for a sum 
of money by the janissaries, the masters of the town, for their trouble 
to settle the business with the consul. 

" My plans for the present are to remain at Aleppo the whole of the 
winter and part of next summer. I have been fortunate enough to find 
a good and willing master of Arabic, and I hope to make progress in 
the study of the literal as well as vulgar language. As soon as I shall 
be able to express myself with some precision in the vulgar dialect, and 
perfectly to understand it, I shall visit the Bedouin Arabs in the Desert, 
and live with them some months. I can do this in perfect security; and 


I have no doubt that you will approve of it, as it will afford me the best 
opportunity of practising the manners and becoming acquainted with 
the character of a class of people who are the same, whether they over- 
run the deserts of Arabia or those of Africa. 

" You need not be afraid that the history of my own person, which 
has taken up so considerable a portion of the preceding pages, will any 
more be exhibited before you at such a length. I thought it might be 
of some interest to the Association to see how far I was able to succeed 
in making good my way to Aleppo in the disguise in which I left Lon- 
don, unaided as I was by a knowledge of Eastern languages, or a fami- 
liarity with Eastern manners. This trial has so far been satisfactory 
to me, that, in the first place, I am persuaded that nothing of my pur- 
suits has transpired at Malta, which mil always be of material conse- 
quence to me; secondly, in being landed at a remote corner of Syria, I 
have avoided the general intercourse of a mercantile seaport, such as 
Acre, Beirout, Tripoli, or Latakia ; and finally, it has created within 
me the confidence that, whenever I may be able to call in support of a 
similar disguise, a fluent utterance of Arabic, and a habitude of oriental 
manners, I shall easily find means to triumph over such obstacles as 
those I met with in the khan at Antakia," in which he succeeded perfectly. 

" A few days after my arrival at Aleppo, I was attacked by a strong 
inflammatory fever, which lasted a fortnight. The want of nights' rest 
occasioned by the quantity of vermin which had collected upon my per- 
son, principally during my stay in the khan of Antaki.a, was, as I thought, 
the cause of it. I have enjoyed perfect health since that time, and the 
climate agrees with me better than I expected. 
Aleppo, October 2d, 1809. 

Mr. Burckhardt remained two years and a half in Syria, making 
daily additions to his practical knowledge of the Arabic language, and 
to his experience of the character of Orientals, and of Mohammadan 
society and manners. His principal residence was at Aleppo. Having 
assumed the name of Ibrahim Ibn Abdallah at Malta, he continued to 
bear it in Syria; but apprehensive of not having yet had sufficient expe- 
rience thoroughly to act the part of a Mussulman, and finding no neces- 
sity for such a disguise at Aleppo, he was not studious to conceal his 
European origin, and wore only such a Turkish dress as is often assumed 
in Syria by English travellers, less for the sake of concealment than to 
avoid occasional insult. Thus he had the benefit of an unmolested inter- 
course with the Mussulman population of Aleppo, at the same time that 
he was not prevented from openly accepting the friendship and pro- 
tection of Mr. Barker, the British consul, nor under the necessity of 

burckhardt's account of cilicia. 369 

denying himself the social resources afforded by the houses of the Euro- 
pean residents, especially those of Mr. Barker, and of Mr. Masseyk, 
formerly Dutch consul. Of his obligations to the former of these gentle- 
men, he omitted no opportunity of bearing testimony.* 

I cannot better conclude this long, but I trust not uninteresting ex- 
tract, than by giving Mr. Salt's account of the last moments of Mr. Lewis 
Burckhardt ; it is to me most heart-rending ; and his sensibility and 
feeling towards his mother, to whom he had been so. devoted all his life, 
are touching in the extreme. 

"On the morning of the 15th (1817), conscious- of his danger, he 
proposed and obtained the consent of his physician, that Mr. Salt, his 
Majesty's consul-general, should be sent for. 'I went over immediately,' 
says Mr. Salt in a letter to the secretary of the Association; ' and can- 
not describe how shocked I was to see the change which had taken place 
in so short a time. On the Tuesday before, he had been walking in my 
garden Avith every appearance of health, and conversing with his usual 
liveliness and vigour; now he could scarcely articulate his words, often 
made use of one for another, was of a ghastly hue, and had all the ap- 
pearance of approaching death. Yet he perfectly retained his senses, 
and was surprisingly firm and collected. He desired that I should take 
pen and paper and write down what he should dictate. The following 
is nearly word for word what he said : ' If I should now die, I wish you 
to draw upon Mr. Hamilton for two hundred and fifty pounds, for money 
due to me from the Association, and together with what I have in the 
hands of Mr. Boghoz (two thousand piastres), make the following dispo- 
sition of it : Pay up my share of the Memnon Head (this he afterwards 
repeated, as if afraid that I should think he had already contributed 
enough, as I had once hinted to him). Give two thousand piastres to 
Osman (an Englishman, whom at Shikh Ibrahim's f particular request I 
had persuaded the Pasha to release from slavery). Give four hundred 
piastres to Shaharti my servant. Let my male and female slaves, and 
whatever I have in the house, which is little, go to Osman. Send one 

* During his residence at my father's house he was naturally desirous of forming 
himself as much as possible to the manners and customs of the Mohammedans ; and 
he used to practise in his room the genuflections used by the Turks during their five 
times of prayer. To do this more at his ease, he would lock himself up in his room. 
The people of the country, who had some suspicion of his identity, and were desirous of 
clearing up their minds on the subject, used to peep at him through the keyhole ; and 
as they saw him going through the ceremonies of prayer, they decided that he must 
be a Mohammedan ; and all his assurances to the contrary were ever after useless to 
change their opinion thus formed of him. 

+ From the time of his departure from Aleppo, Mr. Burckhardt had continued to 
pass by this name. 

B B 


thousand piastres to the poor at Zurich. Let my whole library, with 
the exception of my European books, go to the University of Cambridge, 
to the care of Dr. Clarke the librarian ; comprising also the manuscripts 
in the hands of Sir Joseph Banks. My European books (they were only 
eight in number) I leave to you (Mr. Salt). Of my papers make such 
a selection as you think fit, and send them to Mr. Hamilton for the 
African Association; there is nothing on Africa. I was starting in two 
months' time with the caravan returning from Mecca, and going to 
Fezzan, thence to Tombuctou; but it is otherwise disposed. For my 
affairs in Europe, Mr. Kapp has my will.* Give my love to my friends 
(enumerating several persons with whom he was living upon terms of 
intimacy at Cairo). Write to Mr. Barker (he then paused, and seemed 
troubled, and at length with great exertion said) — let Mr. Hamilton 
acquaint my mother with my death, and say that my last thoughts have 
been with her. (This subject he had evidently kept back, as not trust- 
ing himself with the mention of it until the last.) The Turks,' he added, 
' will take my body, I know it ; perhaps you had better let them.' — 
When I tell you that he lived only six hours after this conversation, 
you will easily conceive what an effort it must have been. The expres- 
sion of his countenance when he noticed his intended journey, was an 
evident struggle between disappointed hopes and manly resignation. 
Less of the weakness of human nature was perhaps never exhibited 
upon a deathbed. Dr. Richardson and Osman, who has for some time 
lived with him, were both present at this conversation. He ended by 
expressing a wish that I should retire, and shook my hand at parting 
as taking a final leave. So unhappily it proved; he died at a quarter 
before twelve the same night without a groan. The funeral, as he de- 
sired, was Mohammedan, conducted with all proper regard to the respect- 
able rank which he had held in the eyes of the natives. Upon this point 
I had no difficulty in deciding, after his own expression on the subject. 
The Arabic manuscripts for the University of Cambridge are in a large 
chest, and shall be forwarded by the first safe opportunity, together 
with his papers, which are few, and appear to be chiefly copies of what 
I believe him to have already transmitted,' 

" To those who have perused the preceding extracts from Mr. Burck- 

* This refers to a will made previous to his departure from England, according to 
which, in case he had advanced into the interior of Africa, and was not heard of by the 
1st of January 1820, he was to be considered as dead. By this will, after shewing his 
gratitude to a relation to whom he had been indebted while at Leipzig, he appointed 
his mother residuary legatee for all sums which might accrue to him from his engage- 
ments with the African Association. 

burckhardt's account of cilicia. 371 

hardt's correspondence, it will be almost superfluous to add any remarks 
upon his character. As a traveller he possessed talents and acquirements 
which were rendered doubly useful by his qualities as a man. To the 
fortitude and ardour of mind, which had stimulated him to devote his 
life to the advancement of science in the paths of geographical discovery, 
he joined a temper and prudence well calculated to ensure his triumph 
over every difficulty. His liberality and high principles of honour, his 
admiration of those generous qualities in others, his detestation of injus- 
tice and fraud, his disinterestedness and keen sense of gratitude,* were 
no less remarkable than his warmth of heart and active benevolence, 
which he often exercised towards persons in distress, to the great pre- 
judice of his limited means. No stronger example can easily be given 
of sensibility united with greatness of mind, than the feelings which 
he evinced on his deathbed, when his mother's name, and the failure of 
the great object of his travels, were the only subjects upon which he 
could not speak without hesitation. By the African Association his loss 
is severely felt, nor can they easily hope to supply the place of one whom 
birth, education, genius, and industry, conspired to render well adapted 
to whatever great enterprise, his fortitude and honourable ambition might 
have prompted him to undertake. The strongest testimony of their 
approbation of his zealous services is due from his employers to their 
late regretted traveller ; but it is from the public and from posterity 
that his memory will receive its due reward of fame ; for it cannot be 
doubted that his name will be held in honourable remembrance as long 
as any credit is given to those who have fallen in the cause of science." 

* His present to the University of Cambridge of the choicest collection of Arabic 
manuscripts in Europe, was intended as a mark of his gratitude for the literary benefits 
and the kind attention which he received at Cambridge when preparing himself for his 
travels. Of his disregard of pecuniary matters, and his generous feeling towards those 
who were dear to him, a single example will be sufficient. His father having bequeathed 
at his death about ten thousand pounds to be divided into five equal parts, one to his 
widow and one to each of his children, Lewis Burckhardt immediately gave up his 
portion to increase that of his mother. " If," he said, " I perish in my present under- 
taking, the money will be where it ought to be ; if I return to England, my employers 
will undoubtedly find me some means of subsistence." 


Table J. Commerce o/Kaisariyah 


Imports from the chief Towns. 



«d 5* 

2 S c >• 

Name of the 



In what 



j= £ S^ 






Teftic . . . 

40,000 okes 

6 p. the \ 
oke . . ' 


cent J 

Erze- i 



5to6 < 

Hare-skins . 

600 skins . 
12,000 ,, . 

100 to 130, 
p. each . ' 
lito2p. „ 



rum | 

Pelisses . . . 

8000 . . . 

piasters . J 

100 to 500, 
p. each . ) 




from Persia. 

Trebi- \ 
zonde J 



1„2 j 

Calicoes . . . 

2000 . . . 

90to95p. „ 



500 ... 

100 to 130 i 
p. each . > 



20,000 . . 

9 to 10 ,, 





3, ,5 - 


10,000 . . 

H to 2 „ 


Trebizond \ 
Calicoes . ) 

1,000. . . 

90 to 95 „ 



Tragacanth . 

10,000 okes 

10 to 15p.i 
the oke . 5 


Diyar- f 
Bakir ( 





Galls .... 

500 cantars 

900 ,,1200 j 
p. the oke • 

• • 


Alaja .... 

1 600 pieces 

35 „ 40 ,, 



Citara . . . 

650 . . • 

50 „ 55.,, 


Musul I 





Galls .... 

500 cantars 

900 ,,1200,, 

Manufac- ~] 


cent J 

Damas- 1 




tures of the \- 
place ... J 

3500 pieces 

70 „ 100 ,, 




1„2 l 

. Ditto .... 

6000 „ . 

40 ,, 50 ,, 



18 do. 

Cotton . . . 

6000 „ . 

850p. the"! 
cantar . J 

Paid in 

5000 sacs,") 

Soap .... 

of 100 V 
okes each J 

900 „ „ 


Tarsus ] 



30-10 J 


Hinna . . . 
Tobacco . . 

150 cantars 
150 „ 

800, ,900,, 
100,, 800,, 

• • 




Commercial Tables. 

with the chief Towns of Asia Minor. 

Exports to the chief Towns. 


What consumed 

in Kaisariyah, 

and what sent out, 

and where. 

Thewhole goes! 

to Smyrna j 
Goes chiefly to 1 

Caraman J 
Goes to Smyrna 
Consumed in "1 

the country J 


\ goes to Syria . 

Go afterwards) 
to Syria / 

^ is consumed "j 
in the country, I 
and the other f 
^ goes toSmyr.J 
Go to Smyrna. 

For the country 

For Smyrna. 

i consumed inl 
the country, & I 
the rest goes to f 
Smyrna J 

For the country 

| consumed, § "I 
to Smyrna J 

For the country 

1500 bales for") 
the country, & { 

■ the rest is re- ( 
exported J 

Consumed in "I 
the country j 

Do. ... 

Do. ... 

Name of the 
goods exported. 

Cotton of Ada- "] 
na and Tarsus / 

Cotton of Tar- 
sus & Adana 

Cotton of Tar- 
sus & Adana 

European ma- 

< Amasia silk > 

Hair sacks . . 

Yellow leather . 

BufFalo-skins. . 


Tukat copper . 

Constantino- "I 
pie small ware J 

In what 

300 loads 

200 loads 

200 loads 

30,000 Ids. 

50 to CO Ids. 
of 120okes 
each load . 

500 Ids. of 
50 pieces 

1000 pieces 

400 skins . 

25,000 . . 

3000 okes . 

100,000 "I 
p. worth J 

The value. 



the can tar 

1 750 to 800 
(p. the can. 


p. the oke j 

the piece J 

5 to 25 p. \ 
eash J 

110tol30 1 
p. do. J 

H p. do. . 

lb' to 21"! 

p. the oke J 



cent J 






ent j 





6 paras 
the oke 

The cantar weighs 
180 okes. The duty 
paid is, in spite of all 
regulations and or- 
ders, emanated from 
Constantinople bySub- 
lime Firman. 

Erzerum generally 
receives what cotton 
it requires from Ha- 
waii, at 15 days' jour- 
ney off (under the do- 
minion of Russia, and 
formerly belonging to 
Persia), but the cold 
some years kills the 
plant, and then re- 
course is had to Adana 
and Tarsus for the sup- 
ply needed for the con- 
sumption of the place. 

Trebizonde receives 
its English manufac- 
tures fiom Constanti- 
nople per steamers, 
which have much di- 
minished the com 
merce of Kaisariyah 
with all towns that 
can communicate with 
Constantinople by their 

The greater part of 
European manufac- 
tures, however, reach 
this place by way of 

Do. do. do. 
The distance between 
Aleppo and Kaisari- 
yah, by way of Ma- 
rash, is only 7 days' 
journey in summer; 
but in winter the snow 
impedes the mountain 
ro ids, and the cara- 
vans go by Adana. 

The Tarsus and 
Adana cotion goes al- 
so to Kastamuni, Tu- 
kat f Amasia, Churum, 
Ziiit, Ladik, &c, 
without passing thro' 
the town (to within 6 
hours of it). 

Duty paid in Tukat. 

Table I. {continued). Commerce of Kaisariyah 

with the chief Towns of Asia Minor. 

What portion 

is consumed in 

Kaisariyah, what is 

sent out, & where 

1000 cantars,"] 
the rest goes I 
towards Erze- f 
rum .... J 

For the court- "I 
try consump- I 
tion .... J 


For the court- ~| 
try, & to send I 
on to Adana f 
and Tarsus . J 

Is exported to I 
Smyrna . . | 

5 is consumed^ 
in the country, I 
and 5 is sent f 
on to Smyrna J 
^-is consumed" , | 
in the country, ^ 
and the rest | 
goes to Smyr. J 

For the country 

The whole is 




; is"j 

For Smyrna &) 

Exports to the chief Towns. 

Name of the 
goods exported. 




Do. do. 
Do. do. 

Do. do. 

5 for the coun 
try use 
For the con- 
sumption of 
the town . . 



European 1 
manufactures J 


Cotton . . . 


In what 

250,000 p. 

5 loads. . 

10 loads 

20,000 ps 


in small "1 
quantities . J 

70 can tars 

70,000 ps. 
worth . . 

Their value. 

1200 p. the! 
load . . .J 

6 p. the oke 

850 p. the! 
cantar . . J 


2J pr. 



Adana receives the 
same goods from Kai- 
sariyah as Tarsus, but 
in treble quantity. 

The Adana and Tar- 
sus cotton reaches this 
place direct, passing 
within eight hours of 

Tukat traffics with 
Constantinople direct, 
and receives the cotton 
of Adana and Tarsus in 
the same way asKastam- 
bol, without its enter- 
ing into Kaisariyah. The 
new copper produced 
yearly is about 200,000 
okrs ; it is monopnli>ed 
by the government, and 
goes to Constantinople. 

Amasia, for the last 
thirteen years, traffics 
with Constantinople by 
way of Samsun, so that 
the commerce of Kai. 
sariyah is thus much 

Do. do. 

Do. do. do. 





Here the Pasha ot 
Kaisariyah resides. 

Table I. {continued). Commerce of Kaisariyah 


Name of 
the towns. 

cont d . 

hum . . 





. 20,000 

a, e 

"I £ 

Is "« 

Smyrna }" 

i"3 is 

2 p rt " 





Imports from the chief Towns. 

Name of the 
goods imported 
into Kaisariyah 

Currants "I 
and raisins J 

New copper 

Teftic and "I 
goat- hair, j 

Hopes . . . 

Vegetables, 1 
grain, &c. J 

Hare-skins . 

In what 

5000 loads 

r 5000 to 
[ 6000 okes 
1 6000 to 
\ 7000 okes 
6000. . . 


Buffalo-skins 300 to 400 

Their value. 

10 paras the") 
oke ... J 

14 to 15 p. ,, 

5 ,, 6 p. ,, . 
3„3|p.„ . 





Calicoes, 3 "1 
pikes broad J 

Do. 2\ do. 

Do. 36 yds. "I 
do. j* 

Do. 24 yds. "I 
do. J 

Madapolam . 

2d quality . 

Tangibs . . 

Nankin . . 
2d quality 

H. Sprigs. . 

Lappets . . 

Farmaish . . 

Zebras . . . 
Striped ^ 
dimity . . J 
Handkers. "1 
of Constan- I 
tinople imi- | 
tation . . J 


White do 

d .} 

5000 pieces 
3000 „ 
13,000 „ 
8000 „ 

5000 „ 

3000 „ 

30,000 „ 

20,000 „ 

10,000 „ 

3000 „ 

10,000 „ 

24,000 „ 
15,00D „ 
4,000 „ 

20/000 „ 

("£0,000 to 
I 40,000 „ 

5000 „ 

5000 „ 

20 „ 40p. „ . 

100, ,130 p.' 
each . • • 


21 PM 
cent J 

2i pr. i 




200 p. each . 
60 p. „ . 
70 to 80 p. „ 
40 „ 45 p. „ 

50 „ 80 p. „ 


30 p. „ • 
80. p. „ • 
80 p. „ . 

28 to 30 p. „ 

30 „ 55 p. „ 
25 „ 35 p. „ 
SO „ 90 p. „ 

7 „ 12 p. „ 

60 „ lOOp. „ 
70 paras to 1 

Hv- » •/ 



at g 


O 08 

£ ft 

with the chief Towns of Asia Minor. 

What portion 

is consumed in 

Kaisariyah, what is 

sent out, & wheie 

Of which 3000] 
loads are con- I 
sumed in the f 
country ... J 

For the country 


\ is exported 
For the use of "1 
the country . j 

For S m yrna . . 

Worked in the 1 
country . . J 

Quantity con- 
sumed in thecoun- 
i try ; the rest being 
5000 pieces . . 

800 to 900 „ . 

2500 „ . 

1000 „ . 

1000 ,, . 

1000 „ . 

12,000 „ . 

5000 „ . 

10,000 ,, . 

3000 ,, . 

5000,, 6000,, . 

10,000 „ . 

6000 „ . 

1000 „ . 

10,000 „ 


4000 ,,5000,, 

Exports to the chief Towns. 

Name of the 
goods exported. 


European "1 
manufactures J 

Coffee . . . . 
Sugar . . . . 
Boots & shoes 

Yellow leather . 
Yellow berries . 


Wool . . . . 

Scammony . . 


Aniseed . . . 
Teftic . . . . 
Persian berries 
Teftic . . . . 
Gum traga- "I 
canth ... J 

Galls . . . . 

Wool . . . . 

Aniseed . . . 

Hare-skins . 

In what 

30 loads 

40,000 ps. 

10,000 okes. 
300 okes . . 
5000 pairs . 

30,000. . . 
400,000 okes 
200 cantars . 
50.C00 okes 

500 „ 

2.500 „ 
10,000 „ 
20,000 ,, 
30o,000 ,, 
5000 ,, 

20,000 „ 

50 cantars . 
30,000 okes 
20,000 „ 


Their value. 

800 p. 
can tar 


|6 to 7 p. 
\ the oke. 

6 p. the oke. 

20 to 30 p. "1 
each . . . [ 

5 „ 25 p. „ 

27 to 33 p. "1 
the oke. J 
1 200 p. the 1 
cantar. J 

3 p. the oke 

100 to 151) "1 
p. the oke. J 
10 „ 12 p. „ 
3 » 4 p. „ 
15 „ 18 p. „ 

28 „ 30 p. „ 
15 „ 18 p. „ 

9„ 11 p. „ 

1 200 p. the 1 
cantar. J 
450 p. ,, 

3 to 4 p. ,, 

1| to 2 p 






5 . 


>> s 

a "3. 

2 h 

be oj 
C w 
,S u 

O J3 

« a 
-o — 

The raisins serve to 
make a kind of brandy 
they call raki. 

Of goat-hair they make 
famous hair-sacks. 

For Constantinople. 

For Smyrna. 

Note. The steamers 
thai run between Sam- 
sun and Constantinople 
have drawn all the com- 
merce of that quarter to 
Constantinople. Kaisa- 
riyah still communicates 
with Smyrna by cara- 
van. Tarsus, it has been 
suggested, might serve 
KaUariyah as a place of 
deposit, & thus shorten 
the distance by land to 
Smyrna, as the roads are 
very bad, and goods ex- 
posed to rain during the 
journey on mules' backs. I 



Table I. {concluded). Commerce of Kaisariyah with 
the chief Towns of Asia Minor. 

Imports from the chief Towns. 

Name of 
the town. 

Name of the 



Sugar . . 

Coffee . . 
Pepper . . 
Pimento . 

Indigo . , 

In what 

5000 pieces . 

18,000 „ . 

12,000 „ . 

2000 „ . 

150 bales . . 

j 35,000 to 
1 10,000 okes 

200,000 „ . 

20,000 „ . 

3,000 „ . 

4,000 „ . 

.0,000 „ . 

Their value. 

70 paras to -j 
2\ p. each J 
2 to 3 p. „ 
8 „ 30 p. „ 
80 p. the doz. 

24 to 52 p. | 
the pike . J 

6 „ 7 p.the-i 
oke ... J 
5 „ 7 p. „ 

5 „ 6 p. „ 

6 p. 

125 „ 130 p. | 

the oke . J 

90 „ 135 p. „ 

Quantity con- 
sumed in the 
country; the rest 
being exported. 

4000 „ 5000 

pieces .... 



500 dozens . 

50 bales . . 

10,000 „ 

30,000 „ 

4000 ,, 

1000 ,, 




"> ■§ & p- * 5 

DO p 


•3 E 

C -3 



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" 3 

Ofien the price of manufac- 
tures here is cheaper than in 
Beyrut. The want of money in 
the country causes a necessib 
of selling at any price, which 
ruins all the shopkeepers. The 
commerce in importations is 
therefore dangerous, and little 

2 Pay a bage of 5 p. per load. 

3 Besides the duty of 12 per 
cent, a bage is paid at Kulak Bug- 
haz of 5 p. per load, plus 65 
paras — according to the caprice 
of the people, who pay lo the 
government 75,000 p. for this 
monopoly, which is generally in 
the hands of the Mutsellim of 





It comes with"] 
a teskery, the | 
duty being [> 
paid in Hey- | 


'.6660660 6t- 

E 2 



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s o 




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00" 6 dodo d d'^a-d 
QORQfliQ Q Oc^&Q 





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t>~, .2 

coooooo ti-s 
'« a 
i4 <rf 

Quantity imported. 


. u 


500 „ . .. 

4000 ,, . .. 


1000 „ . . 
2000 „ . .. 
800 „ . .. 
1000 „ . .. 

30 boxes of 80 1 
dozen each . J 

1500 ropes . 












156 p 

50 to 100 p. „ .. 

19 p 

30 to 40 p. „ • • 
30 to 60 p. „ . . 
19 to 23 p. „ .. 

70 p. the dozen . . 

3 to 4 p. each . 
22 to 80 p. „ 
150 to 200 p. „ . 





© J 

o .2 

3 S 

Of 52 yards . 

Prints' . .. 

Zebras . 


Muslins . 

Tanjibs . 

Madapolams . 

Tarbush "J 
(caps) V 
Wardi . J 

Ropes 2 .. 

Small carpets 3 
Long carpets. 



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<t! a 




Shewing the difference between the Duty paid at Constantinople per Tariff 
and the per-centage Duty on Goods from the Interior. 

Name of the articles of 

Butter of Turkey 


Cotton of Anatolia 
Morocco of Kaisariyah 
Madder-roots of Cy- 1 
prus J 

„ of Anatolia 

Grain, wheat 

,, barley 
Indian corn 
Wool, i black 

,, J white 

Goat and sheep-skins 
Hare- skins 

Cow and buffalo-hides 
Old copper 




Black raisins 

,, currants 
Persian berries 

Value on the spot. 

16 p. per 4 okes 
15 p. per ditto 
40 p. the Aleppo "I 
cantar J 

1\ p. the oke 
5 p. the oke 
10 p. each 

650 p. the cantar I 

650 p. „ / 

50 p. the kilo of 180 "1 

okes J 

30 p. same measure . . 
30 p. ditto 
400 p. the cantar of 1 

180 okes 

2 p. the oke 

3 to 4 p. each 
15 paras each 
25 paras each 
3 p. the oke 
40 p. do. 
7\ p. do. 

25 paras the oke 

\\ p. do. 
80 p. the 

120 p. the cantar of 

180 okes 
1 p. the oke 
15 p. do. 

Aleppo "1 


Duty to be paid according 
to the tariff established 
between England and the 

3168 aspres per kintal 
267 „ the oke.. 

ad valorem 

3405 aspres the kintal 
ad valorem 
ad valorem 

2592 aspres the kintal 

198 aspres the kilo 1 

of Constantinople J 

90 ditto ditto .. 

ad valorem 

2952 aspres the kintal 

ad valorem 
64 aspres each 
36 „ 
2304 aspres for eachlOO 

ad valorem 
288 aspres per oke . . 
192 „ „ .. 

259 ,, every 200 "1 
okes J 

402 „ ditto 

960 „ 

489 „ 

2160 ,, 
403 „ 

per kintal . 

Which makes 
the duty amount 
to so much per 
cent, instead 
of 12 per cent. 

Duty here. 

15 per cent 



25 per cent 

13A do. 

26J do. 
27 do. 

24f do. 

13| do. 
80 do. 
31 do. 

6 do. 
13i do. 

17 do. 

16 do. 

40 do. 

13J do. 

40 do. 
22i do. 

* A large sum is paid besides, for the sole privilege of fishing for leeches by Europeans who 
undertake the monopoly. This sum amounts to more than \000l. for the district of Adana and 
Tarsus. The price of leeches has risen of late years to more than 200 p. the oke. 

C C 


Abd'ul Hamid I., 71. 

Abd'ul Masjid, ascended the throne 1839, 

Abdullah Rushdi, 97 ; falls into disgrace, 

Abgar Bar-man, note, 172. 

Abington, Mr., 151 ; on the various re- 
presentations of Perseus, note, 197. 

Acteon, 189. 

Acts xix. 18-20, 159. 

Actium, battle of (b.c. 31), 28. 

Adana, 111. 

Admetus, King, 175. 

Adonis as Apollo, with the cloak and 
brooch, 178. 

^Esculapius, 196. 

Agrippa, 33. 

Ahmed I., 70. 

II., 71. 

III., abdicates in favour of his 

nephew, 71. 

Izzet Pasha, 97. 

Minikli Pasha, 112. 

Aleium, a plain in Cilicia, 18. 

Aleppo, 82. 

Alexander the Great marches against 

Darius, 20 ; nearly loses his life by 

bathing, 20 ; at Issus, 21. 

Severus, 163. 

Alexandretta, small lake of, 114. 

Jonas pillars, 263. 

Alexius succeeded by John Comnenus, 

Allen, Captain William, 270. 
Al Mamun, expedition into Asia Minor, 

46 ; death of, from eating dates, 46. 
Alp-Arslan captures Romanus Diogenes, 

Amaxia, iron mines of, 28. 
America, central monuments of, 209. 
Ammodes, the, or Sandy Cape, 265 ; 

celebrated for turtle, 265. 
Amorium, siege of, 47. 
Amphilochus, city of, 265. 
Amurad I., 66. 
II. besieges Constantinople, 68; 

marches with a large army into Asia 

Minor, 68. 

Amurad II I. strangles five of his brothers 

IV. enters Cilicia with an im- 
mense force, 70 ; undertakes the con- 
quest of Persia, 70. 

Anastasius, 42. 

Anatolia, 112. 

Anazarba, note, 55 ; ruins of aqueduct at, 
56, 275 ; ruins of, 266 ; sculptured 
rocks of, 283. 

Anchiale, note, 15, 136. 

Ancient tomb at Tarsus, 133. 

bard, 243. 

Andronicus, romantic adventures of, 56. 

Animals, 249. 

Antalcidas, treaty of, 20. 

Antelope, 280. 

Antioch, 2+ ; tax-gatherers at, note, 107; 
bay of, 26S ; ruins of, 268. 

Antiochus the Great, 23. 

Epiphanes, 24. 

Antipater, a disciple and successor of 
Diogenes, note, 31. 

Antiquities in Cilicia, 265. 

Apis, 182. 

Appian " Syriacs, " 129 ; account of 
Seleucia, 272. 

Apollo Belvidere, 155; winged, 157; as 
Osiris, 161 ; head of, radiated, 162 ; on 
the Colossus at Rhodes, 162 ; Belvi- 
dere, where found, 184 ; at Rhodes, 
various figures of, 195. 

Apollodorus, note, 13. 

Appendix, 301. 

Aqueduct, ruins of, at Anazarba, 56, 275. 

Arab horse, instinct of, 288. 

Aratus, 136. 

Arbela, battle of, 21. 

Archimedes, 139. 

Ariadne and Bacchus, heads of, 216. 

Arif Pasha, note, 106. 

Arimes, adventures of, 275. 

Aristotle, 16 ; relation of circumstance 
about Mount Casius, 273. 

Arrian, 16. 

Arsus, 111 ; description of, note, 112. 

Art, additional works of, 213. 

Artaxerxes, 19. 



Artaxerxes Babegan, 37. 

Artemisia, Queen of Halicarnassus, 19. 

A ski Shaker, 131. 

Athenaeus, a philosopher of Cilicia, 30. 

, 134. 

Athenodorus the philosopher warns Au- 
gustus, 29. 

Attalia, 60. 

Atys, head of, 227. 

Augustus, 29. 

Aurelian prepares for his Persian expedi- 
tion, 38. 

Avolio, 201. 

Ayass, remarkable for turtles, 111; castle 
of, 263. 

Azof, sea of, 38. 

Baa r,, 226 ; conjectures on, by Mr. Birch, 

Babylon, 234. 

Bacchante, 200. 

Bacchus, 195; Indian, 226. 

Bagdad, khalifs of, 48. 

Baldwin, 52. 

Barker, Mr. John, British Consul at 
Aleppo. 83. 

, Mr. W. Burckhardt, note, 161. 

Basilica, 263. 

Bayas, river of, note, 75 ; fever prevails 
at, note, 81 ; gulf of, 111. 

Bayazid, 66. 

— II. attacks Kayit Bay, 62 ; ex- 
pedition of, into Asia Minor, 68 ; 
poisons his father, 69. 

Baylan, 263 ; mosque of, 263 ; ruins at, 

Beard, Rev. Dr., remarks on Tarshish, 
note, 12. 

Bears, 277 ; method of shooting, 277 ; 
flesh of, 277. 

Beaufort, Admiral Sir Francis, " Kara- 
mania," note, 24 ; description of ruins, 
note, 34 ; views on the antiquities of 
Cilicia, 265 ; on the ruins of Soli, &c, 

Berenice, widow of Herod, 33. 

Berkeley's, Bishop, work, " Siris," 217. 

Betias, Mr. Barker's summer residence, 

Birch, Mr., on the Apollo Helios, 162. 

Birds, 251. 

, game, of Cilicia, 281. 

Bocbart, 12 ; note, 13. 

• — (Phaleg, p. 333), derivation of 

the word Casius, note, 273. 

Bohemond, death of, 53. 

Bomitae or altars, site of, according to 
Pliny, 263. 

Bonham, Colonel, 289. 

Bonomi, " Nineveh and its Palaces," 

note, 199. 
Bonzes, 235. 

Botta, discoveries of, 213. 
Boy and dolphin, 230. 
Boys on dolphins, 231. 
Brahma, 236. 
British Museum, 202 ; silver enamels in, 

Bryant, Mr., "Mythological Dictionary," 

Buddist Bonze, 235. 
Buffon, 285. 
Bulwer's " Rise and Fall of Athens," 

Burney, Dr., 259. 
Byzantine annals, 48. 

Caffa, 62. 

Caius Caligula, bust of, with the lorica, 

Calchas, 141. 

Calisthenes, 21. 

Campestris, 135. 

Cantacuzene, John, 66. 

Cape Boar, 267. 

Cappadocia, plains of, 39. 

Captive kneeling, from Rosellini's great 
work, 211. 

Caravallas Turkish ships of war, 80. 

Carthage, 25. 

Cassius, Mount, 268 ; height of, 273 ; 
vegetation, 273 ; mentioned in Scrip- 
ture, 273 ; tradition of, 273. 

Casts, making of, 169. 

Cato, note, 29. 

Caucasus, Mount, 28. 

Causeway, Roman, traces of, 266. 

Cecenius Petus, president of Syria, 33. 

Celendris, castle of, 30. 

Ceres, head of, 176. 

Chaldean astrologers, 235. 

Charles X. of France, 240 ; enormous 
cost of his hunting expeditions, 296. 

Chariots, 253. 

Chesney, Colonel, note, 269 ; remarks 
on the port of Seleucia Pieria, 270. 

Chinese, 207. 

Christians introduced into the councils 
of Cilicia, 106. 

Christian Church, ruins of, at Rhosus, 

Christianity early diffused in Cilicia, 172. 

Chronos, 193. 

Choraebus, 259. 

Chosroes, 43. 

Cicero named proconsul of the province 
of Cilicia, 26. 

Cilicia, early history of, 11 ; situation, 



12; Hypacheans, original inhabitants 
of, 14 ; under the Assyrians, 15 ; death 
of Xerxes, 19 ; the gates of, 22 ; battle 
of Ipsus, 23 ; revolt of the citizens of, 
24 ; invasion of Tigranes, 25 ; Cicero 
named proconsul, 26 ; Tarchondemus 
king of, 28 ; Tacitus on the trees of, 
note, 30 ; a Roman province, 33 ; in- 
vaded by Sapor, 37 ; birthplace of St. 
George, 40 ; invasions of the Huns, 41 ; 
annexed to the Greek empire, 53 ; mo- 
dern history of, 73 ; extraordinary oc- 
currence at, 93 ; taxation in, 105 ; 
character of tax-gatherers, 107; mal- 
administration of justice, 109 ; geo- 
graphy of, 110; climate of, 114; 
forests of, note, 122; custom-houses, 
126 , quarantine laws, 127 ; Lares and 
Penates of, 153 ; potters of, 171 ; early 
diffusion of Christianity in, 172; terra- 
cottas, 215 ; situations of towns and 
cities in, 262 ; remains of churches 
and castles in, 263 ; geography of, 
265 ; antiquities of, 266 ; Mediter- 
raneum, 266 ; natural history, 276 ; 
coursing and hunting, 278 ; hawking, 
280 ; birds of, 281 ; partridges and 
quails of, 282 ; falconry and hawking, 
285 ; medicinal plants of, 299. 

Cinyras, 13. 

Cleanthus, a philosopher of Tarsus, 24 ; 
death of, 24. 

Cleopatra at Tarsus, 27. 

Cliteans, a bold tribe of mountaineers in 
Cilicia, 32. 

Cneius Piso, 30. 

Coins, 158. 

Colossus of Rhodes, 194. 

Comic mask, 177, 178. 

Comnenus, John, marches to Antioch 
and Aleppo, 54 ; killed in a wild boar 
hunt, 54. 

Conrad III., Emperor of Germany, 55. 

Constantius marches against Julian, 39 ; 
death of. 40. 

Constantinople retaken by the Greeks, 
a d. 1261, 59. 

Consumption unknown in Cilicia and 
Syria, 299. 

Conybeare and Howson, " Life of St. 
Paul," 236. 

Coracesium, note, 26 ; account of, by 
Strabo, 129. 

Corsica, 63. 

Cory's " Ancient Fragments," 274. 

Cossuatianus Papito, 33. 

Coughs unknown in Cilicia and Syria, 

Coursing in Cilicia, 278. 

Crates, 142. 
Cretins, 239. 
Crocodiles, 251 ; Mount, 264 ; worship, 

264 ; terra-cottas of, 264 ; different 

species, 264. 
Croesus, King of Lydia, 18. 
Crusades, 52. 
Cupid, head of, 194. 

and swan, 219. 

Curtius Severus, 32. 

Cyaxares, 17. 

Cybele, 175 ; mysteries of, 176 ; head of, 

Cydnus River, 17, 20 ; falls into the 

Lake Rhegma, 137. 
Cyprus, 1 3 ; attacked by the Turks, 63 ; 

kings of, 130. 
Cyrus sends for Syennesis, 19. 

D'Agincourt, note, 202. 
Daniel, the prophet, tomb of, 17. 
Darius resolves to invade Greece, 18, 

David, king, 15. 
Deguignes' " Hist. Gen. des Huns, des 

Turcs, &c," 207. 
D' Herbelot,speculations about the Huns, 

Deifying men, 163. 
Delian deities, 191. 
Delos, island of, 130. 
Diana, head and statue of, 156 ; starting 

for the chase, 284. 
Dioclesian, 39. 
Diogenes, note, 31. 
Dion Cassius, note, 29. 
Dionysus, 201. 

Doghan, one of the hawk species, 286. 
Dos;s, 249 ; treatment of, in Cilicia, 276 ; 

description of, used for coursing in 

Cilicia, 279. 
Domestic and religious art. 253. 
Doria, Philip, a Genoese admiral, 59. 
Drinking howls, 254 ; vessels generally, 

Due de Luynes, " Essai sur la Numis- 

matique des Satrapes," note, 201. 
Ducas, Vataces John, 57. 
Duda Bey, piratical expeditions of, 84 ; 

description of, 84 ; attack on, 85 ; be- 
trayed, 86 ; death of, 86. 
Dutch consul, arrest of, 81. 
Dwarfs, 239. 

East India Company, 83. 
Egyptian antiquities, 211. 
Eleusa, tomb at, 2+2. 
Eleusinian mysteries, 176. 



Epiphanea, the birthplace of St. George, 

40 ; extensive ruins of, 264. 
Epyaxa, wife of Syennesis, 19. 
Eros, winged, 166. 
Erotes, 194. 
Eudocia, Empress, 50. 
Euphrates expedition, note, 125. 

Fakirs, 235. 

Falconry, 284 ; gos-hawks and their 
management, 290 ; antiquity of, 295. 

Fallow-deer seen on the plains of Adana, 

Famagosta, capture of, 59. 

Figures, fragments of, 245. 

Fir-cone, 217. 

Forbes, Professor, remarks on the ibex, 
note, 280. 

Forster, Rev. Charles, " Historical Geo- 
graphy of Arabia," note, 13. 

Fortifications at Tarsus, 135. 

Francolins, 282. 

Frederic I., death of, 57. 

Frederickssteen, death on board the, 265. 

Furniture, 257. 

Gal at a, natives of, method of captur- 
ing wild doves, 283. 

Game-birds of Cilicia, 281. 

" Game Birds and Wild Fowl," by A. E. 
Knox, 287. 

Ganymede, 246. 

Gates, remains of, in Cilicia and Syria, 
264 ; of Kulak Bughaz, 266. 

Gazelles, method of taking them, 279. 

Genoese Republic, 58. 

George III., 240. 

Gerhard, note, 193. 

Germanicus, 30. 

Gesbril-Hadeed in the plains of Antioch, 

Gha-ik, a species of antelope remark- 
able for its length of horns, 280. 

Gibbon, note, 4S ; " Decline and Fall of 
the Roman Empire," 204. 

Gladiator conquered, 244. 

Godfrey of Bouillon, 52. 

Gordys founds a colony in Gordiseus, 
274 ; situation of, note, 274. 

Gos-hawk, Australian, the, 294 ; the 
training of, 289. 

Government, thorough change of, 103. 

Granicus, battle of the, 20. 

Greece, invasion of, by the Persians, 19. 

Greek Church, 262. 

Grimaldi, Joe, 239. 

Grotefend, Professor, note, 16 ; on the 
mythology of the Assyrians, note, 149, 

Hadrian, 34; emperor, 273. 

Haji Ali Bey, capture of, 89. 

Hamilton, Mr. William J., " Researches 
in Asia Minor, &c," note, 42. 

Handles of vases, lamps, &c. 256 ; ring, 
256 ; of dishes, 256. 

Hardouin, 218. 

Hares, 278. 

Harpies, 225. 

Harpocrates, 181. 

Hassan Pasha, 103 ; anecdote of, »., 103 

Hatti Sherif of Gulhanah, 72. 

Hawks in England, 286 ; extraordinary 
feat of, 293 ; of the lure, 295 ; of the 
fist, 295. 

Hawking, description of, in Cilicia, 285 ; 
Society, 292. 

Hawkins' " History of Music," 260. 

Hecate, 198. 

Head of a child, 166; of Commodus as 
Hercules, 167 ; of a lady with all the 
attributes of Juno, 167 ; of a lady, 
temp. Emperor Claudian, 168 ; with 
the attributes of Juno, 177 ; of ahorse, 
180; of a lady, 188. 

Hellenic divinities, 193. 

Hellespont, 39. 

Hera of the Assyrians, 217. 

Heraclius defeats the Persians, 43. 

Hercules, statue of, 46, 167, 169 ; hold- 
ing his club, 216. 

Hero, 193. 

Herodotus, 14, 18. 

Herons, note, 292. 

Hittites, 210. 

Homer, 15 ; mention of Tarsus, note, 161 ; 
Iliad, v. 499, note, 273. 

Horses, 250. 

Household articles, 257- 

Human figures, 213. 

Humboldt on the Huns, 203 ; " Aspects 
of Nature," 205 ; " Relation Histo- 
rique," note, 207. 

Huns, invasions of, 71 ; portraits of, 203 ; 
their identity with the extinct races of 
America, 205 ; speculations about, 207. 

Hyenas in Cilicia, 277. 

Hypacheans, original inhabitants of Ci- 
licia, 14. 

Ibex capra, note, 280. 
Ibrahim I. fits out an expedition agains t 
Candia, 71. 
— ■ — - II. besieges Vienna, 71. 

— Pasha, 90 ; a hawk, gift of, by, 


Idiots, 237; head of, 239; fools and 

dwarfs, 239. 
Imma, battle of, note, 38. 



Incense-burner, 155. 

Io, wanderings of, 274. 

Ipsus, battle of, 23. 

Irene the Great, 45. 

Iris, 177. 

Isaurians, a savage horde of Cilicia, 41. 

Isis, worship of, 177, 191 ; priests of, 235. 

Isper, a species of eastern hawk, 296. 

Issus, the scene of the great battle which 
decided the fate of the Persian empire, 
21 ; battle at the plains of, 35. 

Jackals abound in Cilicia, 277- 

Jam, son of Mohammed II., 62. 

Janissaries, 66. 

Jeremy, apocryphal book of, 217. 

Jerusalem, 2 Kings, ch. xxi. 13, 257. 

Jona's Pillars, note. 91 ; a colossal mar- 
ble fragment, 263. 

Jonstonus " Dendographia," 218. 

Josephus, note, 33 ; on the depravity of 
the priests of Isis, 165 ; " Antiq. Jud." 
i. c. i., 213. 

Jovian, successor to Julian, 41. 

Julian, death of, 41. 

Juno, 157. 

Jupiter, head of, 157. 

Casius, 273. 

Justin I., 42. 

Justinian, 43. 

Juvenal, 236. 

Kalat Kurkass, 129. 

Kamses, the Egyptian, the name of a 
ferocious crocodile, 264. 

Kara Kaya, " Black Rock," castle and 
ruins of, 265. 

Karadoghar, ruin at, note, 16. 

Karadughar, note, 105. 

Kaisanli, 115. 

Kel-Aga, 88. 

Khalil Bey, 74 ; life of, note, 74. 

Khorsabad, mention of, 224. 

Kilitch Arslan, king of Nicsea, defeated 
by the crusaders, 52. 

Kitto, Dr., " Cycl. Bib. Lit." note, 12. 

Klaproth, speculations of, on Huns, 207. 

Knight, Mr. R. P., 152. 

Kulak- Bughaz, 112 ; lead mines of, 125. 

Kurt-Kulak, 100 ; ruinous khan at, 265. 

Kutchuk Ali, 75 ; extortions of, 76 ; 
cruelty of, 77 ; some account of, 78 ; 
imprisons English sailors, 79 ; un- 
loads and then sinks a French vessel, 
80 ; letter of, to the Dutch consul, 80. 

Kuzan Uglu, 102. 

Labienus marches with a large army 
into Cilicia, 28 ; death of, 28. 

Labourers, wages of, at Tarsus, 120. 
Lamas, aqueduct of, 128. 
Lamp, 156, 201. 

Languages, peculiarities of, note, 205. 
Laocoon, 222. 

Lares and Penates, 1 45 ; explanation of, 
146 and note ; different classes of, 147. 
Larnika, 113. 
Lascaris, Theodore, 57. 
Layard, note, 150; discoveries of, 213; 
Lajard, M., note, 217. 
Leake, Colonel, 265. 
Leander swimming the Hellespont, 222. 
Lebanon, Mount, 273. 
Leg of a horse, 175. 
Linnaeus, 286. 
Lion attacking a bull, 187. 
Louis VI L, 55. 

Lucullus, a Roman general, 25. 
Lucretius, mention of Meliboea, 269. 
Lycophron, v. 18, 227. 
Lynx, caught on Mount Taurus, 276. 
Lyres, 259. 

Macrocephalus, 238. 

Magi and monks, 232. 

, bonzes, and fakirs, 235. 

Mahmud II., 72. 

Malcolm, Sir John, " Sketches in Per- 
sia," 282. 

Mallos, 21, 141. 

Man riding a bear, 226. 

Mandarins, 228. 

Manuel, Emperor, 55. 

Marash, bridle-way to, described by 
Strabo, 266. 

Marc Antony at Tarsus, 27. 

Markatz Kalahsi, a Saracen castle, 263. 

Marsyas, fable of, 220. 

Masseyk, Mr., ill-treatment of, 81. 

Matakh, mounds and ruins of, 265. 

Mausoleum at Tarsus, ground-plan of, 

Maximin, defeat and death of, 39. 

Mecca, caravan of, 100. 

Medes, the, 17. 

and Persians, 234. 

Medicinal plants of Cilicia, 299. 

Mediterranean, pirates of, 25. 

Medusa, head of, 267. 

Melek Seraf, final conquest of St. Jean 
d'Acre by, 59. 

Meliboea, poetical celebrity of, 269. 

Melitus, Bishop of Antioch, 140. 

Mercury, 8 ; origin of, 215. 

Mesmerists, modern, 233. 

Mesopotamia, 271. 

Messalina, head of, 158. 

Messiah, the advent of, 29. 



Mexico, 207. 

Midas, 185. 

Minerva as Pallas, 219. 

and Cupid, 219. 

Missis, 110. 

Mithridates, king of Pontus, 25. 

Mocenigo in communication with Ozun 

Hassan, 60. 
Moguls become masters of all Asia, 67. 

under Genghiz Khan, 63. 

Mohammed adopts and embellishes the 

cave of the Seven Sleepers, 36. 

III., cruelties of, 70. 

Mohammedan, tomb of, near the ruins of 

Seleucia Pieria, 269. 
Monster, head of, 237. 
Monsters and idiots, 237. 
Mopsuestia, note, 34. 
Mopsus, poet and soothsayer, note, 25. 

, a celebrated prophet, 111. 

Morpheus, 183. 

Morocco, Emperor of, 95. 

Mosquitoes, 277 ; method of sleeping 

out of their reach, 277. 
Muhammad I., 68. 

V., 71. 

Izzat Pasha, 92. 

Muhassil, the, 108. 

Musical instruments, 259. 

Mustafa I., deposed by Janissaries, 70. 

■ II., 71. 

III., 71. 

V. proclaimed sultan 1807, 71. 

Pasha, 86. 

death of, 102. 

Mustulc Bey, 87. 

Mutassim besieges Amorium, 47. 

Mythological analogies, 174. 

Nadir Bey, 93 ; arrest of, 95 ;